Research Paper Chapter Parts Of The Brain - Homework for you

Homework for you

Research Paper Chapter Parts Of The Brain

Rating: 4.1/5.0 (48 Votes)

Category: Research Paper


Топики по английскому языку The Enlightened Machine Essay Research Paper Brain

The Enlightened Machine Essay, Research Paper

Brain Science, also known as nerve science, has been classified as an adventure. It mostly deals with our behavior, as well as speech, movement, coordination, and basically any part of our life in general is associated with it. As we study the brain more and more over the last twenty years, we begin to discover more and more about it and its hundreds of thousands of complex and involved tasks. Let us start with the basics, the brain from the out side is about 3 pounds of tissue. It contains two main hemispheres, and is filled with a liquid known as cerebral spinal fluid, or CSF. Our brain has been compared to many different inventions over the past few centuries. As far back as the seventeenth century, our brain was compared to a water pump, thus being called the main “pump” of our body. Then, during the industrial revolution, it was contrasted to the Great Telegraph. And later on to the circuit board of a telephone that was invented by Alexander Bell. And now, it is being associated with the motherboard of a computer. Over all, our brain can be compared to a racing team; every member of it has a small job, but it is a very important one. Our brain does not function as only one part, every part is constantly being active with all the other parts.

Now the inside of our brain is completely different. There are different sections for different areas of sensory activities, and different areas for motor tasks. Our memories and our intense emotions are generally considered to be part of the brain right above the brain stem. The back of our brain, or the occipital region, mostly interprets our vision, or in other words it processes what our eyes have seen into impulses. The frontal lobe part of our brain deals with most of our thinking, but a lot of our strategies and complex thoughts occur there. There are two ribbon like parts of our brain, both of which go down vertically from superior and inferior portions. The more posterior ribbon is mostly associated with touch and pressure, while the more anterior portion deals with movement. The impulses are sent down the spinal cord to our motor units which in turn change them into our normal movements.

Now there are many different types of new and not so new machines that man has made over the last few centuries that allow us to take “pictures” of our brain and it also allows us to locate diseases and trouble areas. The two newer types of devices would be the CAT scan and the PET scan. The CAT scan is basically a type of x-ray for the brain that shows us where the neural tissue is located in our brain. The PET scan shows us where the more active areas and the less active areas of our brains are. The third type of test is the EEG. This is an older type of test, but recently it has undergo a few upgrades to it so that we are now able to connect a video monitor to it and that will allow all the information to be passed on through wires and then sent to the monitor where we will view the images in color. It used to be hooked up to a few pens, and they would scribble on paper the amount of activity. The smaller the lines, the less active that part of the brain is. On the monitors, however, activity is rated by color. The warmer colors, such as yellow and red, are the positive or active parts. The colder colors, such as blue and green, show areas of non-activity. Activity mostly starts in the back or posterior portion of our brain, where our eyes first sense the surroundings. Then, about three tenths of a second later, it reaches the top of the brain and then it fades away.

The first subject that was studied in the video was Jason. Jason is a 10 year old male that suffers from almost the purest form of epilepsy, also know as Pimy Epilepsy. He suffers from constant seizures and also he has developed not only an extreme hated but a fear of medicine. The reason being is that he has had some terrible side effects from the many different types of drugs and medications that were prescribed to him that now he is reluctant to take them at all. This is unwise for Jason, because he desperately needs to take his medications in order to survive, if not more. His seizures are uncontrollable for the most part, and he him self does not realize the fact that he is having a seizure only until it is over. During the seizure, his eyes seem to roll back, he has heavy, unsteady breathing, and even he has had uncontrollable facial twitching. One of the most unusually things is that he can remember things said to him during the seizure. During normal brain function, the neurons are switching on and off information at a normal, controlled pace, kinda like lights in a big city; but during a seizure, it is like a giant thunder storm. Everything goes off, the reactions and the amount of exchange that is taking place is amazing. The neurons however still never touch. One of the main reasons that the seizure might take place is because not enough inhibitors are present. Inhibitors are one of the two types of neurotransmitters that our body has. Inhibitors stop the impulse, and the other type excites the impulse. When Jason was taken to a hospital to be tested out on hate sort of drug he should take for his illness, he was asked to forcefully have seizures so that the doctors can determine the drug. He had sensors hooked up to different areas of his brain, then he was asked to breathe deeply till he had a seizure. At the end of the experiments, the doctors prescribed Velcrolic Acid, which produces Gabba, which in turn inhibits or stops the firing of electrons. Since he has started taking the medication, he has experienced less and less seizures. Before the Velcrolic Acid, he was having as many as sixty seizures a day, now its down to about eight a day. Also, the overall length of the seizures has dropped dramatically, where before they would last up to a minute and thirty seconds, to where now they average at about five seconds a piece. Doctors now presume that maybe someday he will be able to lead a normal life style, maybe even drive a car, but even for now, he is able to ride a bike and play basketball without having to worry about falling down and hurting himself through a seizure.

