Ryan Thomas Higgins, 2015 - New Edition - 69 pages.
This book has been written to provide the IELTS student with a brief summary outlining how to write an effective essay in the Task 2 portion of the Academic and General IELTS exams. It is hoped that this book acts as a supplement to the student's repertoire of IELTS writing resources and not the student's sole source of guidance for their studies in essay writing. Although valuable, reading up on the subject of IELTS essay writing alone will not ascertain success on the Task 2 portion of the IELTS exam. Students should be actively practicing their essay writing skills on a regular basis with direct coaching from an IELTS instructor.
While reading this book, the IELTS student should remember that there is no single 'correct' essay format. Examiners award marks to the structural presentation of written language based on its ability to communicate a message, not the employment of a predetermined essay formula. It is for this reason the student needs to think critically about how they respond to their IELTS Task. Tailoring the essay structures taught in this book to fulfill an essay question may be needed.
No part of this work may be reproduced or sold in whole or in part, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the written permission of the author, Ryan T. Higgins. Complete copies of this book may he retained electronically only by those who have purchased it from Ryan T. Higgins. For more information on how to obtain a hard or soft copy, please visit ieltswritingblog.com. Academic and General Task 1 books are available, too.
This work is the product of many months of hard work, classroom testing, writing, editing and rewriting and is distributed at a low price to allow access to students all over the world on many different budgets. Please don't bootleg!
Cambridge IELTS Consultants and Jessica Alperne, Peter Swires, 2014. — 35 pages. Cambridge IELTS Consultants are a team of IELTS trainers and past examiners based in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Are you taking the IELTS exam? Are you worried about the writing test, especially the Task 2 essays? Do you know about the different Task types, and how to answer them? We.
Cambridge IELTS Consultants and Jessica Alperne, Peter Swires, 2014. — 47 pages. Table of Contents: Introduction from the authors. Data essays: Our 3-step process. Model Tasks, model essays and examiner’s comments. Practice Tasks. The 10 most common mistakes in Task 1 data essays. Cambridge IELTS Consultants are a team of IELTS trainers and past examiners based in.
London, Ryan, 2010, 37 p This book has been written to provide the IELTS student with a brief summary outlining how to write an effective essay in the Task 2 portion of the IELTS exam. It is hoped that this eBook acts as a supplement to the student’s repertoire of IELTS writing resources and not the student’s sole source of guidance for their studies in essay writing. Although.
Published by Cambridge IELTS Consultants Cambridge, United Kingdom, December 30, 2014 Your Key To Band 9 Topic Vocabulary Cambridge IELTS Consultants are a team of IELTS trainers and past examiners based in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Are you taking the IELTS exam? Do you know about the 10 special topic areas which IELTS uses to create all the questions in the Speaking.
Collection of band 9 essays on writing task 2 from ielts-simon.com. Author of essays: Simon Corcoran (ex-IELTS examiner. currently runs IELTS exam preparation courses in Manchester, UK) Pages: 13 Essays: 22 For additional information visit author's website (ielts-simon.com). There you can find comments on essays and tons of useful tips for every aspect of IELTS exam.
IELTS buddy, 2013 - 75 pages. The book is designed to be a self-study guide: however, it can also be used as a guide to teaching IELTS if you are an IELTS instructor. The book is suitable for those who are beginners but also those who are more advanced and need a higher band score such as a 7 or 8. How to use the book: It is recommended that you work through the book unit by.
In a fast-paced world, where everyone is hard-pressed for time, it becomes difficult for interviewers to conduct an in-depth analysis of every resume that is handed over to them. This is where learning to write a profile that captures the attention of the interviewer can win you the battle. Trudging through hundreds of resumes which have the same list of educational qualifications and professional experience can be a pain. When an interviewer is then presented with a resume that begins with a captivating profile, it can be a pleasant change. Profiles are not written only for resumes. There may be instances where in you will be required to write a profile for an online site. Budding journalists often need to write a similarly-structured stories or essays while interviewing personalities. But of all the profiles that you will be needed to write, writing one for a resume is the most important that you will need to learn.
