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A Brief History Of Atomic Theory Essay

A Brief History Of Atomic Theory Essay, Research Paper

In the beginning of the 1800s John Dalton, an English scientist did work some

work on gases, which lead him to the creation of a complex system of

symbols for all known elements at the time. He took all the information he had

collected, along with the Laws of Conservation of Mass, Definite Composition

and Multiple Proportions and updated Aristotle?s theory of matter with the

Atomic Theory of Matter, which stated: – All matter is composed of tiny,

indivisible particles called atoms. – Atoms of an element have identical

properties. – Atoms of different elements have different properties. – Atoms of

two or more elements can combine in constant ratios to form new

substances. In the late 1800s a man named J. J. Thomson did some

experiments, who?s results did not agree with Dalton?s Atomic Theory.

Thomson passed electricity though gases, my his experiments, he theorized

the existence negatively charged subatomic particles he called electrons.

From this theory Thomson created a model of a atom which had the electrons

placed evenly inside the atoms. In the early 1900s a Japanese scientist

named H. Nagaoka designed an atom model as a large sphere surrounded

by a ring of negatively charged electrons. Also, during the early 1900s

(1898-1907) a physicist named Ernest Rutherford worked on experiments to

test current atom models. His experiments involved shooting rays of alpha

particles (small positively charged particles) though very thin pieces of gold

foil. Based on Thomson?s model, Rutherford hypothesized that the alpha

particles would travel through the gold foil mostly unaffected by the gold. He

was right. Most of the particles did pass through, but a small amount of

particles were deflected. From this Rutherford hypothesized that the atoms

must have a small positively charged core, the nucleus, which is surrounded

by mainly empty space, which contains the electrons. In 1914 Rutherford

made up the word ?proton. which were subatomic particles that had a

positive charge. A student of Rutherford?s, a man named H. G. J. Moseley

was the one who gathered the empirical support for Rutherford?s work. In his

experiments he used X-rays to show that the positive charge in the nucleus

grows by one, from each element to the other. From this Moseley devised the

concept of Atomic Number. In 1932, James Chadwick established that the

nucleus must contain heavy neutral particles as well as positive ones, this was

to explain the entire mass of the atom. He called the neutral subatomic

particles neutrons. I Danish scientist named Niels Bohr created a theory

explaining the periodic law. Bohr took the Quantum Theory of Energy,

proposed by Max Planck (in 1900), and the relationship between the sudden

end of the periodic table. Using this, periodic law, and some experimental

evidence, Bohr hypothesized the following: – Each electron has a fixed

quantity of energy related to the circular orbit in which the election is found. -

Electrons cannot exist between orbits, but they can move to unfilled orbits if a

quantum of energy is absorbed or released. – The higher the energy level of

an electron, the further it is from the nucleus. – The maximum number of

electrons in the first three energy levels is 2, 8, and 8. – An atom with a

maximum number of electrons in its outermost level is stable, that is, it is

unreactive. Bohr?s theory was developed mathematically, so as to explain the

visible spectrum of hydrogen gas, as well as to predict other lines of ultraviolet

and infrared light. One of the great things about Bohr?s theory is that it

explains periodic law. The theory states that properties of elements can be

explained by the way that their electrons are arranged. Due to the fact that

orbits can only contain certain amounts of electons. Quantum mechanics is a

highly mathematical theory developed in the 1920s that describes the

positioning of electrons as patterns of probability, instead of distinct orbits. It

explains the positioning of protons, and atomic numbers. It describes the

energy levels of electrons outside the nucleus, stability of atoms, and the

amounts of electrons that can exist at certain levels. It is a very complex

theory which explains much about atomic theory.

Fabio Abbattista, Valeria Carofiglio, and Mario Koppen.

