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Migration Essay Introduction

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Migration essays

MegaEssays.com Migration

It is the wish of everyone to live a happy and free life in a country where they get equal opportunity and thereby secure a better future for themselves and their families. There are not many nations that can guarantee such political and economical freedom that Australia can to immigrants. For this reason, many migrants would find immigrating to Australia an attractive solution to their problems. With pros such as the freedom and egalitarian society weighing up, its no surprise most people don’t have second thoughts about the cons such as the long distances. The large numbers of immigrants entering Australia in the past as well as the present is evidence of this. According to statistics, immigrants arriving from white European regions during the post WW II period range between 1-300 000 people. Numbers arriving from other regions of the world, although quite large, are insignificant compared to Europeans. Most of these migrants have settled in urban areas although some have decided to begin their new life in the country.
Although the arrival of most immigrants is for personal reasons, it is no doubt also a benefit to the development of Australia in many ways. Australia’s society is ethnically diverse and their presence is as important to us as we are to them. Recent migration has plunged in number quite significantly due to the strong requirements placed in the law for immigrants wanting to come to Australia. There are categories in place such as skill-based migration, family PR in Australia, business migration and others, but all these require the migrants to prove they will be economically stable after arriving in Australia.
There are two main factors that influence migration. Firstly the push factors, secondly the pull factors. The push factors are the reasons forcing a migrant to leave their country of birth. These can include various reasons, the common factors being civil war, causing distress or threate.

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FREE Migration Essay Essay

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My dad, mom, brother and I lived in very poor village in China where my mom has to work all day at the farm to grow vegetables and potatoes. My grandma had seven sons and daughters. Three were married including my dad. My grandpa and grandma went to New York a month after I was born. My grandma named me "American money , so that when I grow up, I can make a lot of money, not Chinese money, but American money. They brought four of their youngest children to New York during that time and left the married ones in China because they didn't have enough money to bring all of us.

Soon after they left, my dad opened a powder store in the city. He made flour powders and sold them to stores. My dad didn't have money, so he borrowed a lot of money from his friends to open the store. He also used a lot of money for my brother and me to school in the city, so we stayed in the store most of the time. I didn't like my dad's friends all that much, because they hung around the store a lot, they thought they let money to dad is all right for them to stay around and do bad things. I recalled they were doing drugs on the second floor of the store when I was doing my homework. I was young and I didn't know much. I told my dad, but he didn't say anything, he just told to ignore it and pretend nothing happened.

Soon, customers were afraid to buy powders from us because my dad's friends stayed around and people knew they were doing drugs. The store didn't have much business and my dad's friends started to ask him to pay them back the money. My dad couldn't hold the store anymore, so he sold the store and return the remaining money to his friends. It was not enough. My dad couldn't afford to pay all the money that he owed. He was upset, and didn't know how to face mom and us. He didn't come home very often after that and we were worried, so

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Writing an IELTS Essay Introduction

Lesson 5:
Writing an IELTS Essay Introduction

In the writing for task 2, you must write an IELTS essay introduction. but you only have 40 minutes.

In this time you need to analyze the question , brainstorm ideas to write about, formulate an essay plan. and then write your response.

Even for a native writer of English, this is a lot to do in 40 minutes!

So you need to use your time carefully. You need a good IELTS essay introduction, but one thing you do not want to do is spend too long writing it so that you end up rushing your paragraphs.

Your paragraphs are the most important thing as they contain all your supporting arguments and demonstrate how good you are at organizing your ideas.

You therefore need a method to write your IELTS essay introduction fairly quickly. When you write an introduction, you should make sure you do two things:

  1. Write a sentence introducing the topic and giving some background facts about it

How you do this will vary depending on the question, but here is an example:

Blood sports have become a hot topic for debate in recent years. As society develops it is increasingly seen as an uncivilized activity and cruel to the helpless animals that are killed.Blood sports should be banned.

To what extent to you agree or disagree?

Sample IELTS essay introduction:

Despite the fact that killing animals for sport is popular in modern society, it remains a contentious issue. I believe that blood sports are cruel and uncivilized and so should be banned as soon as possible.

As you can see, the first sentence consists of the topic plus some background facts on the topic which have been taken from the rubric.

The second sentence then gives the writers opinion and tells us that in the essay the writer will be arguing the reasons why it is cruel.