The Writing ProcessAlong with the necessary tips for resume writing, it is important that you pay attention to the tips given in this article, while writing a profile. A good profile will serve its purpose even with a cursory glance. It is often considered a substitute for a cover letter, except that more often than not there is no reference to the job at hand. Remember that you need to keep it simple and brief. Do not let the language used be too ornamental. Always start with your experience in the field. You do not need to give details regarding the same but it is important that you mention how many years of experience you have in the field. Do not be too exact with the details. The document needs to stand out in its mention of your skills and abilities. Highlight those professional talents that you think, make you the perfect candidate for the job. Another important thing to add is your objective in the future. These three aspects should be the most important features of any profile and without these, it is generally incomplete.
January 18, 2011
Formal letters are required in business or in personal circumstances where you need to deal with the correct format. This is vital for the reader as well to read it. In business, it may be a request for the presence of clients or a prospective client at a special event. It can also be used to request an action or an inquiry to be taken or the need of confirmation of something. You can also use these letters for complaint or may be to confirm an appointment.So how do you get your letters read and also acted upon, a few of the tips will help you write one and make your work a hell lot easy!
Below you can find three example of how to write formal letter. Use them as a guideline to write them.
Date: MM/DD/YYYY (Recipient's Name and Address)
Subject: Placement enquiry
Dear Madam/Dear Sir/Dear Madam, Dear Sir
I am a student of administration, now in my fourth semester (second year), at the university of (mention the name of the university, and the country). As a part of the course studies, all the students of final semester are required to do (mention the duration required) work placement.
As I hope to work in a (mention the place where you wish to work), after I finish my studies, I would particularly be interested in working in the (your choice of field be it export/department/auditing) of the firm to gain some experience. I would also be interested in (mention if you would like to something else for the company apart from that work). I am completely flexible and would be happy to work in any department in order to gain experience.
I would be grateful if you could let me know whether there would be a place for me. The most suitable months for me would be (insert your time duration).
Please find enclosed with this letter my CV, in which I have clearly mentioned details about my courses, previous work experience or detail about previous work placements. In addition to this I have a good command over English and a working knowledge of (insert if you know any foreign language).
Thank you for reading my letter. I look forward to hearing from you.
- Your name
(One note, if you know the person, conclude your letter with, yours sincerely)
Another example of formal letter requesting for hostel accommodation is given below:
Recipient's Name and Address
Dear Madam, dear Sir,
I am a student of (Name of your subject) at university of (insert the name of your university and the country). I have just got my admission to study for a year at (name of the other university). I would like to stay in a hostel and would be grateful if you could let me know if there is a place for my accommodation (mention the duration). I request you to send me the necessary applications forms along with the details about the hostel, including the costs that could be incurred.
Thank you for your attention. I look forward in hearing from you soon.
- Your name
The next example is a formal letter to lodge a complaint and give you a better idea as how you can write this type of letters.
(Your name and address)
I am writing to you to lodge a complaint letter against the service and food quality we received in your restaurant.
We have been dining in your restaurant for the last two years and have never found any faults in your restaurant be it in the services or the food quality. But on this occasion, the food was not only cold, when we received, but also the whole of the service took longer time then it necessarily takes.
When we mentioned this to the staff manger, he was rude and refused to acknowledge our complaint.
We wish to return to your restaurant but are reluctant because of the experience we had.
I would therefore, like to request a refund of that evening's meal that cost (mention the cost of the meal) and have enclosed the receipt's issued.
I look forward to receiving a check of the amount and dining in the restaurant again in due course.
The above mentioned examples get to the point quickly and lay out the facts of the issue. The letters finally closes with the required action that the writer is looking for.
In British English dates are usually written as given below:
30 October 2003
Note that the names of months always begin with capital letters.
Some people put a comma before the year. This is particularly common when the date comes inside a sentence.
18 October, 2003
29 January, 2008
My son was born on 18 October, 2003.
Another common practice is to add the last two letters of the number word to the day.
18th November, 2009 (OR 18 October, 2009)
4th October, 2005 (OR 4 October, 2005)
Sometimes dates are written entirely in numbers. Several formats are possible.