Dr. Fred Plum studies people in hospitals and tries to determine what sort of disorder they have by just the way they act, or the way they do not act in that case. He tries to advance his knowledge of the healthy brain by studying the unhealthy brain. He usually looks for inconsistencies, things that may be small, but may also have a huge difference in the way the person is. He took three different subjects; the first was an elderly woman that was laying in a bed. After he had talked with her a bit, asked a few questions, he pointed out that she did not move at all as she spoke, she just lay there motion less. He also noted that as she lay, her head and neck was upright, a task that would require large amounts of energy on any normal human being. His symptom: Parkinson disease, a movement disorder. The next patient was an elderly male who stated that he has had the symptoms for about 7 days now, he complained of a loss of movement on the right side of his body. The verdict was that he had a light stroke near the back of the brain. The third patient was a middle aged female that complained of her right side feeling weaker. She drags her right leg, her eyes seemed to wonder about, and he had a stiffness in her arm. Her verdict was unfortunately multiple sclerosis.

Dr. Eric Kendel is called a master of the history of brain science since the 1800s. A little after his time, a Vietnamese physician named Fransod believed he could localize distinctions of character in areas in the brain, if fact in very small and accurate areas in the brain. He believed that if there was a certain trait that you were good at, you would get a lump of some sort that had enlarged that part of your brain. Many people believed that, and soon there were cartoons drawn of people with huge lumps in certain areas of the brain. As many followers as he may have had, he also had critics. One of those, a certain Pier Florence, didn’t at all believe that any higher function could be localized on the cortex of the brain. He took romantic love as an example. The center for that feeling is in the posterior part of the brain, so he took a cat, surgically removed that part of the brain, and after the cat had recovered it was just as aroused and just as willing to mate with the opposite sex. Thus proving Fransod wrong and leaving a major new found truth about the brain with use. In 1861, Dr. Broker had encountered a patient named “Tan” that had difficulty with language, he could read and write just fine, but he could not say a whole sentence by him self. While studying this patient, Dr. Broker realized that language is localized in the frontal area of the left hemisphere of our brain. Another great scientist was Kahal. He was able to visualize a nerve cell and then explain how it worked. He explained to use for the first time about how exactly a neuron is shaped, the basic parts of it. He also stated that information was passed from one part of a neuron to the other. It is stated that he was able to look at a dead structure through a compound microscope, and then tell about its function.

Dr. Nancy Wexel was a doctor that spent most of her life studying Huntington’s Disease (HD).

One of her expeditions took her to a town in Venezuela where most of the population suffered from it. She was trying to find a certain trait, or gene, that can be linked to this disease so that the future children of the people living there could be maybe cured. The quest for a cure for HD for Dr. Wexel is quite personal, considering the fact that her mother and all of her brothers died from it which mean that now she has a fifty fifty chance in inheriting it. When she was younger, she was always told that she hasn’t a thing to worry about simply because of the fact that woman are not able to inherit this disease. But in recent studies, it has been proved that men and women suffer from this disease equally, and there is no know trait that can suddenly stop the cycle. Huntington’s Disease is a very serious and very deadly disease. Those who are affected are scared for the rest of there lives, as short as they are. They have uncontrolled facial expressions, irregular walking patterns, and also irregular upper body movements. There is no way for anyone to really know if they have the disease for sure until they start to show symptoms, in which case it is already to late to cure. The way that it effects the brain is that it starts to kill all the cells in the middle of the brain, and that basically then cancels out all of our brain activity. At first, Dr. Wexel planned that the quest for that certain gene that causes HD would take a minimal of ten to fifteen year. But much to everyone’s amazement it took them only four years to find. Now doctors are able to tell which people have inherited this gene and which haven’t.