The topic does not have to be in the first sentence, but it should be made clear somewhere in the introduction. You must always have a thesis.

Paraphrasing

Another important point - don't copy from the question! You must paraphrase (put it in your own words). To do this you can use synonyms and move the order of the sentence around.

Using some of the same words is acceptable, but don't copy whole phrases.

You can see how the question above has been paraphrased. All the information is from the question, but it has been written in a different way and has not been copied.

Further Examples

Science and technology have helped the world make many advances. The Arts, such as painting, theatre and dance, to name just three examples, however, are also valuable.

What things do the Arts provide to the world that Science and Technology do not?

Sample IELTS essay introduction:

Societies have developed rapidly over time due to the many advances in science and technology. However, the arts are also very important and provide our world with many things that science and technology cannot.

According to a recent study, the more time people use the Internet, the less time they spend with real human beings. Some people say that instead of seeing the Internet as a way of opening up new communication possibilities world wide, we should be concerned about the effect this is having on social interaction.

How far do you agree with this opinion?

Sample IELTS essay introduction:

A recent study has shown that as people use the Internet more, they are spending less time with human beings. I believe that although this has increased the communication around the world in positive ways, it has also led to negative effects on the day-to-day social interaction of human beings.

Unemployment has become an increasing problem in the recent past.

What factors contribute to an increase in unemployment and what steps can be taken to solve the problem?

Sample IELTS essay introduction:

Over recent years, the level of unemployment has been increasing at an alarming rate in many countries around the world. This essay will discuss the reasons for this increase and consider what practical solutions are available.

Some people think children in secondary school should study international news as part of the curriculum. Others think that this would be a waste of time as there are already too many subjects for children to concentrate on.

Discuss both views and give your own opinion.

Sample IELTS essay introduction:

While some people are of the opinion that it would be useful to include international news as a subject in the school curriculum, others believe that this is a waste of students time because they are already overloaded with subjects to study. This essay will examine both sides of the issue.

How to Write an Essay Introduction (with Sample Intros)

How to Write an Essay Introduction

Your introduction acts like a map for your essay’s readers. It should give necessary background or contextual information for your topic, as well as present your thesis statement. A good introduction addresses the “what,” “why,” and “how” of your topic: What is your essay going to discuss? Why is it important or useful? How are you going to argue your point? [1] It can seem a bit intimidating at first, but with some good preparation and a little hard work, you can write a great introduction.

Steps Edit Part One of Four:
Building a Concise Introduction Edit

Start with an example. Before diving into the specifics of what's important in an essay introduction, it can be helpful to see an example:
  • Literary Essay: "Anyone reading Bram Stoker’s Dracula today has seen the conventions of vampire fiction a million times before: the garlic, the mirrors, the bats, a villain who is powerful, cunning, and erotic. There is an ever-growing mythology of vampires that the novel sits near the roots of, and the ubiquity of vampires threatens to make the conventions seem overused and unoriginal – part of the mythological canon. Yet Dracula still terrifies to this day. We can suspend our disbelief because we are in on the action; we’re holding the actual copy of events that Mina typed, being taught with the skeptical Doctor Seward about the very superstitions we too are being asked, while we read, to believe. He conflates the reader and the characters and grounds us in a strange world where science and superstition stand hand in hand. In doing so, Stoker crafts a shockingly modern novel, so that Dracula that feels frightening and new even today because we are never quite sure if it is true. After all, we're reading the same "book" as the main character."

Hook the reader with a great first sentence. You can use anecdotes, surprising facts, fun turns of phrase, or quotes. This is designed to bring the reader into your essay, not tell the whole story. It can be broadly related to your paper, not laser focused. Check below for even more examples of a great hook. [2]
  • Literary Essay: "Anyone reading Bram Stoker’s Dracula today has seen the conventions of vampire fiction a million times before: the garlic, the mirrors, the bats, a villain who is powerful, cunning, and erotic."
  • Research Essay: "According to Max Weber, one of the most influential developments in the Modern West has been the “demythologization” (entzauberung) of the world-- surely there has been a noticeable change in the world from the days of the Greek gods or medieval witchcraft."
  • Personal Essay: "Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back changed my life, but, like all pivot points in a child’s life, I was too young to realize it at the time."