Note that dates are written differently in American English. Americans write the month first and put a comma before the year.
All-figure dates are interpreted differently in British and American English. This is because British people put the day first. Americans, on the other hand, start with the month.
6.4.2004 means 6 April 2004 in Britain whereas it means June 4 2004 in America.
Months with longer names are usually abbreviated in writing.
How to write an essay in English exam. Writing an essay in English is totally different from normal essay writing in school days and academic days. And these essays are very important because it can affect your final grade marks. Also there are many famous International exams of English like GRE, SAT and GED where you are required to write an essay.
In these exams, you can not just write a rough essay of your school day. You must know the characteristics of effective essay writing. You need to write an essay of master class. English grammar is incomplete without essays because there are essays that let students to know about their writing skills in English. The basic steps to write an effective essay are almost same as in competitive exams.
Here I am giving you some tips on how to write an essay in English exam. I hope these tips will make you capable of writing effective essays.How to write an essay in English exam
Define a specific time
Whenever you start writing an essay, you need to define a specific time according to the exam time. It is important to give a deadline for an essay because without it you will be writing freely and feeling the sheets. Students think that they have lots of time to write the whole essay but exam paper is set in accordance that specific time should be given to the essay. You should understand that how to manage time for the essay writing. By this you can save a lot time for other questions of your exam paper.
Read the topic of essay accurately
The topic name is the only hint that is given by the examiner. Many students start writing essay without taking an accurate look at the topic. One should make some outlines when they start essay so that while writing essay there mind never stuck at any place.
Make an image of essay in your mind before you write
As I told you that you should make an outlines before starting essay writing. It saves a lot of time because you never need to rethink about the content and theme of the essay. There should be a clear image in your mind that what are you going to write in the essay and what will be your goal of essay writing.
Always remember the foundation of essay
There are few specific sections of essay where all the examiners always give a look. Introduction, body and conclusion are the foundations of any essay. It is good that you make other points to make your essay more attractive but these main points should be added into the essay.
Never write too much
Filled sheets look good when you see them after completing the exam. But do you really think that your examiner is ready to give you marks according to the sheets filled by you. Of course not, because essay writing skills are more about quality not quantity. There should be around 300 to 400 words in the essay. And this limit is more than enough because one can write all the important aspects of essay in this limit. Students follow a single rule that more sheets more will be the marks which is not good idea for sure.
Give examples rather than explanation
Essays were only supposed as a theory that’s main aim is to fill sheets. But the time is now completely changed because no one really likes to read more paragraphs. Everyone needs examples rather than explanations. If you know some facts about your essay then try to write them in tabular format rattan than paragraphs. Table, charts and images always attracts others. Also they give a clear explanation of you want to say to the reader.
Last but not the least is essay’s quality check. The quality of essay contains its English grammar errors, presentation and hand writing. You need to assure all these quality factors if you want to score highest marks in your exam. If you do not assure the quality then your hard work may go into the dust.
So it was all about how to write an essay in English exam? I hope you all enjoyed reading this article. If you feel any problem regarding this topic then please comment below. We would like to help you.
Throughout the time of your studies at school and in college you will be required to submit hundreds of essays and other written papers. And those assignments will be for various occasions and disciplines. You may have to complete this task at school or it may be for a local essay contest or a college admission application. That is why you have to be ready for just about any kind of an assignment. And you have to be ready for it all and know how to write an essay.
Don’t you worry! Our team has prepared lots of tips and suggestions for you! Take a look at what we have got right here.
What Does It Take to Create a Good Essay?
Without a doubt, it is all about a well selected topic! It always makes your writing stand out among the other papers. You have to be passionate about what you are writing! Even if you are just making first steps and learning how to write a good essay, you should have a great deal of interest in your topic. This will not only be helpful in the writing process, but also help you convey your thoughts and feelings properly. So do not be afraid of expressiveness!
Being organized is also a big plus. You have to somehow keep track of all the ideas that come into your mind. Therefore, good organization skills will be a plus here!
Do I Need an Outline?