Another type of brain disorder, or brain disease, is Hydrocephalus (HS). This disorder is has only effected infants, mostly newborns. In this type of disorder, the normal flow of Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF) is blocked in one of the brains ventricles, thus causing pressure to build up in the brain, causing severe misshaping of the cranium. If left untreated, it will result in death. The ventricles, which usually are butterfly shaped, are enlarged to the point at which the brain itself is only about a centimeter thick. The Plasticity, or the way that normal brain activity is spread out, is thus disturbed. Most neural activity comes from the back, or posterior, area of the brain. One invention that has saved many individuals from this sort of terrible death is a plastic bypass. The procedure is quite simple, the neurologist takes the bypass, inserts it into the part of the brain of choice, then he simply bypasses all of the Cerebral Spinal Fluid to the heart, where it then gets pumped back into the body as it should normally. A special case that should be noted is that of a girl named Sharon. She was born with Hydrocephalus, and she had a bypass made, and that has saved her from death. But what is truly amazing is the fact that even though her brain is considerable smaller in area then ours, she has been rated in school as being above average. She seems to basically excel in everything she does. She has stated that “If someone says I can’t do something, I do it just to show them that they are wrong”. But her case really does not help much. If anything, it raises more questions then answers.

Agnes de Hille was a professional dancer that was rising to the top. She had everything she needed to be quite possibly the best. On May 15, 1975, she had a huge concert held for her. It was great, it was sold out and everyone that was anyone was going to be there. Before the she was going to go on stage, however, one of the dancers did not make it. So they sent an extra to her room. She said great, but we need to fill out the paper work and make a contract so that the union would allow the kid to go out. So she picked up a pen and the contract, and right when she was about to write, she realized that she can not write. She could not do anything with a pen. So then the ambulance came, and she was paralyzed in the ambulance on the right side of her body. She later recollects that through it all, she honestly felt no pain, she felt no sensation of any kind going through her body. In the hospital the doctors discovered that she had a hemorrhage in her brain. A vessel ruptured on the left side of her brain, the side that contains the neurons for motor control and for vision. The rupture squeezed most of the tissue around it, which is interesting and quite lucky for her because usually when something of this nature occurs, it does not just squeeze the tissue, but it cuts and breaks it. So that is one reason for her successful recovery. After she had gotten out of the hospital, she then went into rehabilitation. Although she can’t tell here her right hand is unless she looks at it, she has learned to use it. The same can be said for her right foot. Since she is mostly paralyzed on the right side of her body, she had to learn how to do basically every movement all over again, which includes walking. She also has to watch out how she eats, because her right side is paralyzed, if food happens to go there, she will without a doubt drop it out of her mouth. Because of the difficulty of all of this, most people who survive this types of diseases usually don’t walk or do much ever again, they just simply give up on life in general and just lay in bed all the time. But Agnes had the perseverance and the determination to do things on her own, she wants to be normal. Now, she teaches at a dance studio, and she has even mentioned that she may be planning to return to the stage herself, it all depends on how well she recovers.

Other articles

Parts of the Brain - Memory & the Brain - The Human Memory

The human brain is hugely interconnected but three major components can be identified: the cerebrum. the cerebellum and the brain stem .

The brainstem which includes the medulla. the pons and the midbrain. controls breathing, digestion, heart rate and other autonomic processes, as well as connecting the brain with the spinal cord and the rest of the body.

The cerebellum plays an important role in balance, motor control, but is also involved in some cognitive functions such as attention, language, emotional functions (such as regulating fear and pleasure responses) and in the processing of procedural memories .

The cerebrum (or forebrain ), which makes up 75% of the brain by volume and 85% by weight, is divided by a large groove, known as the longitudinal fissure. into two distinct hemispheres. The left and right hemispheres ("left" and "right" refer to the owner's point of view, not an outside viewer's) are linked by a large bundle of nerve fibres called the corpus callosum. and also by other smaller connections called commissures .

Most of the important elements of the cerebrum, are split into symmetrical pairs in the left and right hemispheres. Thus, we often speak of the temporal lobes, hippocampi, etc (in the plural), although this website generally follows the convention of speaking of the temporal lobe, hippocampus, etc (in the singular), which should therefore be taken to mean both sides, within both hemispheres. The two hemispheres look similar, but are slightly different in structure and perform different functions. The right hemisphere generally controls the left side of the body, and vice versa, although popular notions that logic, creativity, etc, are restricted to the left or right hemispheres are largely simplistic and unfounded.