Scout algorithms and genetic algorithms: A comparative study. In Wolfgang Banzhaf, Jason Daida, Agoston E. Eiben, Max H. Garzon, Vasant Honavar, Mark Jakiela, and Robert E. Smith, editors, Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference. volume 1, page 769, Orlando, Florida, USA, 13-17 July 1999. Morgan Kaufmann.

GECCO-99 A joint meeting of the eighth international conference on genetic algorithms (ICGA-99) and the fourth annual genetic programming conference (GP-99)

Niches as a GA divide-and-conquer strategy. In Art Chapman and Leonard Myers, editors, Proceedings of the Second Annual AI Symposium for the California State University. California State University, 1991.

Using a genetic algorithm to select beam configurations for radiosurgery of the brain. In John R. Koza, editor, Genetic Algorithms and Genetic Programming at Stanford 2000. pages 1-7. Stanford Bookstore, Stanford, California, 94305-3079 USA, June 2000.

part of koza:2000:gagp

Complimentary selection as an alternative method for population reproduction. In John R. Koza, editor, Genetic Algorithms and Genetic Programming at Stanford 2000. pages 8-15. Stanford Bookstore, Stanford, California, 94305-3079 USA, June 2000.

part of koza:2000:gagp

Myriam Abramson and Lawrence Hunter.

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The History Of The Atom Essay, Research Paper

THE HISTORY OF THE ATOM

I am doing my project on the history of the atom. The atom was not just thought up overnight it took thousands of years of research and experimenting, but was finally finalized bty Dalton. Dalton was curious about many things but most of all he wondered how substances combined. He discovered that if you combine two substance, you got a new completely different substance. After years of experimenting he came up with the law of multiple proportions.

From this Dalton concluded that all matter was made out of atoms which where indivisible… They could be separated from each other or combined to form new substances. Dalton also assumed that if two elements combined to make one compound, that compound consisted of one atom of each element. All this was just and assumption by Dalton and he didn’t have scientific enough equipment to verify this, later scientists found out that some of his assumptions where incorrect. Like the particles is gas are not close together and the atom is far from indivisible.

Dalton was known as the great experimenter and he based most of his work on other peoples conclusions. But he did come up with many historical changes theories like the atomic theory

The different parts of the atom like the electron, proton and neutron where found by different people. The electron was discovered by scientists who’s main interests where electricity rather then chemistry. The proton was also discovered by a group of scientists. A proton a single unit of positive charge and is 1840 times heavier then an electron. The proton is what remains when a hydrogen atom is stripped of an electron.

In 1932 Sir James Chadwick confirmed yet another subatomic particle, the neutron. Neutrons are subatomic particles with no charge. But there mass is nearly equal to the proton.

In conclusion an atom is made of three parts electrons, protons and the neutron, all of these are equally important and a necessity to complete an atom.

The History Of The Atom Essay Research

The History Of The Atom Essay Research

The History Of The Atom Essay, Research Paper

THE HISTORY OF THE ATOM

I am doing my project on the history of the atom. The atom was not just thought up overnight it took thousands of years of research and experimenting, but was finally finalized bty Dalton. Dalton was curious about many things but most of all he wondered how substances combined. He discovered that if you combine two substance, you got a new completely different substance. After years of experimenting he came up with the law of multiple proportions.

From this Dalton concluded that all matter was made out of atoms which where indivisible. They could be separated from each other or combined to form new substances. Dalton also assumed that if two elements combined to make one compound, that compound consisted of one atom of each element. All this was just and assumption by Dalton and he didn’t have scientific enough equipment to verify this, later scientists found out that some of his assumptions where incorrect. Like the particles is ga

s are not close together and the atom is far from indivisible.

Dalton was known as the great experimenter and he based most of his work on other peoples conclusions. But he did come up with many historical changes theories like the atomic theory

The different parts of the atom like the electron, proton and neutron where found by different people. The electron was discovered by scientists who’s main interests where electricity rather then chemistry. The proton was also discovered by a group of scientists. A proton a single unit of positive charge and is 1840 times heavier then an electron. The proton is what remains when a hydrogen atom is stripped of an electron.