Lots of students have a habit of jumping into writing right away after they have seen the assignment. They do not even take the time to figure out how do you write an essay. This is considered to be bad organization skills. Always leave out some time for planning. An outline for your paper will give you a clear vision of where you are going. The worst case scenario will be that you’ll just be lost within hundreds of ideas and it will all get hectic.
An outline will keep your essay coherent. It will also ensure you are not totally lost. So take your time and create a cohesive outline!
Searching the Samples and Examples
If you are in the process of getting to know more about how to write a perfect essay, it will be a great idea to look for some samples and examples. That will give you an idea of where you are going with all the writing.
So how do you find the best samples and examples? Start with an online search. If that does not work out for you, ask around and get the expert writing advice from the best writers of BookwormLab.com. We can provide you with any kinds of samples even now!
The very first thing you come across when you learn how to write a essay paper is the plagiarism issue. Your work has to be impeccable and free of duplicate content. You know how serious of an academic crime of plagiarism is and therefore you do not want to be caught with it.
Here is what you are supposed to do:
Do your best to avoid plagiarism and discover it all about how to write better essays!
At first glance you may be completely lost with all these how to write essay guidelines and suggestions. The essay assignment may look like an insurmountable obstacle to you. So what can you do about that? Heads up! There is absolutely no need to get all sad! The first things you do are calm down and do some brainstorming. Think clearly. Gather all possible ideas. Remember, the more you have, the better. Ask around your peer students and see what they are working on. Perhaps you could get some inspiration from their projects.
Some of the ideas may look pretty silly at first glance, but later on as you get an understanding of how to write essays, you will see it all makes sense.
How Do I Write an Essay?
This is the type of assignment that requires your own motivation. You have to see the task clearly and understand what you are expected to do. Of course, if you want to gain success with your paper, you are to follow the given instructions. Do not hesitate to discuss your task with a teacher. Perhaps he/she will give you a hint of how to proceed with the task!
But if you do feel that writing is not your cup of tea, there is no need to be worried. You can always turn to a professional custom writing agency for help. Have doubts? Give us a call and BookwormLab.com’s team will clear them all!
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Essay writing is a skill you need to develop through patience and diligence. The word essay means attempt. So, the essay is an attempt at conveying your ideas on a given topic in simple prose which is clear and literary. There are several different kinds of essays such as descriptive essays and expository essays.
Essay writing cannot be taught. Actually every writer has his own style of writing an essay. There are still a few points a person should bear in mind while writing an essay.
Use simple modern language. Avoid the use of bombastic and archaic words. Also avoid the use of technical/business jargon which only industry insiders can understand. Your essay should be written in such a language that everybody- not just domain experts – can fully grasp the intended meaning.
Variation in the length of sentences is desirable but try to avoid using sentences having numerous clauses.
State your ideas clearly, but don’t digress from the given topic. Also avoid repetitions.
An essay should consist of a number of paragraphs all knit together. Note that each paragraph should be a natural progression of the previous paragraph and should give a distinct idea which is generally an enhancement of the ideas expressed earlier.
Proper attention should be given to the introductory and concluding paragraphs. The opening sentence can be written in a number of ways. It may directly begin the theme or create the appropriate atmosphere. To grab the attention of the reader, you can also begin the essay with an appropriate quotation.
How to sharpen your writing skills?
Writing a good essay requires excellent writing skills. You can sharpen your writing skills through reading and observation. Read all types of books, magazines and newspapers. Read at least five to ten pages a day. Read stories, articles, news items, novels, essays and biographies. Each piece of writing will give you an insight into the method of organizing and presenting the subject matter.
Be observant. Look around you. Keep your eyes and ears open and learn from your experiences. Personal experiences will give depth and a personal touch to your thoughts and writing.
The more you write the more you learn to write. You will not be able to sharpen your writing skills if you do not write. Everyday you must write at least two pages on any given topic. The habit of writing diaries also helps in improving your writing skills.
planning, structure, writing, and presentation skillsWhat is a report?
A report is a detailed and well-organised document that defines and analyses a subject or a problem.