Lobes of the cerebral cortex
Picture from Wikipedia (

The cerebrum is covered by a sheet of neural tissue known as the cerebral cortex (or neocortex ), which envelops other brain organs such as the thalamus (which evolved to help relay information from the brain stem and spinal cord to the cerebral cortex) and the hypothalamus and pituitary gland (which control visceral functions, body temperature and behavioural responses such as feeding, drinking, sexual response, aggression and pleasure). The cerebral cortex itself is only 2 - 4 mm thick, and contains six distinct but interconnected layers. It is intricately grooved and folded into the familiar convoluted pattern of folds, or gyri. allowing a large surface area (typically almost 2m 2 ) to fit within the confines of the skull. Consequently, more than two-thirds of the cerebral cortex is buried in the grooves, or sulci .

About 90% of all the brain�s neurons are located in the cerebral cortex, mainly in the "grey matter". which makes up the surface regions of the cerebral cortex, while the inner "white matter" consists mainly of myelinated axons. over 170,000 km of them. As many as five times that number of glial cells exist to support the active nerve cells.

The cerebral cortex plays a key role in memory, attention, perceptual awareness, thought, language and consciousness. It is divided into four main regions or lobes. which cover both hemispheres: the frontal lobe (involved in conscious thought and higher mental functions such as decision-making, particularly in that part of the frontal lobe known as the prefrontal cortex. and plays an important part in processing short-term memories and retaining longer term memories which are not task-based); the parietal lobe (involved in integrating sensory information from the various senses, and in the manipulation of objects in determining spatial sense and navigation); the temporal lobe (involved with the senses of smell and sound, the processing of semantics in both speech and vision, including the processing of complex stimuli like faces and scenes, and plays a key role in the formation of long-term memory ); and the occipital lobe (mainly involved with the sense of sight).

The Limbic System and Basal Ganglia
Picture from How Stuff Works (

The medial temporal lobe (the inner part of the temporal lobe, near the divide between the left and right hemispheres) in particular is thought to be involved in declarative and episodic memory. Deep inside the medial temporal lobe is the region of the brain known as the limbic system. which includes the hippocampus. the amygdala. the cingulate gyrus. the thalamus. the hypothalamus. the epithalamus. the mammillary body and other organs, many of which are of particular relevance to the processing of memory.

The hippocampus. for example, is essential for memory function, particularly the transference from short- to long-term memory and control of spatial memory and behaviour. The hippocampus is one of the few areas of the brain capable actually growing new neurons. although this ability is impaired by stress-related glucocorticoids. The amygdala also performs a primary role in the processing and memory of emotional reactions and social and sexual behaviour, as well as regulating the sense of smell.

Another sub-cortical systems (inside the cerebral cortex) which is essential to memory function is the basal ganglia system, particularly the striatum (or neostriatum ) which is important in the formation and retrieval of procedural memory .

© 2010 Luke Mastin

Brain Research - Journal

Brain Research Brain Research An international multidisciplinary journal devoted to fundamental research in the brain sciences.

Brain Research publishes papers reporting interdisciplinary investigations of nervous systemstructure and function that are of general interest to the international community of neuroscientists. As is evident from the journals name, its scope is broad, ranging from cellular and molecular studies through systems neuroscience, cognition and disease. Invited reviews are also published; suggestions for and inquiries about potential reviews are welcomed.

With the appearance of the final issue of the 2011 subscription, Vol. 67/1-2 (24 June 2011), Brain Research Reviews has ceased publication as a distinct journal separate from Brain Research. Review articles accepted for Brain Research are now published in that journal.

N.B. Review articles are by invitation only; inquiries and suggestions for reviews should be directed to the Brain Research Editorial Office ( ).

In the journal's Table of Contents, published papers will be shown under one of the Section titles listed below. Authors.

Brain Research publishes papers reporting interdisciplinary investigations of nervous systemstructure and function that are of general interest to the international community of neuroscientists. As is evident from the journals name, its scope is broad, ranging from cellular and molecular studies through systems neuroscience, cognition and disease. Invited reviews are also published; suggestions for and inquiries about potential reviews are welcomed.

