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Saudi Arabia Culture Essay Introductions

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The arab culture in negotiations - Free International Relations and Politics Essay - Essay UK

Free International Relations and Politics essays The Arab culture in Negotiations

Within the scope of this research, we will elaborate on Arab culture in the negotiations. We will also discuss the similarities and differences between the Arab culture and western culture in the negotiation. Since the term 'Arab culture' is a rather general one, and even in different countries that are associated with Arab culture negotiations styles may vary (not conceptually, but in some minor details, for instance), it would be more useful to base this analysis on a specific country that would encompass characteristics of most other Arabic countries. For the purposes of this analysis, Saudi Arabia was selected as the country that would generalize the notion of 'Arab culture' and encompass the rest of Arabic countries.

The rapid economic development of Arabic countries at large and Saudi Arabia in particular means substantial business opportunities for foreign business executives. The government is by far the most dominant market in Saudi Arabia. It seems especially interested in acquiring operations and maintenance services, laborsaving equipment, agricultural machinery, irrigation systems, arid land-use technology, computer technology, electric and my electric machinery, pollution control devices, control systems, and other specialized in ancillary services. One will need to negotiate with everyone government agency because Saudi Arabia does not have a centralized office responsible to tenders and contracts.

The decision-making process is centralized in Saudi Arabia and confined to very specific levels. (Casse 1995) Control rests with members of the House of Saud, senior government officials, and the commercial elite. Older decision makers are largely influenced by highly personal factors, such as trust and their impressions of you. They do not have as. Much education and technical knowledge as the younger members of the elite, although the Saudi government bureaucracy is getting bigger, only a few key officials are significant in terms of decision-making. Ministers and lesser technocrats are vitally important to the king and his advisers.

Their positions in power depend a lot not only on how they perform their duties, but also and perhaps more importantly on the goodwill and positive relations, they are able to maintain with members of the ruling family. (Binnendijk 1997) Social cliques exist in the more traditional offices were former schoolmates, relatives, and friends get together for playing cards and socializing. Members of these cliques also create power blocs in the decision-making process and tend to influence each other's votes over an issue.

In order to start the negotiations process efficiently, one must enlist the support of one's agent to identify who holds the decision-making power in matters that concern one's business. One of the difficulties of doing business in Saudi Arabia is finding the precise people who make these decisions. Although there is a growing number of technocrats who occupy management positions in both the government and private sector, one will have to make sure that their actual authority corresponds with their title or function in the company. It may or may not. (Fisher 2002)

Saudi Arabians indicate that a firm agreement has been reached with a handshake or oral commitment. As a rule, they do not like lengthy and tedious contracts, which they feel only, imply mistrust. This does not mean, though, that they will not be very careful in drafting a tight contract with detailed, specific terms. The legal consultants of both sides usually draft The actual contract. Once the contract is signed and business activities begin, the foreign party must register with the Ministry of Commerce. (Schoonmaker 1999)

One should exercise great care in drafting contracts and in complying with tender specifications - this will help avoiding future disputes. Observers note that foreign parties are usually at a disadvantage when involved in disputes with Saudi businesses and especially so with the government. (Schoonmaker 1999) It is best to avoid getting into this no-win situation with the government. In cases where no resolution of the dispute is in sight, the local Sharia adjudication takes over.

When negotiating with Arabs, one need to be sure to include top-level executives on one is negotiating team. They should have enough decision-making authority to sign deals with top negotiators in both the private and government sectors. Experts advise against including females on the negotiating team. This will complicate matters, they state. (Fisher 2002) Saudis consider females subordinate to males, and they will probably have a difficult time dealing with a social mores that gave women equal status to men. Prepare to negotiate team and materials very well before the presentation is made. This is usually scheduled after the Saudi negotiator has read the proposal.

Make sure that all written materials and documents are translated into both Arabic and English. As much as possible, try to bring tangible prototypes or models representing the product or service that is being sold. Use vivid visuals with a lot of animation. (Fisher 2002) This can be done today with computer graphics, software, and the latest audio-visual equipment. The Saudis respond better to tangible visual materials rather than to abstract words. One of the things the negotiating team will have to get used to be the constant traffic of. People that pass through offices in Saudi Arabia. One may want to divide the presentation into several brief modules, not only to accommodate these interruptions, but also to give the audience a chance to clarify concepts and meanings while going along.

It is important to be aware of Saudi Arabian sensitivities. Generally, the Saudis are not confrontational. Because of this, they will not be open and honest about their problems and complaints. The ways they say "no" are indirect - they will delay matters or avoid being accessible. Their society is largely shame oriented, and so they suffer more from being found out rather than from actually violating a social norm. (Schoonmaker 1999) Therefore, they place a premium on putting on appearances and preserving their favorable social image.

They dislike arrogant and harried behavior on the part of their business visitors or partners. This kind of behavior suggests that visitors consider themselves superior and the Saudis not important enough to spend time with. Initial conversations with Saudis are usually spent talking about personal matters, something that really differs from Arabic negotiation style from a western one. They value spending a lot of time getting socially and personally acquainted with their potential business colleagues. (Fisher 2002)

One important thing foreigners have to learn is the way Saudis use social space. Watch their social behavior in their offices. They observe the same social mores that they use in their Majlis system of tribal meetings. (Binnendijk 1997) In the early days, subjects had access to their leaders through the Majlis system - the leader had an open-door policy, and anyone who had a problem could approach him personally and meet with him in his tent. This pattern is still used in modern offices. Saudis value their family members, relatives, friends, and countrymen so highly that they are willing to interrupt any business meeting, no Matter how important, if these constituents should drop by for any reason. Foreigners should expect to see constant traffic in the Saudis' offices, particularly unexpected drop-ins. Sometimes, you will be exposed to another approach called the diwaniyah, where the business is conducted in one of the rooms of the Saudi's house. (Fisher 2002)

Saudis think what can be accomplished in a unit of time depends not so much on a person's effort as it does on God's will. The expression, "God willing," is the Saudi's daily affirmation of this belief. (Fisher 2002) Saudis, therefore, do the best they can in a situation and accept delays and interruptions as signs that God's approval had not been earned. Westerners will certainly find their orientation toward time difficult to adjust to because it is diametrically opposed to their own sense of mastery over nature and life itself.