In 1932 Sir James Chadwick confirmed yet another subatomic particle, the neutron. Neutrons are subatomic particles with no charge. But there mass is nearly equal to the proton.

In conclusion an atom is made of three parts electrons, protons and the neutron, all of these are equally important and a necessity to complete an atom.

FREE History and Developemant of the Atom Essay

Topics in this paper Popular Topics

The Historical Development of the Atom and it Implications

There were four scientists who came up with different theories about the atom and its structures. These four were John Dalton, Joseph John Thomson, Earnest Rutherford, and Neil Bohr. They each had different theories and ideas about the atom.

Dalton believed that atoms were the smallest parts of matter. He believed that all atoms were the same but ranged in weights. He also believed that when elements mixed there atoms mixed to form a compound with different atoms in it.

Thomson believed that atoms had particles in them called electrons. He found out that the electron was negatively charged. He discovered that at very low pressures some gases conduct electricity. He found out that electrons weigh about 1/1840 of a hydrogen atom. He also believed that the atom had the electron scattered through it.

Rutherford was the first man to split the atom. He concluded that the atom was mostly empty space. He came up with a new model of the with a centre core and electrons orbiting that core.

Bohr improved on Rutherford's theory of the atom. He came up with another theory that suggested that the electrons orbiting around the outside of the core were organised into shells, and they could jump from shell to shell if the gained or lost energy.

There are many different applications of nuclear science that have been used to enhance the human way of life. Some of these include nuclear power stations, nuclear weapons, radiation therapy, and smoke detectors.

Nuclear power stations have definitely help people to achieve their goals. Power station provides an easy way of getting power to people all over the world. Though nuclear power station do run the risk of a nuclear spill which would wreak havoc on surrounding towns and city for 100's of years afterwards, like the

This Essay is Approved by Our Editor Essays Related to History and Developemant of the Atom

Atomic Bomb Essay Research Paper The history

Atomic Bomb Essay Research Paper The history

Atomic Bomb Essay, Research Paper The history of the atomic bomb dates back to the early 1900 s when Einstein s theory of relativity proved a basis for understanding nuclear energy and showed that the atom contained vast energy. This energy seemed beyond men s grasp until the late 1930 s. In 1939 scientists succeeded in splitting the atoms of uranium by bombarding them with neutrons. They found that the split atoms released neutrons and energy. Physicists found that the fission of these atoms could produce a chain reaction. In the summer of 1939 Albert Einstein wrote a letter to President Roosevelt explaining the potential for atom-splitting devices in warfare as well as the possibility of other countries possessing this information. In the summer of 1940 Einstein moved to

Manhattan, New York to begin research on an atomic bomb. The Manhattan Project as the atomic bomb project was called, tested their first prototype in the desert of Alamogordo, New Mexico, on July 6, 1945. Due to the success of these tests the U.S. military requested these bombs for use in World War 2. The first military application of the atomic bomb followed shortly after the tests. On August 6, 1945 the U.S. dropped its first atomic bomb on the city of Hiroshima. The blast covered approximately four and a half miles killing over 100,000 people. The second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki killing over 40,000 people. These weapons of mass destruction ended the war. Today the atomic bomb is known as a thing of the past since the last time it was employed by any country was the attack

on Japan in 1945. Since then 130 countries have signed a peace treaty prohibiting the use of atomic bombs in warfare. This, however has not stopped countries from testing these and similar bombs such as the hydrogen bomb and the fusion bomb. These bombs use the same principals as the atomic bomb, but with a few variations. The hydrogen bomb uses the fusion of atoms and hydrogen to produce great heat and activity. This process occurs in steps. First an atomic bomb explodes triggering the hydrogen and atoms. It provides the heat and pressure needed for fusion. Then, deuterium and tritium atoms fuse. This rapidly releases huge amounts of energy causing a large explosion. A thousand times that of the one that devastated Hiroshima in 1945. The nuclear fallout (the radioactive dust and