A report should always be accurate, concise, clearly written, and well structured.
A report might also record a sequence of events, evaluate a product or a process, discuss a series of proposals, or make a number of recommendations.
A report should include all the information necessary for the reader to understand the topic under discussion and make informed decisions about it.The purpose of a report
Reports are used in education, business, finance, government, manufacturing, and scientific research.
In small and medium companies they usually communicate information from one company to another. In large companies they communicate information between personnel.
You might write a report when applying for a grant; to accompany a business proposal; or to describe a project which has been commissioned.
Reports might also be important to record the progress of a business – as in a company’s annual report.
Reports do not have to be long – or boring. They should be clear and easy to understand, especially if they are written for somebody else.How to write a report
Writing a report is often a major undertaking for many people. The task can be made easier by breaking it down into a series of steps. The following are recommended as guidelines for writing reports.
If you need to produce a report whose type is not discussed here, follow the same principles. That is – first of all think carefully about the form or kind of document you are going to produce.
It will help you enormously if you get hold of an example of the type of report you need to produce. In particular, study its structure, and use that as a model for what you have to write.
You might need to adapt another type of report for your purposes. If you need to create your own type of report, follow the guidelines for creating good structure in documents.
Acquaint yourself with some examples of various report types. This will help you to decide which type of report you need.
1. A meeting report communicates the details of a meeting to people who did not attend. It may also go to people who did attend, as a summary of events for future reference.
The minutes of a meeting record the major points made by a group of two or more people who conduct a meeting.
2. A project report is a record kept by the project manager, and is presented to management or sponsors. It usually details chronologically the events, achievements and attainment of a project’s targets and objectives.
3. A feasibility report is similar to a problem-recommendation report but it describes one possible solution in detail and makes recommendations.
4. A sales report gives the details of a salesperson’s contact with a specific customer or company – indicating whether or not sales have been made.
5. A status report tells the management what has been happening on a project, and to what degree it is going according to plan.
6. A problem recommendation report outlines the writer’s investigation into a particular problem and recommends a course of action to solve the problem
7. A site-visit report summarises the conditions which obtain at a particular location in relation to a project – such as the construction of a building.
8. A company report is the record of a business and its recent history, made usually at the end of a financial year. It combines management strategies, sales results, and accounts.Stage 2 — The purpose of your report
The purpose of a report will have an effect on both its content and the manner in which it is presented.
A good starting point is to write out the purpose of the report in a sentence or two. This ‘purpose statement’ will help you to focus on your primary needs. It will help you by giving the report both a starting point and a goal.
Typical examples of purpose are to inform, instruct, persuade, or to record.
A report may have more than one purpose – just as it might have more than one audience. For instance, a company’s annual report is a statement for the directors, the shareholders, and the public in general.
An academic report (say, in science or engineering) may have a double purpose. First the recording of an experiement or a field visit. Second, demonstrating that the author is familiar with the conventions of academic writing in that discipline.
A commercial sales report might be used by regional and national sales managers, a finance controller, and the chief executive officer (CEO).
These various parties will be interested in different aspects of the report. And since each reader has different interests in the report’s content, it is important to plan the report so that it includes the information each reader is looking for.
Choose the sub-headings for your report from the following list. Doing this at the planning stage will help you to write a clear report which is easy for your recipient to read.
Arrange the sub-headings in conjunction with your main headings at a later stage. The following list of headings which belong with report types is arranged in alphabetical order.
Please select an appropriate time and place to meet and inform the members of the team.
The project team will consist of one half-time systems analyst and two full-time, experienced programmers.
You will find the following attachments which establish the legal status of this policy.
I met the Chair of Needwell last Thursday and we agreed that I would send you information regarding the expansion plans.
The benefits of a fully implemented WebCT system are as follows:
Although there is a new policy for internal promotion, there are more people qualified for advancement than there are slots available.
The union contract permits only eight hours work per day before overtime must be paid.
If you or anyone in your department wants to submit comments on our new word processing equipment, send them in writing to J.Bloggs Staff Depot
These changes apply to all applications we receive on or after 10 October 2015
Please let me know when we can meet to design a new form for travel reimbursement.