One should be aware of the unique social sensitivities one will find in Saudi Arabia. Do not put the other side on the spot by pushing for answers, clarifications, and decisions when they are not ready. Show deference and respect, and respond positively to their need to preserve a good social image. One way of doing this is to avoid using dirty tricks when you negotiate. Another way is to allow lots of time for the other side - the agent, Saudi counterpart, or other business contacts - to accomplish what they have to regarding business requirements. (Schoonmaker 1999) To Saudis, time is a highly malleable frame of reference within which they operate. They do not want to be rushed.

During the meetings, an interpreter should be sued. Remember that Saudis appreciate being informed ahead of time about the agenda they will be discussing. Before the meeting, make sure that all documents are translated into Arabic and English. When one is dealing with Saudis, who come to a one's country, there is more leeway. One does not have to observe.
Their social rules. Make sure to follow them when in Saudi Arabia, though - for example, never hand the other side documents with the one's left hand; never expose the soles of one's shoes when sitting cross-legged; and so forth. (Fisher 2002)

Saudi Arabians value doing business through people they know and respect. Their culture revolves around family ties and extended family connections. Success in business depends a lot on the connections they make within their own family and institutional networks. With the country's rapid modernization, these traditional values are slowly but surely being replaced by more modern values, such as power based on possession of knowledge or technical information. Traces of traditional values will be a strong underlying current for a long time to come, though.

It is important to make sure that one's agent has significant connections with important social institutions such as the House of Saud, top government levels, the banking system, and big business. (Schoonmaker 1999) Expect agents to spend a considerable amount of time socializing with their contacts to solidify relationships on one's company's behalf. Once they have introduced the negotiations' team to their contacts, the initiative should be taken.

To illustrate the power of having good connections, examine the case of Saudi Pritchard, an Anglo-American company that had business relationships with Prince Abdul-Rahman bin Abdullah. The prince took a fifty percent stake in the company. The company had a difficult time dealing with British banks, which were not keen on backing up performance bonds required by the Saudi government. With the support of the prince's connections that have provided substantial guarantees, Pritchard managed to get the Saudis to cut the bond to ten percent of the value of each year's work, reducing the liability to two percent of the total contract versus the five to ten percent usually required. (Casse 1995)

Saudis appreciate the value of investing in friendships to facilitate their business transactions. This attitude goes all the way back to their nomadic days when tribes had to cultivate as wide a circle of friendships as possible, particularly among the nobler tribes. The latter owned and controlled access to waterholes and wells, which were indispensable to the survival of both the nomads and their animals during periods of drought.

One should invest a lot of time and effort in cultivating and maintaining friendships in all-important sectors - the government, banking system, the marketplace, private businesses, and so forth. (Fisher 2002) It takes time to clinch major deals. One wins the trust of Saudis only after a long period of cultivation, even when one has the right contacts. This investment pays off, particularly for subsequent business deals whose gestation times need not be as long. In the construction business, the government prefers to give jobs to Saudi Arabian contractors as long as they can deliver within ten percent of the quality specifications. The Council of Ministers prohibits foreign contractors from using imported materials, tools, and equipment that local sources are able to supply. Foreign contractors are required to subcontract part of the project to local firms. (Binnendijk 1997)

When it comes to government contract projects, the Saudis are tough negotiators. The government prefers to fix the price of the contract even for projects that will take years to complete. Government negotiators, who are experienced project managers and estimators, make sure that the contract is tightly written with very exact specifications and that the margin for inflation allows for about three to five percentage points below the actual inflation rate. The Saudi government requires that the foreign firm offer both bid bonds (one to two percent of price) and performance bonds (up to five percent of the contract value). Both bonds will have to be submitted in the form of certified checks drawn on Saudi Arabian banks or in the form of a guarantee backed by syndications of several foreign banks, and these must be payable on demand. (Schoonmaker 1999) In addition, the Saudis require guarantees on the performance of all components of a project for at least ten years.

One important issue in bargaining with the Saudis is price. Although the Saudis do not like it when one uses hard bargaining tactics on them, they take a hard bargaining stance when haggling with over prices. Of course, just like many other negotiators, they try to get as many bids and quotes as possible from firms in different countries to enhance their bargaining position. They negotiate from a position of mistrust if you do not already have a long-term relationship with them, and they often maintain that western international firms charge exorbitant prices.