Give your argument some context. Ground the reader with some information that might not be in the paper, but is relevant to understand your thesis. It could be historical background, related papers/research, or a few scattered facts to set the "mood."
  • Literary Essay: "There is an ever-growing mythology of vampires that the novel sits near the roots of, and the ubiquity of vampires threatens to make the conventions seem overused and unoriginal – part of the mythological canon. Yet Dracula still terrifies to this day, appearing in movies, TV, and books."
  • Research Essay: "But has the West moved towards rationalism, has it really cast off the old myth and magic, or has it only done so on the surface? The West is not, as Weber suggests, on a linear climb towards rationality, though it seems that there has been a desire for it."
  • Personal Essay: "I clamored for the VHS tapes when they were released while amassing all of the action figures, comics, and games I could get my hands on. One day, in the midst of my youthful obsession, I walked downstairs and proclaimed to my parents that all I wanted when I grew up was “to be George Lucas.” In short, I wanted to be a professional storyteller."

Preview the structure of your paper. This is why some people write introductions last, but it is not necessary if you've planned ahead with an outline. You want a short, concise roadmap of your argument. You don't have to preview each paragraph, but you should give a general idea of where your argument will go. [3]
  • Literary Essay: "We can suspend our disbelief because we are in on the action; we’re holding the actual copy of events that Mina typed, being taught with the skeptical Doctor Seward about the very superstitions we too are being asked, while we read, to believe. He conflates the reader and the characters and grounds us in a strange world where science and superstition stand hand in hand."
  • Research Essay: "In the years since 1830, intellectual history has had its moments of rationality, moments that fulfill Weber’s words, yet the overall trend has been more of an arc; a slow, often faltering embrace of entzauberung that peaks with Nietzsche and dissolves into a rejection of the concept at the hands of the postmodernists."
  • Personal Essay: "Complex, fictional metaphors have defined humanity for years, but what drives people to create them, or spend money going to school to learn them? What does storytelling really help accomplish in a world so full of real problems and horrors? And why would someone want to do it for a living?"

Craft a unique, arguable thesis. The thesis is the heart of your entire essay. It is the argument or point you're making. Remember, then, that the best thesis are specific, provable, and striking. They give the reader a reason to keep on reading. [4]
  • Literary Essay: "In doing so, Stoker crafts a novel that feels frightening and new even today, because we are never quite sure if it is true."
  • Research Essay: "In the past one hundred and eighty years there has been a conscience effort to demystify the world in favor of rationalism, but a closer look at these arguments shows that this push towards rationality has undercut itself at almost every turn."
  • Personal Essay: "Ultimately, however, the question, "why write fiction," is more important than any answer. Storytelling is about asking questions, about probing into human issues that may have no answer at all, and using the boundless human imagination to shed light on the best, and worst, experiences in our life."

Transition into your first paragraph to wrap everything up. Sometimes your thesis is the last sentence, and the transition is natural. But your thesis might not be last. One short, easy sentence can be a great way to launch into your argument and keep the reader engaged.
  • Literary Essay: "After all, we're reading the same "book" as the main character."
  • Research Essay: Generally unnecessary, as presenting the research (historical or scientific) is often more important.
  • Personal Essay: "But how do stories actually shed that light?"
Part Two of Four:
Prewriting For Your Introduction Edit

Think about your “angle” on your topic. If you’re writing an introduction, you probably already know what your topic is and what you want to say about it. (If you don’t, you need to go back and do that before you try to write an introduction!) A good essay has an “angle,” or way of presenting argument or information, to its readers. Think about what questions your essay addresses and why they’re important. [5]
  • You should have your thesis before you start writing your introduction. It can even help to save the introduction for last, after you’ve written the rest of your essay, so you know exactly what your argument is.
  • Remember that a thesis statement Is an assertion, not a fact or an observation. It takes a stand; someone should be able to argue either in favor or against the argument in your thesis. For example: “Because of its humiliating and demoralizing effect on African American slaves, black face was used less as a comedy routine and more as a way of enforcing racial segregation” and “Science is beginning to seriously question whether a comet, not an asteroid, was responsible for the extinction of the dinosaurs” are both thesis statements. The first is for an analytical essay, and the second is more for an informative essay.