With the appearance of the final issue of the 2011 subscription, Vol. 67/1-2 (24 June 2011), Brain Research Reviews has ceased publication as a distinct journal separate from Brain Research. Review articles accepted for Brain Research are now published in that journal.

N.B. Review articles are by invitation only; inquiries and suggestions for reviews should be directed to the Brain Research Editorial Office ( ).

In the journal's Table of Contents, published papers will be shown under one of the Section titles listed below. Authors will be given the opportunity to choose the most appropriate section upon manuscript submission.

Cell Biology. Signaling and Synaptic Transmission
Senior Editors: Matthew LaVoie (Boston, MA, USA)
Studies investigating the cellular, molecular and genetic bases of structure, function and signaling (both intracellular and intercellular) in nervous systems.

Development. Degeneration and Regeneration. and Aging
Senior Editors: Seth Blackshaw (Baltimore, MD, USA), Fen-Biao Gao (Worcester, MA, USA), Carina Hanashima (Kobe, Japan), Flora M. Vaccarino (New Haven, CT, USA)
Studies concerning neuronal and glial development and the formation of the nervous system, molecular and cellular aspects of degeneration and regeneration, and changes associated with the aging brain.

Systems Neuroscience and Behavior
Senior Editors: Gary Aston-Jones (Charleston, SC, USA), Stan Floresco (Vancouver, B.C. Canada), Francois Georges (Bordeaux, France), Mary Heinricher (Portland, OR, USA), Jane Rebecca Taylor (New Haven, CT, USA), Barry Waterhouse (Philadelphia, PA, USA)
Studies concerning structure and organization of neural circuits, sensory and motor systems, internal regulatory systems and the control of behaviors.

Cognition and Computation
Senior Editors: Erich Schröger (Leipzig, Germany), Maria Natasha Rajah (Verdun, Quebec, Canada), Susan Ravizza (East Lansing, MI, USA), Christina L. Williams (Durham, NC, USA)
Studies of the neural mechanisms of cognition and behavior in humans and animal models including basic behaviors and higher mental functions; as well as studies dealing with realistic simulation, analysis and prediction of the structure and functions of nervous systems and individual neuronal and glial elements within nervous systems.

Neurobiology of Disease
Senior Editors: Sandra Hewett (Syracuse, NY, USA), Seung-Jae Lee (Seoul, Korea), Vanessa A. Morais (Lisbon, Portugal), Salvatore Oddo (Phoneix, AZ,USA), Malú Tansey (Atlanta, GA, USA), J. Paul Taylor (Memphis, TN, USA)
Studies whose primary focus is on clinically diseased nervous systems or disease models, including molecular, cellular, systems and behavioral approaches and analysis of therapeutic interventions.

Invited reviews on all aspects of nervous system structure and function. The editors welcome suggestions for specific review topics.