Their frequent experience is that prices tend to be much lower from international firms based in the developing or Asian countries for a project of comparable quality and workmanship. It is on that basis that they often feel they are being taken advantage of by western companies. In one case, for instance, in 1977, blue-chip international companies submitted their bids for $700 million worth of electrification schemes. The contract involved supplying switchgear, transformers, electric power lines, and diesel-powered generator sets, with extensive engineering work required in Jizan, Al Kharj, Baha, and Asir. The Industry Minister accused these companies of price rigging. He charged that eight of these companies. We were in collusion in setting their prices. The accused companies were blacklisted and barred from submitting tenders in the future. (Schoonmaker 1999)

The Saudi government likes to use the turnkey approach in huge construction projects. This means the foreign contractor has to turn over the entire physical plant, workforce, and management team to the government when the project is completed. The foreign contractor bears total responsibility for the project. The Saudis respond favorably to the "power of powerlessness" tactic and often extend their kind consideration to foreign negotiators who are in greater need of winning a contract. (Reardon 1994) If a one's competitive position allows doing so, one will want to build in the cost of agent's commission, performance and bid bonds, and penalty guarantee in the price quoted. One can greatly enhance the one's bargaining position if one demonstrates a serious intention of following up on commitments. Saudis respond to close and constant personal follow up - not to mere correspondence or long-distance phone calls.

Another significant way one can enhance the company's leverage is to offer specialized and technical training to the local people along with the project and technology one is selling. Technical training and education are one of the government's top development priorities. (Binn?ndijk 1997) If the one's proposal involves technology transfer, one should be careful about the information released to the Saudis. The government is still working on patent and licensing legislation. Therefore, if one introduces sensitive technology, one should be aware that the risk of patent infringement is a real threat. (Binnendijk 1997) One should try to build in explicit provisions in the contract regarding the use and protection of patent rights that are involved in the project.

Bibliography
  1. Adler Nancy J. and John L. Graham. (1999). "Cross Cultural Interaction: The International Comparison Fallacy." The Journal of International Business Studies. 20 (3) (fall): 515-537.
  2. Binnendijk Hans, ed. (1997). National Negotiating Styles. Washington, D.C. Center for the Study of Foreign Affairs, Foreign Service Institute, U.S. Dept. of State.
  3. Casse Pierre, and Surinden Deal. (1995). Managing Intercultural Negotiations. Washington, D.C. Sietar International.
  4. Fisher Glen. (2002). International Negotiations: A Cross � Cultural Perspective. Chicago: Intercultural Press, Inc.
  5. Herbing Paul A. and Hugh E. Kramer. (1991). "Cross � Cultural Negotiations: Success through Understanding." Management Decisions. 29/1: 19-31.
  6. McCall J. B. and M. B. Warrington. (1997). marketing by Agreement: A Cross Cultural Approach to Business Negotiations, second edition. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
  7. Reardon Kathleen Kelley and Robert E. Sparkman. (1994). "Starting Out Right: Negotiation Lessons for Domestic and Cross � Cultural Business Alliances." Business Horizons. (January-February): 71-79.
  8. Salacuse Jeswald W. (2004). Making Global Deals: Negotiating in the International Marketplace. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
  9. Schoonmaker Alan. (1999). Negotiate to Win. Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Prentice Hall.
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The Impact of Globalization on Young People in Saudi Arabia - Globalization is the increasing unification of regional economies, societies, and cultures through communication, transportation and trade. It is mainly driven by a combination of economic, technological, social-cultural, biological and political factors. It can also be referred to as the transitional circulation of ideas, languages, or popular cultures through acculturation. Researchers have argued that globalization started as early as the start of trade links between Sumer and the Indus valley civilization in the third millennium. [tags: Essays on International Trade]
. 3 Works Cited

1465 words
(4.2 pages)

The Clean Energy and the fossil fuels in Saudi Arabia - Over the past 200 years, mankind discovered the fossil fuels and they used this source to produce hug energy. This affects the environment in many negative ways and caused many issues worldwide such as urban air pollution and acid rain, oil spills and the high temperature of earth. Saudi Arabia has the biggest oil reserves in the world by 19.66% (the world factbook, 2011) and the second oil producer country in the world with roughly 10.121 million barrels a day – which account for 12% of the total world production of oil in 2010 (Fontinelle,2011). [tags: Environment, Oil]

1656 words
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Interactive Modeling Software & Oil in Saudi Arabia - Abstract Technology is a basic part in our daily life and facilitates many things to us. Searching for oil in Saudi Arabia cost the government millions of dollars each year and wastes a lot of time and effort, in this research paper I will determine the diversity of computerized searching systems, software, databases and services used in the companies, and how these technologies have made our life very easy. Interactive modeling software plays an important role in facilitating the process of searching for oil by saving money, effort and time. [tags: Technology]
. 15 Works Cited

2467 words
(7 pages)

The Development of IT Systems in Saudi Arabia's Public Sectors - Abstract One of the key priorities of governments internationally is to ensure that they will be able to develop the necessary mechanisms for the increase of their countries’ competitiveness in the international community. In this case, the increase of competitiveness is related with the increase of the power of the country to intervene in political issues of high importance; it is also related with the improvement of the country’s position in the global market. Information technology is commonly used as a tool of the achievement of the above targets (Xu et al. 2009, p.18); current study focuses on the potential role of information system as a tool for achieving competitive advantage; refer. [tags: Information Technology ]
. 15 Works Cited

719 words
(2.1 pages)

Economic Liablity System of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia - Risk is a fact of human life. And, contemporary living has more risk of a certain kind than living in the past. Take the case of economic activities particularly now in the international context. There are definitely more and greater risks now, especially in the securities or capital market, than when barter was still the medium of economic exchange in any country in the world. The current risks are not only occasioned by the hugeness of the business or organizational entities at play. the enormity of finances that are involved, and the complexity of the transactions that are concerned – among others. [tags: Economics]