If the Company adopts the proposed retirement policy we can anticipate the following:
If we do not have our new word-processing equipment running by 17 September 2010, we will not be able to support the production goals.
The Fine Food Marketing Company has recently entered the health food industry with a brand new type of food supplement called Gatewell.
The commissioner of environmental quality engineering or his designee may issue orders in the name of the department of environmental quality on being presented with proof of the violation of any statute, rule, regulation, or code which the department is authorized to enforce.
We expect that the new system will be fully operational by May 2006
The company has two staffing options available for this project
This company will employ individuals without regard to race, colour, gender, or national origin.
Our work processing system does not have the capability to handle special graphic presentations. This causes a loss of business.
The purpose of the meeting is to make and document an action plan for opening the Greenleaf Site.
Our decision to avoid genetically modified elements in our wines is based on the lack of evidence currently available concerning the effects of GM elements.
In conclusion, we strongly recommend that new measures be put in place for testing our boilers for corrosion.
Please refer to the Critical Quarterly for reviews on the publications mentioned in the body of this report.
The schedule below gives details of the staffing responsibilities
I found the statistics for the Boston Flyer in The Engineering Journal published May 2000.
Tuesday’s speaker will be Sir Harold Busby, Chairman of Astrolux.
This report has examined the feasibility of a merger between Minibok and Fair Trading. It has examined the financial and social implications.
Before sitting down to write your report, make sure you have all the research data to hand. Mark out each part of the data, allocating it to one of your sub-headings.
If you have some data which doesn’t fit any of the sub-headings, think carefully about whether to create a heading which fits the data or whether to discard the data as irrelevant.
It is perfectly normal to gather data which is not needed in the final report. Do not feel obliged to include material just because it exists.
Draft your report in short sections, under each one of your headings or sub-headings. This way, you will be able to rearrange the sequence, or delete some content.
Working in short sections makes writing an easier process. Use the following guidelines for drafting the sections.
Create readability by structure
Your reader will digest the document most efficiently if the text is broken down into bite-size sections. Large dense blocks of text are overfacing and difficult for the eye to deal with.
Your sections should comprise no more than ten lines. Here is an example of the bite-size section.
The sales team has broken all records this month.
The number of new customers has rocketed from last month’s total of 10,000 to 12,975.
In view of this we are giving all members of the sales team an additional bonus of 0.5 per cent.
Create readability by relevance
Each section should contain one idea. Nothing else should be added. Extra ideas, even if they are connected with the subject, should be given their own paragraph.
In the example given above, the topic of increased sales stands alone. The extra topic of bonuses is related, but comprises a separate paragraph.
Create readability by navigation
Each topic in your report should have a signpost or a sub-heading. This prepares your reader for what is to follow.
It also helps the reader in referring back efficiently to a specific point or topic. In the example given above, each topic is signposted to prepare the reader for what is coming.
The heading ‘Increased sales’ introduces the main topic, whilst ‘new customers’ and ‘additional bonuses’ announce the sub-topics.
Create readability by verbal consistency
Your reader will digest your report quickly and efficiently if you use layout, headings, font style, and vocabulary consistently.
Reports are entirely functional and therefore quick, efficient reading is your objective.
In the example given above, vocabulary is used consistently. The word ‘sales’ is used both in the main heading and in the body text The word ‘customer’ is used both in the sub-heading and in the body text
Create readability by visual consistency
Consistency helps readers to find their way in a document. At every level of the document you should use consistency in:
Stage 6 — Edit and proof read
Follow the guidelines on How to present documents to give your report a professional appearance.
Editing and proof reading a substantial report might be a lengthy and time-consuming process. But it will make the difference between an amateur and a professional piece of work.
Editing is the process of checking your work very carefully in order to –
Proof reading is the very last stage of making any changes. At this point it is assumed that the content of the report has been checked for accuracy, grammar, and punctuation.
Proof reading looks at the presentation of the text in even greater detail – mainly for matters of bibliographic and typographic consistency.