Consider your readers. Your audience probably includes your teacher or professor, but consider your audience more generally, too. What information would they need to make your argument or discussion helpful? Is there background information you need to provide? Are there terms you need to define? Knowing the answers to questions like these will help you know what information needs to go into your introduction.
  • Remember that your readers probably already know some things, and they want to get to the “meat” of your essay as soon as possible. Avoid opening your essay introduction with huge generalizations or broad statements such as “Human beings love to learn” or “Throughout the history of time, people have written poetry.” These statements almost never add anything to your argument, and thus they aren’t helpful for your readers.

Think of a “hook. ” Your first sentence should pull the readers in, making them want to read the essay because they are fascinated, intrigued, or even outraged. Opening with a catchy saying or provocative statistic can be helpful, but make sure that you don’t wander too far from your essay’s overall purpose. Consider a couple of different types of hooks, and choose the one that feels the most effective to you. [6]
  • You can use an interesting fact or statistic to surprise your reader. While the fact should be relevant to what you're saying, this is not the place to state the facts that you are using for evidence down in the body of your essay. Instead, use it as a way to grab your readers’ attention and let them know what’s coming. For example: “Although we tend to think of social media as a young person’s game, the fastest-growing demographic on Twitter are people aged 55-64.” [7] This statistic confronts an expectation your readers may have and could set up an argument on the importance of, say, access to the internet for senior citizens.
  • You can also use an anecdote as a hook. If you are writing a less formal paper, consider beginning with a relevant, humorous, or moving story. This will provide context and allow the reader to get to know you, or the person or thing you're writing about, a little bit better. For example: “Sergei Filin was walking home on a cold Moscow morning when a man in black approached him. With his hand held behind his back, the man in black muttered something menacing. Before he knew what hit him, Filin was on the ground, tossing snow in his face, his skin literally burning off. Filin had been attacked with acid.”
  • You can sometimes pose a question as a hook. This is particularly effective if you are writing a persuasive essay. Draw the reader in with a question that is both relevant and provoking. For example: “What would you do if you could play God for a day? That's exactly what the leaders of the tiny island nation of Guam tried to answer.”
  • A quotation can be used as a hook, but be careful: this is a clichéd way of opening your essay, and some readers may interpret it as lazy rather than inventive. It’s usually best to start off with your own words, rather than someone else’s.
  • Avoid the “The dictionary defines ____ as” type of openings. They add nothing to your essay and usually aren’t even helpful (everyone knows how the dictionary defines love/war/peace/ice cream).

Make an outline. It can be helpful to outline your introduction, especially if you have a lot of information you need to present in it. An outline will let you know how your introduction “builds up steam” before presenting the thesis statement. [8]
  • After the hook, you’ll probably need to give some background information for your topic. Give anything that will help your readers have context for what you’re going to argue. For example, an essay on whether the government should subsidize farming probably needs to present some information about what types of crops are grown in the area you’re describing, as well as the challenges that farmers face.
  • You can also give any information about the topic that your readers will need to understand your argument. For example, if you’re writing an analysis of a Shakespeare play, it could be helpful to give a brief synopsis of what it’s about and who the major characters are.
  • End with the thesis statement. Here’s where you state your argument or, in an informative essay, the topic for discussion. If you aren’t sure how to write a thesis statement, check out our handy article, Write a Thesis Statement.

Migration - Essay by Subhashvpv

Migration Essay

Below is an essay on "Migration" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.

MIGRANT LABOURERS FROM KERALA AND THE IMPACT ON HOUSEHOLD ECONOMY
P. S. NAIR

INTRODUCTION
In recent years, Kerala, the southern most state in India, has emerged as a major centre for exporting human resource to the oil rich Gulf countries in South Asia. Among the total emigrants from Kerala, about 90 per cent are working in Gulf countries.1 This has made a visible impact on the current socioeconomic scenario of Kerala. Among various Indian states, Kerala ranks first in the level of human development index (HDI) proposed by the UNDP. However, until recently, no reliable estimates were available on the magnitude, patterns and characteristics of these migrants.

Information was elicited on the level of emigration, the characteristics of the migrants such as age, sex, marital status, educational qualifications, nature of job, countries of emigration, duration of stay in the country, and whether the household received remittances from abroad during one year period prior to the survey and the type of assets acquired with it. This was done for the first time for the entire population of Kerala. The sample design adopted for NFHS is a systematic, multi-stage stratified sample of households. The universe consisted of all urban and rural areas of the state from the entire fourteen districts. It was designed to provide estimates for the state as a whole and for urban and rural areas separately. The total number of households interviewed was 4387 (3167 (72.2%) from rural and 1220 (27.8%) from urban areas).