541 words
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Health Care Services Provided in Saudi Arabia - Health services are provided in the Saudi Arabia via three parties, namely: the Ministry of Health (MOH), government sectors and the private sector. These health services are provided at three levels. The first level is the primary health care, second level comprises the general hospitals and the third level consists of the specialist hospitals. Ministry of Planning (MOP, 1985). The main function of the Saudi health sector is to build up and provide high quality health services in every district of the Saudi Arabia (MOP, 1985). [tags: Health Care]

1194 words
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Saudi Women - Abstract Saudi Arabia is one of the few countries that set specific laws regarding women only. A woman is considered to be a second class citizen who must depend on a male relative in all situations. Until recently, women did not have their own identification cards separate from those of their fathers' or husbands'. Women were also limited to certain levels of education such as elementary or secondary school levels. More than that, they were restricted to limited job opportunities. The laws also prohibit a woman from driving a car regardless of her age or whatever situation she may face. [tags: Saudi Arabia]
. 6 Works Cited

5810 words
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Saudi Arabia - In the heart of the Middle East is a country known by many Westerners for its oil production and, often, extremist beliefs of groups within the country. The country is Saudi Arabia, and though it is thought of by many as a rather backward country, Saudi Arabia has a rich history and culture, and it is a country that revolves around Islam and the worship of Allah as the one true God. For about fifteen hundred years, Saudi Arabia’s history has centered on one major theme: Islam. Muhammad, the founder of Islam, was born around 570 A.D. [tags: essays research papers fc]
. 1 Works Cited

925 words
(2.6 pages)

Saudi Arabia - Saudi Arabia Geography The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, occupying most of the Arabian Peninsula, is located in the southwestern corner of Asia. It covers an area about one-fourth the size of the United States. More than half of its total area is desert terrain. The capital of Saudi is Riyadh, which is located in the central region of the country. Language Saudi Arabia's official language is Arabic, although English is also spoken in the Kingdom, most commonly in the business community. Religion The official religion of Saudi is Islam. [tags: Papers]

618 words
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Saudi Arabia - Saudi Arabia Economic statistical indicators convey the fact Saudi Arabia is a developed nation. However, close analysis of political and social statistical indicators would suggest that their standard of living and individual freedoms are severely suppressed. This 'developed' nation has abnormalities in its statistical indicators which are similar to those that characterises third world nations. Saudi Arabia is oil rich and is a strictly Islamic State. Their Muslim religion and its strict adherence to their interpretation of their holy book the Quran actively dominates citizens position and role in their society. [tags: Papers]

2070 words
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Saudi Arabia: History of Relationship to US - Although the United Sates and Saudi Arabia present the United States and Saudi Arabia’s relationship as excellent, there are actually two nations who have bitter disagreements but who allies through oil. The only thing that has held this alliance together is the US dependence on Saudi oil. The United States has felt and still fells that it is a necessity to have bases present in the Middle East to protect oil, and silently to protect Israel. The relationship began in 1933 when Standard Oil of California signed an agreement with the Saudi government. [tags: essays research papers fc]
. 1 Works Cited

886 words
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The American Problem: A Look at The Dangers of Fast Food in Saudi Arabia - In the 1940's the United States brought on wave of globalization that ravaged Western Europe. Fast forward to 1979, and the United States are taking advantage of the fear drummed up by the Iranian Revolution in order to secure its influence in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia since then has seen a rise in chronic illness that can be directly tied back to the presence of the United States in this area. After 1979 there was a significant spike in diabetes in Saudi Arabia; it can be argued that increased American influence within the Kingdom is directly responsible for this rise in diabetes. [tags: globalization, shia population, obesity]
. 8 Works Cited

1484 words
(4.2 pages)

How to Thrive as a Diplomat: The United States Relations with Saudi Arabia - Research Question Is the exchange of US weapon-based AID to Saudi Arabia valuable to both countries. Introduction to relations between the US and KSA The United States and Saudi Arabia have engaged in relations since 1933 despite the countries having completely different views in the government rulings. The United States are a democracy and believe in separation of the church and state awhile the Kingdom is an absolute Islamic ruled monarch. Relations between the two countries began when a group of American explorers in Saudi Arabia discovered oil. [tags: islam, democracy, church, state]
. 12 Works Cited

1144 words
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Analyzing Mansa Musa's Pilgrimage - Mecca, a city of Saudi Arabia is a sacred place where the Muslims annual holy gathering called the Hajj takes place. It is believed that a Muslim is supposed to take a visit at this holy place at least once in his or her lifetime. Being a Muslim Mansa Musa an empire of the medieval kingdom of Mali also made such an important visit to Mecca during his reign. On his pilgrimage it is said that he carried a lot of gold with him, and he spent it lavishly. Though, the gold was spent in such a way, the result of his pilgrimage was of great significance to his kingdom. [tags: saudi arabia, mecca, muslim]
. 2 Works Cited

945 words
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How Oil and Water Forged Modern Saudi Arabia by Toby Craig Jones - The Middle East has been a central topic of discussion over the past decade, majority of which have been under a negative light. In particular, Saudi Arabia has come into the spotlight due to the recent increase of gas and oil prices. Typically the country has been observed through the lense of Islam and its economics of oil. Aside from these basic components that directly relate to the political affairs of the country internally and internationally, other aspects that also contribute are usually overlooked. [tags: dessert kindom, environmental power]
. 3 Works Cited

1878 words
(5.4 pages)