This journal supports the following content innovations

Essay on biology

Essay/Term paper: Hemispheres of the brain

Hemispheres of the Brain

As I was reading the text I came upon a section that I thought to be
quite fascinating. It talked about people who have a brain that functions like
two different people inside of the brain. This is of course the Split-Brain
Personality. As I studied this topic in more detail I found it to be quite
broad and yet very detailed. I found that I needed a dictionary to be able to
read all of the medical journals and books that are out there, to be able to
understand what it was exactly, that I was reading. But with a little study and
research I found that this is a precise science that is still largely full of
The study of hemispheric asymmetry with in the cerebral cortex had long
been a fascination with the human race. The ancient Aztec cultures used to
perform a type of brain surgery on humans. This is evident from the human
remains that we find with incisions and piece's missing of the skull. Whether
or not these primitive surgeries were successful is unknown. The earliest way
for man to observe the brain was by noticing brain damage to a particular area
of the brain that was damaged. Such observations were first recorded some 5,000
years ago (Myers,1995). The most popular case is that of Phineas Gage a
railroad worker that had severe frontal lobe damage. This happened when a rail
road spike was shot through his head by a piece of dynamite. Miraculously he
lived through the experience, but with a severe change in his personality. From
this physiologists learned that personality was largely controlled from this
point namely by removing a persons inhibitions.
For the most part the brain has been a mystery that is waiting to be
opened. The last two decades have witnessed a period of research on the human
cerebral functions comparable to the great era of discovery initiated by Broca
in 1861(Young, G. Segalowitz, S. Corter, C. Trehub, S,.1983). We have leaned
more in the past 20 years about the brain and it's hemispheric asymmetry than we
had learned in combined previous history.(Kosslyn, 1993). Most of this new work
has been devoted to the study of cerebral functions in adults, but recently
there has been a growing interest in infants and young children most especially
among the study of hand preference. About 10 percent of the human population in
left-handed(Myers,1995). By looking at ancient writings this right-hand
preference has seemed to develop right from the start of the human race. It
also is apparent that from ultrasound devises that about 9 in 10 fetuses suck
the right hand's thumb(Myers,1995). This would lead us to believe that
handedness was an inherited trait. Their was a man by the name of George
Michel, who in 1981 did a survey of new born babies and what side of their
bodies they liked to lay their heads. He found that about two-thirds of 150
babies preferred to have their heads turned to the right while about only one-
third laid their heads to the left. In a follow up survey Michel found that
almost all of the right-sided babies were starting to reach with their right
hand and again one-third of the left sided babies were reaching with their left
hand(Myers,1995). In contrary, it is also found that handedness is one of the
few genes that are not shared by genetically identical twins. So what is it
exactly that develops handedness? Some speculate that the handedness of a
person is evident in the brain and in its specialization concerning hemispheric
asymmetry. Tests reveal to us that about ninety-five percent of right-handers
process speech primarily in the left hemisphere(Myers,1995). While the study
has found that left handed people are more likely to be a little more diverse or
ambidextrous in their hemispheric asymmetry. But as we had learned in the first
chapter is this a correlation or a causation? I personally feel that it is a
correlation and not a causation. The brain is a very flexible and delicate
instrument. It has the ability to adapt and change with different stimuli. The
brain in left handed people I feel is just adapting to the use of a left hand
preference and that is why it is more likely to be ambidextrous
I would now like to talk about the asymmetry of the hemispheres. First,
I will talk about the left side of the brain and then I will talk about the
right. For well over a hundred years neuropsychologists have proposed that the
left hemisphere plays a special role in both the production and perception of
language(Hellige,1993). It has often been said that the left hemisphere is
dominant for linguistic or verbal processing. This does not mean that the right
does not have linguistic or verbal skills but merely suggests that the left is
more capable and therefore more likely to process the language. This conclusion
was reached after observation of people with language disorders that occurred
after a left hemisphere was damaged. It is now a well documented fact that
aphasia (the acquired loss of language) is far more likely after left-hemisphere
than after right-hemisphere injury and that specific symptoms depends on which
regions of the left hemisphere are injured(Hellige,1993). Studies of patients
with unilateral brain injury have led to estimates that the left hemisphere is
dominant for speech in approximately ninety-five percent of right-handed adults,
with the right hemisphere being dominant for speech in the other 5 percent of
right-handed adults(Hellige,1993). Such results demonstrate that the integrity
of certain areas within the left hemisphere is necessary for the production of
speech and certain other language related activities. Inside of the left
hemisphere is a spot called the Broca's area(Myers,1995). This area is named
after a French physician named Paul Broca. He reported in 1865 that damage to
this area left a person unable to form words, but were still able to sing songs
and still could comprehend speech. One would think that these two things are
the same, but according to Broca's observation this is not so. Consequently
this particular area was named after him. Latter another discovery was made by
a man named Carl Wernicke. He discovered that if damage occurred to a specific
area in the left temporal lobe this left people able to form words, but unable
to make any sense of the words that they are saying(Myers,1995). An example of
this is when a patient, with this particular part of the brain damaged, was
asked to describe a pitcher of two boys stealing some cookies behind a woman's
back, he would say, "mother is away her working her work to get her better, but
when she's looking the two boys looking the other part. She's working another
time"(Myers,1995) This area was later named after this man and is now known as
Wernicke's area. Although damage to the left hemisphere is more likely to cause
language disturbance than is damage to the right hemisphere, if left brain
damage occurs in childhood recovery may be dramatic and virtually complete. The
recovery in these cases is thought to be the result of rapid assumption of
language processing in the right hemisphere(Young etal.,1983) When aphasia is
associated with a stroke in adulthood, recovery is often a slow and incomplete
process. Aphasiologists question whether this form of recovery is the result of
gradual left to right switching language dominance, or rather the reorganization
of the left hemisphere. Evidence is in favor of the latter. A man by the name
of Kinsbourne, who in 1971 did a study on aphasic patients and language
compensations. He staged serial unilateral intracarotid amobarbital injections
on two right-handed aphasic patients. A third patient had a left side injection
only. Left-side injections did not result in speech arrest, but arrest of all
vocalization occurred with the right-side injections(Perecman,1983). For
Kinsbourne, these results indicate that in these cases dominance for residual
language had shifted to the right.
I will now talk about different aspects of the right hemisphere. The
right hemisphere has a little less organized principles and the processing
elements are not as defined but nonetheless a valuable resource which will
often go untapped or underutilized by the average person. In general, the right
hemisphere controls the emotions of a person(Perecman,83pg69). In fact there is
a theory now that negative emotions are created by the right hemisphere and the
positive ones are done by the left. Neuropsychologists have found that motion
picture sequences viewed with the left visual field are judged more negative
than those viewed with the right field. Questions concerned with negative,
rather that positive, produce greater leftward eye movements. Facial motor
asymmetries are more likely to be biased to the left side for negative
expressions, such as anger, sorrow, or disgust. Where the right side is more
likely to favor the positive expressions (Perecman,1983). But in the contrary,
studies have found that damage to the right parietal region impairs the
identification and production of both positive and negative emotions, even if
they are both conveyed verbally. Similar studies have found that there is no
difference in the asymmetry of facial expressions when conveying emotions of
negative or of positive nature. (Perecman,83pg70). Although some controversy
exists as to the relative contribution of each hemisphere to the perception of
emotion. The majority of experimental studies with normal subjects have found a
right hemispheric superiority for processing a diversity of emotional stimuli
including music, and facial expressions. Tonal sequences, invoking both
positive and negative moods, are rated more quickly and accurately as well as
judged more emotional when listened to on the left ear in contrast to that of
the right. The left visual field can also detect emotions of a particular face
more quickly as well as more accurately than that of the right visual field.
I, myself am more of a right brain person. The tests that we have taken
in class and all previous tests that I have taken tell me this. I think that
this is why I make decisions more based on my emotions rather than on logic.
This correlates with traits of most right-brained people. This paper has taught
me a lot in the field of the brain. Such different aspects of the brain is what
make each person distinctly different and human.