METHODOLOGY
The National Family Health Survey (NFHS) – Kerala in 1992-93 provided a unique opportunity for assessing the impact on some socioeconomic variables. The survey in Kerala included a set of questions on emigration from Kerala, especially to Middle East countries.

RESULTS
This analysis found that there were more

P.S. Nair, Professor & Head, Department of Demography, University of Kerala, Trivandrum 695 581 and Department of Population Studies.

Introduction Definition Of Forced Migration Politics Essay

Introduction Definition Of Forced Migration Politics Essay

Published: 23, March 2015

Migration is defined as the movement of people and in the context of this project concerns with the international enforced migration, which is the movement of people across international borders. International migration is complex and can include a number of interacting variables both at the structural level and individual level (Bloch 2002). It is a growing and large phenomenon influencing almost all countries as the source, destination or transit of migrants. Many migrants voluntarily move, searching for different lifestyles and better economic opportunities. Others, such as asylum seekers, refugees and trafficked people are forced to leave their homes as a result of persecution, repression or conflict. In addition, poor governance and poverty, development projects, degradation in environment and disasters are also significant drivers of forced migration. The people, communities and their families who are displaced within their own countries or across international borders called as "forced migrants" (WDR 2012).

Migration Theories

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There are various studies analyzing the reasons of forced migration. Some of them claim that the role of labour migration is crucial in the evolution of the national accumulation patterns into a global accumulation regime. In Accordance with this view the development of a large surplus population causes to structurally 'forced migration'. The excess number of migrants is a significant product of the globalization of capital accumulation. The human resources transfer in huge numbers to immigration from emigration regions cannot be compensated for by financial terms. The existing optimism for migrant transfers renders the invisible but much more significant resource transfer (Faist et al. 2011).

This part reviews the development of migration theory and its existing application for refugees and asylum seekers. The conditions surrounding any movement of people are complex and unique which makes it difficult for any theory to predict or generalize refugee movements. These theories are derived from a number of academic disciplines including economics, law, sociology, politics and geography. Three of the main approaches used in discussions about migration. These are the migration systems theory, the historical structuralism approach and the neoclassical economic equilibrium perspective (Bloch 2002).

Neo-classical economic equilibrium perspective

A 19th century English geographer, Ravenstein was inspired by the migration dynamics between Scotland, England and Ireland and generated a group of rules to describe migration. In the first study on migration migrants are categorised as temporary migrants, local migrants, migration by stages, long journey migrants and the short journey migrants with respect to migrants' staying period in the county that they had gone to. He also considered particular patterns such as which gender had the most percent in migration, from which counties people had migrated and to where etc. He resulted that migration was a situation leaning to urban from rural where industrial centres were developed. According to these inferences Ravenstein's laws were shaped by an emphasis on economic conditions (Kawano 2006). These theories also claim that employees respond to differences in wage across space and move to higher wage from low wage localities. He established a number of laws to identify migratory movements relied predominately on an evaluation of English Census data from 1871 and 1881. Ravenstein's laws were focused on the folloing points (Faist 1997):

A short distance movement is the major characteristic of migrations.

The movements are usually directed from agricultural regions to centres of industry and commerce.

Men are tend to dominate long journey migrants while women likely to travel short distances.

Migration increases as transportation improves and as commerce and industry develop.

Long journey migrants tend to go to one of the largest centres of industry and trade.

Economic expectations are one of the major reasons of migration.

Although Ravenstein aimed to generate a model to identify migratory movements, his claims have been reviewed because they neither linked movements to factors outside those affecting the people nor tested existing movements empirically. The push-pull term is used because migration is described as a combination of the factors "push" and "pull" which causes the migration decision. The push factors are generally negative and contain social inequality, political instability and conflict. The pull factors, those that invite people to a certain receiving country, include more independent communities and employment possibilities in the destination country (Kawano 2006: 17).