The Functions of the Securities Firms and Investment Banks in Saudi Arabia and the United States - Introduction: In line with the globalisation of the financial market worldwide, in this project paper the issue of the functions of the securities firms and investment banks in Saudi Arabia and the functions of the securities firms and investment banks in United States of America will be discussed in detail. Definition of investment bank: Investment bank can be referred to as an organization or institution founded and united for the purposes that specifically involves fiscal matters. They also act as an assistant in a subordinate or supportive function for large company or group of businesses, recognized in law and acting as single entity, and the organization that is the governing authorit. [tags: Finance]

1536 words
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History and Development of Policies on Gender Issues in Iran and Saudi Arabia - “Gender, refers not to a fixed biological notion of sex, but rather to the “appropriate” social and cultural roles that society values as normal or desirable.” Thus, gender issues can be defined as those issues that evolve in response to such roles. The Middle East often attracts scrutiny in the international arena for its responses to these gender issues, and the contradictory nature of their gender policies. However, it is important to note that many factors can shape these gender norms, and these “… are the result of long historical processes influenced by the state, religion, culture, law, morality, sexuality, ideology, and economic forces as well as contemporary changes and challenge. [tags: Masculine State, Islamic Law]
. 13 Works Cited

2448 words
(7 pages)

Self management approach at King Fahd University Hospital in Saudi Arabia - Self management approach at King Fahd University Hospital in Saudi Arabia There are many diseases in the world that affect patient’s life. WOH has mentioned that chronic conditions might lead to disability in the future which leads to spend a lot of money to treat patients (WHO, 2005). The prevalence of chronic diseases like cardiovascular diseases, obesity, overweight and diabetes has become a great cause of concern for the Saudi Arabian government. In addition, the number of patients with chronic diseases is increasing. [tags: Health, Chronic Diseases]

1273 words
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Exploring the Causes of the Prevalence of Sickle Cell Anemia in Saudi Arabia - Sickle cell anemia is the most hereditary and spread blood diseases in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. According to Saudi Health Ministry's statistics, there are 4248 infected children and 54516 genetic carrier of hereditary blood diseases born each year. Treatment of these massive numbers of infected patients cost the state treasury more than 300 million riyal per annum. In the present paper the causes of the prevalence of sickle cell anemia is investigated. It is hypothesized that Endogamy and other social factors of this country plays important role in these massive numbers of infected and genetic carrier people. [tags: Health ]
. 5 Works Cited

1231 words
(3.5 pages)

Critical Success Factors for Small Business Enterprises in Saudi Arabia - The overall objective of this research is to study which the critical success factors that are necessary for achieving success for a small business in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Small Business Enterprise or Small-Medium Enterprise (SME), in today's business environment, faces a lot of daily major challenges. Balancing the SME’s effort to address these challenges can be an intimidating task, unless a systematic approach is identified and followed. Recently, SMEs started moving towards the utilization of business success which enables SMEs to learn how to continuously improve the utilization of resources to achieve better productivity and performance. [tags: Business Management ]
. 37 Works Cited

852 words
(2.4 pages)

My Struggle with Obesity: My Move From Saudi Arabia to California - My goal is probably not one that most people would set for themselves. Most people set their goals in terms of their education, career, and family. My goal is to lead a healthier life style because I got tired living with obesity and being unhealthy. At the age of eleven, my doctor officially diagnosed me as an obese child. Being overweight did not affect me personally while I was growing up in my country of Saudi Arabia. People in my country are not as concerned with looks are as Californians. [tags: Personal Narrative, Health, Self Esteem]

1650 words
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Afghanistan’s Mujahideen Insurgency Between 1979 and 1989 - Afghanistan insurgency between 1979 and 1989 ended with the pull out of the Soviet Union’s armed forces. This “successful” rebellion was not merely because the Soviet Union saw Taliban as a simple Islamist movement and underestimate their resistant but It was also believe that the special characteristics that is owned by the Taliban insurgents such as motovation and strategy that had been used also play important role. This article will assesses the special characteristics that identify Taliban as an isurgent group, especially on the purpose and motivation of their fight, the popular support and the strategies and tactics that had been used by them to pushed Soviet Union from Afghan count. [tags: saudi arabia,soviet union,tailaban]
. 11 Works Cited

1247 words
(3.6 pages)

The Oil States - Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Kuwait - The Oil States - Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Kuwait Crude oil is a staple in modern society. Crude oil is an extremely efficient energy source giving out about 100x the energy it takes to garner it. Hence, for the century, man has been extremely dependant on petroleum using it primarily to fuel means of transportation. As a result, wars and various conflicts have been waged over control of oil fields in the Middle East. The United States, being the largest consumer of oil in the world is tightly tied to the economics of the Middle East. [tags: Energy Oil Renewable Dependency]

1120 words
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The United Arab Emirates - The United Arab Emirates is an interesting country, being located on the southeastern end of the Arabian Peninsula the Gulf nation is neighbors to Saudi Arabia to the south and the Oman to the east along with other nations sharing water boarders as well. The modern history of the nation is very intriguing, filled with many political forces and cultural trends. However, like many other Arab countries, UAE has also been filled with many issues throughout its nations that mirror and connect it even further to its Arabian brethren. [tags: saudi arabia, ridda wars, muhammad]
. 13 Works Cited

1358 words
(3.9 pages)

International Crime Witness - Saudi Arabia is a monarchy with no discernable constitution, political parties, or elected officials. Saudi Arabia is home to approximately 27 million people (U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, 2014). Males, ages 24 to 54, comprise the largest group within this population. Thier chief language is Arabic and their religion is predominantly Muslim; although, individuals with other religious beliefs do inhabit the region. Those individuals considered non-Muslim face discrimination and persecution and are not permitted to maintain independent places of worship (McGuigan, 2014). [tags: saudi arabia, islamic laws, justice]
. 6 Works Cited