Other sample model essays:

Hemophilia Tim Poisal Biology-2nd period Hemophilia is a genetic blood disease, which is characterized by the inability of blood to clot, or coagulate even from minor injuries. This.

My Paper - Term Papers

My Paper My Paper

Many people wonder how psychologists know that a particular part of the brain is
associated with a certain function. Researchers have used different techniques to study
the brain.
Researching the brain is not new. Back in the 1800s, phrenology was a popular
technique. Phrenology was a procedure that used bumps on an individual’s head to
determine and predict personality characteristics. Unfortunately, it is not very accurate.
We have found more reliable information from lesions in the brain. A lesion is the natural
or intentional destruction of brain tissue. Knowing what happens when a part of the
brain is damaged or destroyed is a key to knowing its function when it works correctly.
In 1848, a railroad worker named Phineas Gage FIGURE 3- 10 suffered an accident when
an explosion drove a 1-pound steel rod straight through his head, destroying much of the
front part of his brain. Some of the reports after the accident suggested that his personality
was altered. Gage’s case underscores the fact that examining lesions is an important way
to study the functions of various parts of the nervous system.
Today, more sophisticated technologies are employed to study and treat the brain.
For example, electrical stimulation of the brain is a technique used to stimulate neural
FIGURE 3- 10 Phineas Gage
suffered an accident that
damaged his frontal lobe.
Phrenology A procedure that
uses bumps on an individual’s
head to determine and
predict personality
Lesion A natural or
intentional destruction of
brain tissue.
Electrical stimulation of the
brain A technique used to
stimulate neural networks
in the nervous system.
Also known as deep brain
86 CHAPTER 3 Neuroscience: The Biology of Behavior
networks in the nervous system. Also known as deep brain stimulation, it uses electrical
signals to trigger areas of the brain. Instead of using electricity, transcranial magnetic
stimulation (TMS) is a procedure that uses.

Essay's Statistics

Senior project research paper

Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy.

Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details.

Explore all your favorite topics in the SlideShare app Get the SlideShare app to Save for Later — even offline

Continue to the mobile site »

  • Upload
  • Login
  • Signup

Double tap to zoom out

Senior project research paper

Share this SlideShare

LinkedIn Corporation © 2016