Historical structuralism approach

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The historical structuralism approach had its bases in Marxist political economy that focuses on the unequal distribution of political and economic power in the global economy. The major function of migration is to mobilize cheap workforce for capital. Hence the early push&pull theory was substituted by more structural approaches that consider the role of the state and capitalism. The historical structuralism approaches have been reviewed because of they ignore the fact that not all migrants are employees and even when they are, they are several other things as well including members of religious and ethnic groups. Therefore, the process of migration is not only based on personal choice in response to equilibrium of market. Instead existed policies notably control immigration and constrain personal choices. From the perspective of internal forced migration, a significant number of displaced people which are estimated by the UNHCR to be around 25 millions can be in part attributed to structural barriers. Moreover, the large amount of the refugees in the world remains in their district of origin seeking asylum in a neighbouring country (Martiniello and Rath 2010: 22).

The major points of the historical-structuralism approach on the mobilization for capital neither provides a theoretical basis for understanding refugee movements nor explains the complexity of migration. A migration systems theory has emerged more recently out of structuralism and economic theories which places stress on the interaction between a number of political, economic and social variables (Bloch 2002).

Migration systems approach

Migration systems theory applies to both social network and transnational relations theory. In terms of transnational relations, the links between the receiving and the sending countries, with historical links between the two countries, are of primary significance and obtain the historical-political factors for migration. Prior links between the receiving and the sending countries may take the shape of imperial-colonial relations, political links, cultural ties and trade links. Trans-nationalism is not only associated with the people's movement but also it engages economic, social, cultural and political activities existed across the national borders (Faist et al. 2011). These types of activities can take place on a personal basis or through institutional channels. The extent to which migrants engage in transnational activities will vary according to a number of factors, which include circumstances of the migration and the economic circumstances. In contrary, transnational activities become more selective when migration is a more personalized process, grounded on family and personal decisions (Steiner 2009). The key feature of the systems approach to migration is that it is concerned with the interaction between numbers of different elements that affect the migration.

The Case Study: Canada

In the Canadian case three levels of public policy affect the process of seeking refuge and settlement in Canada. First, there are the immigration laws that regulate the admission of voluntary as well as forced migrants. Secondly, there are refugee policies that regulate Canada's humanitarian protection. Finally the settlement and integration policies which involve set of norms and regulations through which the Canadian State supports the migrants' social and economic settlement and integration. For the Canadian government, the strategy of integration aims to support the rapid settlement, adaptation and integration of those newly arrived with the goal of their becoming, "contributing members of Canadian society". Most agreements emphasize that integration is understood as a two way process that requires adjustments by both the newcomers and the receiving society (CIC 2012a).

Canada's Migration Policy

Canada's immigration policy has always been driven opportunistically as well as ideologically: on the one hand by the need to populate and develop a country of vast and challenging geographic scale; on the other, by the desire to reproduce European civilization (Sandercock et al. 2009). French-English dualism has complicated the relation between immigration, citizenship, and nationhood in Canada. Immigration has been related in complex ways to this dualism. Historically, dualism has not meant pluralism. Immigrants have been expected to assimilate to the French or the English speaking community. The large majority, even those settling in Quebec, have done the latter a fact that sparked French resentment of immigration as an instrument of English domination. On the other hand, dualism may have engendered in recent years a greater sensitivity to the cultural identity of immigrants. A few years after becoming bilingual on the federal level, Canada adopted an official policy in support of multiculturalism. It is not clear what this means in practice. But it may encourage Canada's increasingly diverse immigrants to naturalize quickly, without feeling that they must thereby abandon their cultural identity (Martiniello and Rath 2010: 227).

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In 2010, Canada is estimated to be hosting over 7 million immigrants, who comprise more than 20 % of its overall population. The most crowded immigrants in Canada are originally from China, India, Italy and the United Kingdom. For a country in Northern American region, it is unusual that countries of origin of these top ranked immigrants are not in the American continent (World Bank 2008). With 1.3 million of its citizens living abroad in 2005, Canada is also a country of emigration with around 4 % of the total population. The major countries of destination are The USA, the United Kingdom and Australia (World Bank 2008).

Legal Developments for the rights of Forced migrants

The new Immigration Act of 1967 instituted a "points system" that ranked potential immigrants according to age, education, labour skills, language skills, and financial resources. The underlying economic rationality of Canadian immigration policy is readily apparent from this points system and from the make-up of immigrant categories. There are essentially three categories of immigrant: economic immigrants, family class immigrants, and refugees. Today, the majority of newcomers enter as economic immigrants (58% in 2000), followed by family class immigrants (27%) and refugees (13%) (Sandercock et al. 2009).