1317 words
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Osama bin Laden - Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden was born in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in 1957 and he was surrounded by 49 brothers and sisters. His family was really rich because of his father who was a billionaire, and owned one of the biggest construction companies of the kingdom. Bin Laden attended a high leveled school during his childhood, which combined British style secular education with Islamic worship. During his college years, he went to King Abd Al University to study four different courses: civil engineering, public administration, business and economics. [tags: saudi arabia, Al-Qaeda, leader]
. 4 Works Cited

1684 words
(4.8 pages)

Assessment the extent to which solar energy is a viable alternative energy for oil in Saudi Arabia - The diversification in terms of sustainable energy and the utilization renewable energy options in various practical uses have become one of the most significant factors as a substitutable source for oil and gas. In addition, it could be a viable solution for environmental problems. Omubo-Pepple et al. (2009) believe that the effective solution for environmental degradation, resulted from the use of fossil fuels which caused some dangerous problems such as acid rain, green house effect and ozone layer depletion, is to increase in renewable energy options uses. [tags: Energy]
. 6 Works Cited

1308 words
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The Associations Between Psychological Distress and Body Mass Index Among Young Adults - 9. Background: Young adults all over the world face a great deal of difficulties in their daily life. This age group contain high school student, college students, and post graduates. Being a student is not as comfortable as many people might imagine. The kind of stress they have is unique because it is prolonged and whenever finish, starts again. Doing assignments, studying for midterms, deciding their specialties, looking for jobs, and initiating their life careers are examples of the stressors they might face. [tags: obesity, BMI system, Saudi Arabia, stress]
. 6 Works Cited

1217 words
(3.5 pages)

Proposal in Criminal Protection of the Electronic Contracts in Saudi Arabia System A comparative Analytic Study - Proposal in Criminal protection of the electronic contracts in Saudi Arabia System A comparative analytic study Presented by Introduction The use of modern technology in the Internet enable rapid information exchange among people, which never experienced by human before. This notion encouraged many individuals prefer to end their trade contracts and legal actions through online network trade. Although, electronic commerce mainly depend on the computer system and the use of this technique showed many problems in the scientific and legal levels of network transactions. [tags: Cyber Crime]
. 5 Works Cited

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Saudi Arabia Falls Short in Implementing Women's Rights in Relation to International Human Rights Law - “Acquisition of knowledge is obligatory for every Muslim, male and female.” What this suggests, then, is that this is one area, at the very least, where international human rights standards are not in conflict with the social norms of this particular society. Saudi Arabia’s education system currently contains twenty-four public and eight private universities. In total, there are 25,000 schools and numerous colleges and other institutions. The education system is available to all citizens, and it offers students free education, books, and health services. [tags: Gender Equality, Sexism, Islamic Women]
. 7 Works Cited

1899 words
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Border Disputes: Adams-Onis and Jeddah Treaties - Border disputes have been extremely common over the past one thousand years. One dispute in particular was in 1819, called the Adams-Onís Treaty, and was between the United States (US) and the Spanish country borders. One other border dispute, happened recently in 2000, called The Treaty of Jeddah, 2000. Despite the two hundred year gap between these treaties, they have similarities within them. This is just a taste of the border disputes that have happened in the past. The Adams-Onís Treaty was signed in February 1819 by John Quincy Adams and Don Luis de Onís, hence the name, Adams-Onís Treaty. [tags: United States, Spain, Yemen, Saudi Arabia]

591 words
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OPEC members - OPEC is an oil producer’s association founded in 1960 by Islamic Republic of Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela and curently consisting of 14 members, including the organisators and Qatar, Libya, the UAE, Algeria, Nigeria, Ecuador and Angola(OPEC Statute, 2012). According to the OPEC Statute, the main objective of the organisation is «the coordination and unification of the petroleum policies of Member Countries and the determination of the best means for safeguarding their interests, individually and collectively»(p1, 2012). [tags: iraq, kuwait, saudi arabia, venezuela]
. 17 Works Cited

1953 words
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Demolishing the Saudi Arabian Society - Jon Weinberg stated, in an article titled “Sword of Justice. Beheadings arise in Saudi Arabia”, that in 2007, the official number of executions in Saudi Arabia was 151. Saudi Arabia is located in the Middle East. It is in between the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea. Its northern borders are Jordan, Kuwait, and Iraq, with Yemen to its south, and Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates to its east. Saudi Arabia is a complete monarchy meaning the king rules over everything. The current leader of Saudi Arabia is King Abdullah ibn Abdul Aziz Al Saud. [tags: Capital Punishment, Gender Inequality]
. 12 Works Cited

1287 words
(3.7 pages)

Islamic Economy in Saudi Arabian Companies - 1. Saudi Companies Fund A. The institution of SAMA could not be a profit-making institution, it had to conform to Islamic law. SAMA has from time to time financed one-half of government debt. From 1962 to 1983, the governments earning grew in surplus, and all the debt was repaid. Whenever the government needed SAMA bolstered government reserves. B. In 1966 a major banking control law clarified and strengthened SAMA's role in regulating the banking system. Foreign banks submitted application for license. [tags: Economics ]