Follow the guidelines on Editing your writing to produce a document which is free from minor blemishes.Sample report structure
[This should normally include the following as a basic minimum]
the title of the report
the name of the author
the name of the organisation
[If necessary – in longer reports]
A list of people and organisations who have helped in the production of the report.
[Always included in any reports of more than a few pages]
A clear list of all the sections and sub-sections in the report – with page numbers.
If applicable, there should be a separate list of tables, figures, illustrations and appendices after the main index.
The headings in this list should correspond exactly with those in the main body of the report. Generate the list of contents after completing the report.
Terms of reference
A definition of the task or the brief you were given. This is statement of the specific objective and purpose behind writing the report.
Even if you don’t include this as a heading, it is a vital process to go through in your planning.
How your research was carried out; how the information was gathered and treated.
This section might also be called ‘methodology’ in some reports.
Materials and methods
[included if appropriate]
Similar to methodology or procedure, but more appropriate to scientific or engineering report writing. The following advice comes from Robert Barrass’ book Scientists Must Write (Chapman & Hall, 1978, pp.135-136).
1. List the equipment used and draw anything that requires description (unless this is very simple).
2. State the conditions of the experiment and the procedure, with any precautions necessary to ensure accuracy and safety. However, when several experiments are reported, some details may fit better in the appropriate parts of the Results section.
3. Write the stages in any new procedure in the order of implementation, and describe in detail any new technique or modifications of an established technique.
4. If necessary, refer to preliminary experiments and to any consequent changes in technique. Describe your controls adequately.
5. Include information on the purity and structure of the materials used, and on the source of the material and the method of preparation.
[usually included in longer reports]
This is a short summary of the entire report, created for those people who may not have time to read the entire document.
This is often called the Executive Summary (in business reporting), Abstract (in a dissertation or thesis) or Synopsis (in a scholarly work).
It’s a very brief outline of the report to give the potential reader a general idea of what it’s about. A statement of:
This might be optional, but writing an introduction will help you to describe your overall purpose.
This should show that you have fully understood the brief and that you are going to cover everything required. Indicate the basic structure of the report.
Include just a little background or context and indicate the reasons for writing the report. You may include your terms of reference and procedure or research methods if not covered elsewhere.
Your introduction will often give an indication of the conclusion to the report.
Write this last of all so that you know what it is you’re introducing. You could have a working introduction that is edited when the body of the report is complete.
Main body of the report
This is the substance of your report. The structure will vary according to the nature of the material being presented, with headings and sub-headings used to clearly indicate the different sections.
Charts, diagrams, tables, and illustrations can be used to reinforce the points your are making.
Sometimes it may be better to include these as an Appendix, particularly if they are long or complicated.
Do not include opinions, conclusions or recommendations in this section.
[included mainly in scientific or engineering reports]
This section records your observations and would normally include statistics, tables or graphs.
These are called ‘findings’ in a business context.
Your conclusion should state the implications of your findings, with deductions based on the facts described in your main body. Don’t include any new material here.
These should follow on logically from your conclusion and be specific, measurable and achievable. They should propose how the situation or problem could be improved by suggesting action to be taken. A ‘statement of costs’ might be included if you are recommending changes that have financial implications.
Recommendations can be numbered for the sake of clarity.
An appendix (plural=appendices) is detailed documentation of points you outline in your findings, for example, technical data, questionnaires, letters sent, tables, sketches, charts, leaflets.
It is supplementary information which you consider to be too long or complicated or not quite relevant enough to include in your main body, but which still should be of interest to your reader.
Each appendix should be referred to in your text. You should not include something as an appendix if it is not discussed in the main body.
This is a list giving the full details of all the sources to which you have made reference in the body of your report.
This is a list of all the sources which you have used during your research – books, articles, and web sites. It should include those you have made reference to in your writing, as well as any other materials you may have consulted but not quoted.
A glossary contains specialist terms with their contextual definitions. This is particularly useful when specialist terms have been used in the report.
Include a glossary of terms if the report includes a lot of specialised vocabulary, technical jargon, or acronyms which may not be familiar to the reader.
© Roy Johnson 2013
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