The Immigration and Refugee Protection Act-2001

In 1997 Canada established the classes of "country of asylum" and "source country." The country of asylum class applies to those persons who are outside of their country or origin or residence. The source country class, through which the great majority of Colombians have arrived, applies to those who are still in their country of citizenship. The Canadian government determines the countries designated as a "source country" of refugees based on an evaluation of the situation in the country6. At the moment six countries are so designated: Colombia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, El Salvador, Guatemala, Sierra Leona and Sudan. The Immigration and Refugee Protection Act formalized the category of source country. Under the Canadian Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA), a person inside Canada can claim status as a convention refugee or status as a person who needs humanitarian protection. Convention refugees are persons who are outside of their country of nationality or residence and cannot or do not want to return to that country because they have a well founded fear of persecution. A protected person is one who would face possible torture, a risk to their life, or suffer cruel and inhuman punishment if they were returned to their country of nationality or residence (Alcala et al. 2008).

In Canada, the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act gives power the Federal Minister to arrange agreements with the provinces for implementation of immigration programmes and policies to improve the coordination. For instance, in 2007, the Toronto City Council negotiated a proposal with the federal governments and provincial, in which the three dimensions of government agreed to collaborate on programme, policy and research development concerned with settlement and immigration issues influencing the city. Through a comparative review of how Canadian cities respond to international migration, subsequent steps have been explained which include adopting and formulating formal settlement and immigration policies. There are establishing advisory bodies to advise elected officials; formulating and disseminating vision statements, particularly to attract public support; developing strategic plans; and creating administrative structures. (IOM 2010:95).

Canadian residents are, by law, equal (independent of whether or not they are citizens). The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms protects and guarantees the right of all Canadian residents to freedom of conscience, thought, assembly, association, and particularly mobility such as entering, staying and leaving Canada, and establishing residence in any of its provinces. It also establishes equal status, rights and privileges for each of the two official languages, English and French (Justice Laws 2012).

Multiculturalism is a cultural policy of the state which erects the socio-cultural diversity of Canadian civil society as one of its primary emblems and seeks to promote equality of rights, respect for fundamental liberties, and the social and political participation of individuals from across the diverse histories and cultures that make up Canadian society (Justice Laws 2012). The Charter of Rights and Freedoms states that the charter should be interpreted and applied in such a way as to preserve and realize Canadians' multicultural heritage (Alcala et al. 2008).

Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC)

CIC deals with immigration, refugees, asylum, integration and citizenship policies. Its sovereignty contains the admission of visitors and immigrants to the country; protecting, resettling and providing a safe housing to refugees; and supporting newcomers to integrate and to adapt in Canadian society. The role of CIC is not only limited to policymaking, but also it deals with implementation at each level of the immigration services. However, the border management issues are the only area related to migration that is out of CIC's responsibility. Border management is mandated by the Canadian Border Security Agency (CBSA). (IOM 2010: 89).

Canada received almost 24 700 refugees in 2010, half through government resettlement programmes and private sponsors. These included 4.000 Iraqi and 1.400 Bhutanese refugees. The remaining refugees were successful asylum seekers, mainly from Colombia, Haiti, and Sri Lanka (OECD 2012).

The Live-In Care-giver Programme (LCP)

There are several labour oriented unique migration programs implemented by Canadian governments. One of the most comprehensive of these programs is the LCP which started in 1992 by replacing the Foreign Domestic Worker Programme. It is a variation of the economic class programme to enable the workers to find a work in Canada even if they are not able to meet the qualifications of refugee status, family sponsorship or the immigration points system. The major reason of this programme was to provide care givers to people who are in need of care at their homes. The number of care givers in Canadian population was not sufficient and it is expected to become more necessary while the population was ageing (IOM 2010). To work as a live-in care giver and to be selected by CIC, there are several requirements identified by CIC including (CIC 2012b):

The employer should provide letter for job confirmation from Human Resources and Skills Development Canada (HRSDC) which outlining an opinion about the labour necessities in market situation for a live-in care giver;

The employer should sign a contract with the employee;

An equivalent degree of secondary school education with Canadian system;

At least one year of work experience with full time paid from same employer or at least six months of formal and recognized full time training in a field concerned with the job, within the three years preceding the application;

Good knowledge of Canada's two official languages French or English;

Before entering Canada, migrant should have a work permit.