667 words
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Islamic Economy in Saudi Arabian Companies - Thesis & Rationale The Public Investment Fund (PIF) was established by Royal Decree dated 25-6-1391H. The motive behind the establishment of the Fund to provide funding for some capital projects that are of a commercial nature which are of great importance in the development of national economy and the private sector, which lacks the capacity to undertake alone, either because of lack of experience or inadequate capital, or both. Launched the Saudi Investment Bank offers six investment funds is different: Murabaha Fund in U.S. [tags: Economics]

1302 words
(3.7 pages)

Saudi Aramco Argument Essay - Introduction Saudi Aramco is the largest producer of crude oil in the world. They account for the majority of the world’s crude oil and natural gas exports. The company is great. They treat their employees well and they look out for the environment. The company’s home office is located in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia and employees millions of people. The company is valued at ten trillion dollars and that amount climbs daily. The company has the world’s largest crude oil reserve that has an estimated two hundred and sixty billion barrels. [tags: economics, crude oil industry]
. 5 Works Cited

1122 words
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Saudi Aramco - Saudi Aramco The largest world supplier oil company is Saudi Aramco. It is the most profitable company on the earth. Since it is the most powerful oil company, it has a great impact on the world economy. As a result, a strong international relationship was built with the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In addition, the strong developing of international relationship with other industrial countries resulted in massive contributions to the politics, economy, and many different aspects. In 1933, Saudi government bestowed oil concession to California Arabian Standard Oil Company (Chevron). [tags: Oil]

1098 words
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Saudi Arabian Polygamists: A Canadian Social Issue - A social issue came to the attention of the Canadian government in October of 2012; some Saudi Arabians, who are practising polygamists, are withholding this crucial personal information from the Canadian government when seeking citizenship. The article “Canadian diplomats in Saudi Arabia worry about polygamist immigration applicants” (2012) focuses on the concern that Saudi Arabian polygamist are seeking Canadian citizenship. Saudi Arabian polygamists interpret their holy text, the Qur’an, as encouraging multiple marriages. [tags: canada immigration, polygamy, multiple marriages]
. 8 Works Cited

1757 words
(5 pages)

Saudi English Leaners - Although the history of English teachings in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia extends to nearly eighty years, where it was initially in 1348 - 1927, and it has gone through many developmental stages and key stations, spread of 1346 - 1944 to the present time. Saudi Arabia mobilized their abilities to support teaching English. Students from middle school to high school are exposed to the English language up to more than 800 teaching hours. In spite of all of that, the final outcome confirms that in the end of education year, the ability of the Saudi students in the English language is at its lowest levels; students are unable to make a brief conversation in English, and have no ability to understa. [tags: Language ]

2084 words
(6 pages)

How They Got Here: The History of Saudi Women - The Middle East is often viewed homogeneously as a wasteland for women’s rights, and although some regions are making strides towards equality, others seem to be left in the Dark Ages. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, founded in 1932, is often noted as one of the most oppressive countries in this region in the name of women’s equality. It can be seen, however, that the ideology of this region has predated the founding of the country and even the birth of Islam. The cultural norms of the Arabian Peninsula, Islamic faith affirming these standards, and the legislative support of these values have led to the degradation of Saudi women’s rights. [tags: dark ages, islam, arabian peninsula]
. 15 Works Cited

1536 words
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A Study of Pregnant Saudi Women With Gestational Diabetes - First: The study was carried out from April to November 2009 at Prince Salman hospital and four Primary Health Care Centers at west region in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on Saudi pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) between 12th & 14th week’s gestation and normal non-pregnant healthy women. It has been ethically approved in 23rd of March 2009 from the scientific and ethics committees at Prince Salman hospital. The research team was able to recruit 291 pregnant women; only 91 (31.3%) pregnant women agreed to participate in the study and 31 (10.7%) refused to participate, while 169 (58.0%) couldn’t participate either because they were using multivitamins. [tags: Womens' Health]

1810 words
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Adapting Western Brand Identity Design Principles by Saudi Graphic Designers - Branding a new company has recently become a necessary goal that every business wishes to accomplish for itself. New companies have a tough act to follow, considering the number of successful branding accomplishments: Apple, Coca Cola, Nike, and Starbucks — just a few of the examples of very successful business that have swept the market. Who doesn’t think of Apple, Coca Cola, or Starbucks, without also visualizing its brand. Apple has surpassed Microsoft, the latter having previously dominated the market for years. [tags: Literature Review, Branding a Company]
. 11 Works Cited

2122 words
(6.1 pages)

International Student´s Admission Essay to UCSD -. The assigned duties as a TA made me realize, evaluate, and develop my interest in the Biochemistry field. My ambition for science and education is limitless. As a father to my daughter, my goal in life is to show her that learning never stops regardless of how old you are. Passion to learn will never die; It stays in your heart endlessly. Regardless of where you are, it travels with you and never leaves your side. For that reason, I plan to pursue a Master's Degree in the Program of Cellular and Systems Biochemistry at UCSD and broaden my horizon in learning. [tags: Soudi Arabia, Biochemistry]

842 words
(2.4 pages)

Saudi Advanced ESL learners’ Willingness to Communicate with Native Speakers - Introduction This study aims to discover the major trend of Saudi advanced ESL learners’ willingness to communicate with native speakers. The idea of this study emerged after conducting two interviews in Murray state University with Saudi ESL learners, a male and a female, who are considered advanced learners based on their levels in the ESL program and their IELTS scores. Even though these learners were advanced in their proficiency levels, however, the results of the interview indicated that both learners were not willing to communicate with native speakers for different reasons. [tags: cultural assimilation, xenophobia]
. 10 Works Cited

2772 words
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An Investigation into Saudi Teachers' Knowledge and Attitudes towards Computer Technology - Literature review In a manner similar to most parts of the world today, Saudi Arabia embraces and continues to broaden the use of information and communications technology significantly (Alshumaimeri 2008). Moreover, Saudi Arabia first used computers in the education ministry serving as information and storage tools in relations to teacher duties, administrative tasks and for maintenance of students’ records according to Alshumaimeri (2008). According to Al-Aqeely (2001), the Saudi education ministry set up computer labs in each secondary school, from where teachers conducted training. [tags: Educational Technology ]
. 23 Works Cited

1326 words
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America Must Explore Alternate Energy Sources and Cease Dealing with the Corrupt Saudi Government - America Must Explore Alternate Energy Sources and Cease Dealing with the Corrupt Saudi Government When Mohammed al-Khilewi, a high-ranking official at the Saudi mission to the United Nations, defected to the United States in 1994, he reportedly brought with him fourteen thousand internal government documents. He claimed that these documents proved the Saudi royal family's corruption, human rights abuses, and financial and technical support for terrorist groups such as Hamas, an anti-Israeli group based in Lebanon, and Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda. [tags: Argumentative Persuasive Essays]
. 5 Works Cited

2133 words
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Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula - Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) is a major terrorist organization whose intent is to push aspiring jihadists, who are more willing to use its gruesome tactics to advance their local ambitions. The government of Yemen continues to fight for the provinces occupied by AQAP. Areas such as, the Abyan and Shabwa provinces are partly or entirely out of the governments control. The information delivered in this paper is intended to enable a better understanding of the agenda behind AQAP while examining AQAP’s influence of regional and global importance specifically U.S. [tags: Terrorism]
. 3 Works Cited

1381 words
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The Importance of Women's Rights in Arabia with the Birth of Islam - In Islam, there is prevailing an equal treatment for both men and women. Islam worked as a changing factor to upgrade the position of women and for the betterment of the then pre-Islamic Arabian women to the early Islamic Arabian women. The Arabian peninsula which was mainly the center of spreading Islam is an arid place for survival. The Arabian people used to live within their clans where they belonged to from birth. Particularly, the Bedouin (nomadic group) culture evolved from this area and everyone had to be loyal to their tribal groups (Bedouin clan). [tags: arabian culture, islamic laws]
. 3 Works Cited

1321 words
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The Global Problem of Prostitution - The exploitation of prostitution is considered to be one of a serious global issue in most of the countries around the world. Also, the number of prostitution is increasing tremendously each year and seems to be more serious than the past centuries. However, yet very few to none of the countries have completely solved this problem. Saudi Arabia and Netherlands are two examples of the countries that prostitution is still considered to be a problem that the government of both countries cannot ignore. [tags: Prostitution]

820 words
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YEMEN INSTABILITY DIRECTLY EFFETS on OPERATIONS in the HORN of AFRICA - Al-Qaeda on the Arab Peninsula (AQAP) and the strong re-emergence of their presence in the Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) area of responsibility provoke not only strategic concern but re-emphasizes the importance of Global War on Terrorism mission sets. AQAP establishes training camps, strong recruiting, and bases of operations to continue jihad against the Western world emanate from Yemen. CJTF-HOA will need to be mindful of Western policy, which focuses on degrading AQAP’s leadership. [tags: Terrorism ]
. 6 Works Cited

1459 words
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The Oil Curse - Saudi Arabia is a primarily oil-based economy, with oil being the most important component of the nation’s rapid economic development since World War II. U.S. geologists discovered oil in the region in the 1930s, and since exports expanded most notably in the 1960s, production and rich revenues have been seemingly limitless. The amount of oil in Saudi Arabia’s reserves amounts to close to a quarter of the world’s entire oil resources, and today the country produces about 10,000 barrels a day. As a result, the valuable resource currently accounts for 90% of the country’s exports and contributes to 75% of government revenues annually. [tags: Liberation Army, Modernization Effect]
. 12 Works Cited

2353 words
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Forms of Pro American Empire Propaganda - Strategic communications, public diplomacy, information operations, image and perception management, influence activities, Psychological Operations (PSYOPS), and Military Information Support Operations (MISO) are all terms used by different branches of the US government to describe manners of selectively transmitting information, through varied forms of media, to foreign citizens and governments. The information transmitted usually depicts a positive perception of the American empire, and /or mars the reputation of groups in opposition to the empire. [tags: us government,american television,public diplomacy]
. 4 Works Cited

906 words
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Proposed Internet Shopping Acceptance Model - Introduction: The rapid diffusion of technology and e-marketing has signaled the evaluation of e-commerce, which offers many business opportunities consequently influencing countries’ economic future development and international competitiveness. Past forecasts predict that the value of goods and services purchased online will increase rapidly. The last decade has seen the development in business-to-consumer e-commerce (B2C), which is emerging and rapidly changing (Chang, Man Kit, Cheung, Waiman and S.Lai Vincent, 2005). [tags: Business Analysis]
. 27 Works Cited

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The Spread of Islam in Arabia -. The third explanation of the rapid spread of Islam throughout Arabia and beyond was – most importantly- the religious devotion of the leaders, and general Arab population. Muslim conquests would not have succeeded without being fuelled with a sense that God was on their side. Tamara Sonn, the Kenan Professor of Religion and Humanities affirms that the basic principles of Islamic faith captivated the people and structured Islamic life in Medina, and it was around these practices and core values that the early Muslim community was built (23). [tags: historical reasons, religious ideals]
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