Although these types of labour oriented migration is not established for facilitating residency for migrant care givers, in some situations it can be resulted with permanent residency. The working conditions for LCP providers have recently facilitated with transition opportunity to permanent residence and also enable protections for these care givers from potential abuses and discriminations. The evolved form of LCP programme holds a clear potential to better address the needs of clients and migrants (Sandercock et al. 2009).

Forced Migrants in the Canadian Community

Once refugees arrive in Canada, immigrant service agencies are responsible for providing welcome, information and settlement services to GARs. Refugees under this program receive economic support from the federal government during their first year in Canada, and in special needs cases for up to 24 months. The program functions under the responsibility of the federal government, and its services include reception at the airport, temporary housing and orientation on life in Canada, in the native language of the refugee. These services are to be provided during the first six weeks of the refugees' arrival in Canada, and at the end of that time it is expected that he or she will have a social insurance number, assistance for finding permanent housing, a health insurance card, be registered for the child tax benefit, have a bank account and have received a general health check-up at a local community clinic. Refugees are also eligible for English classes (CIC 2012a).

Welcoming and Settlement Programs

The Canadian immigration policy goal of "successful integration" of immigrants is primarily channelled into the funding of welcoming and language learning programs, which operate with variations across the provinces. In each of these areas the Ministry in charge of immigration issues in each province contracts with service agencies to carry out the programs according to pre-established policies and procedures. Under these programs, immigrant and refugee service agencies receive funds for the provision of orientation services, information, and referrals to other services. These programs offer orientation on a variety of aspects of life in Canada (housing, citizenship, education, employment, health, transportation, etc.), and seek to familiarize new immigrants with how the Canadian system functions and existing community resources, as well as aiding them to connect with resources, programs and institutions that can assist their "integration and adjustment" process, as well as knowledge of existing laws and resources (Alcala et al. 2008).

In 2010, Canada has upgraded its integration programme funding to a "Modernized Approach", uniting separate programmes for settlement programming. Newcomer services are covered by a single funding agreement, simplifying the administrative process for immigrant-serving organisations, and allowing them to tailor their offerings to suit newcomers' needs. Since introduction, the use of settlement services by newcomers has increased by 8% (OECD 2012).

Employment

The concept of "employment success" as it relates to recent immigrants is measured by four dependent variables: (1) whether or not immigrants have received a job match with their intended occupations at any point since arriving in Canada; (2) the rate at which an immigrant obtains employment in his or her intended occupation; (3) immigrants' incomes since immigrating to Canada; and (4) immigrants' occupational prestige scores since immigrating to Canada (Alcala et al. 2008).

Canada is becoming an important source of remittances although there is not a significant data available on remittances from Canada, a research by Statistics Canada (2010) exhibited that nearly 30 % of new arrivals remitted an average of USD 1,350 per year. There are specifically designated categories of economic immigrants to fill lower-level service positions, the best known of which offers entry to caregivers or domestic workers under the Live-in Caregiver Program (LCP). These workers often work for wages below the statutory minimum in exchange for the opportunity of gaining permanent resident status (leading to citizenship) after 24 months employment (Sandercock et al. 2009). Immigrants arriving in Canada often come with professional credentials and training, skill sets relevant to Canada's labour market, and a willingness to work in occupational sectors for which Canada is seeking workers.

Language

The Canadian government has considered the learning one of the two official languages as a central strategy in the immigrant integration policy. That is to say, it is seen as a mechanism for facilitating the "successful integration" of the immigrant not just because he or she learns to speak one of the official languages, but because during that learning, citizenship values are promoted and immigrants are familiarized with Canada's social, geographical and cultural aspects. Therefore since the 90s English and French classes have emphasized language learning for integration (Alcala et al. 2008).

Free language learning programs are developed with federal and provincial funds and in cooperation with Community Colleges, School Boards, and immigrant service organizations, and in Quebec also with universities. The programs are aimed at new adult immigrants and include convention refugees, but do not cover refugee claimants. In most provinces this program is known as Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada (LINC), which includes both English and French instruction (CIC 2010).

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