debris that settles to the ground after the explosion is over) can cause severe illness or even death. Other effects of a hydrogen bomb are the shock effect and the heat effect, similar to the effects of an atomic bomb depending on the size of the bomb. After many countries had tested the bomb and found its massive power a treaty was signed banning the spread of hydrogen bombs to other countries in 1968. On March 5, 1970 a peace treaty went into effect outlawing all hydrogen bombs in over 40 countries including the United States, England, Russia, China and France. To this day the treaty holds these countries to not produce weapons of mass destruction like these. As far as the future goes, I hope this technology is never used for war of any kind. I think that with the power of

atomic bombs as well as a more advanced type of bomb that I m sure is out there the world would suffer a catastrophic apocalypse that could very well make our world a nuclear wasteland unable to support healthy human life. I think the future for the atomic bomb is becoming obsolete due to the amazing power and destruction it creates. I hope governments have discontinued research of this weapon and moved on to a more environmentally safe means of military defense. If the countries that signed the treaties banning nuclear weapons uphold their honor I believe we will not have a problem with any kind of horrible future like the one that could be. I don t think we will ever see anything like the people of Japan did 54 years ago. I hope countries around the world have realized the

Essay on history of atoms

Chemistry/A Brief History of Atomic Theory term paper 1995

Disclaimer: Free essays on Chemistry posted on this site were donated by anonymous users and are provided for informational use only. The free Chemistry research paper (A Brief History of Atomic Theory essay ) presented on this page should not be viewed as a sample of our on-line writing service. If you need fresh and competent research / writing on Chemistry, use the professional writing service offered by our company.

In the beginning of the 1800s John Dalton, an English scientist did work some work on gases, which lead him to the creation of a complex system of symbols for all known elements at the time. He took all the information he had collected, along with the Laws of Conservation of Mass, Definite Composition and Multiple Proportions and updated Aristotle's theory of matter with the Atomic Theory of Matter, which stated:

- All matter is composed of tiny, indivisible particles called atoms.

- Atoms of an element have identical properties.

- Atoms of different elements have different properties.

- Atoms of two or more elements can combine in constant ratios to form new substances.

In the late 1800s a man named J. J. Thomson did some experiments, who's results did not agree with Dalton's Atomic Theory. Thomson passed electricity though gases, my his experiments, he theorized the existence negatively charged subatomic particles he called electrons. From this theory Thomson created a model of a atom which had the electrons placed evenly inside the atoms.

In the early 1900s a Japanese scientist named H. Nagaoka designed an atom model as a large sphere surrounded by a ring of negatively charged electrons.

Also, during the early 1900s (1898-1907) a physicist named Ernest Rutherford worked on experiments to test current atom models. His experiments involved shooting rays of alpha particles (small positively charged particles) though very thin pieces of gold foil. Based on Thomson's model, Rutherford hypothesized that the alpha particles would travel through the gold foil mostly unaffected by the gold. He was right. Most of the particles did pass through, but a small amount of particles were deflected. From this Rutherford hypothesized that the atoms must have a small positively charged core, the nucleus, which is surrounded by mainly empty space, which contains the electrons. In 1914 Rutherford made up the word "proton," which were subatomic particles that had a positive charge.

A student of Rutherford's, a man named H. G. J. Moseley was the one who gathered the empirical support for Rutherford's work. In his experiments he used X-rays to show that the positive charge in the nucleus grows by one, from each element to the other. From this Moseley devised the concept of Atomic Number.

In 1932, James Chadwick established that the nucleus must contain heavy neutral particles as well as positive ones, this was to explain the entire mass of the atom. He called the neutral subatomic particles neutrons.

I Danish scientist named Niels Bohr created a theory explaining the periodic law. Bohr took the Quantum Theory of Energy, proposed by Max Planck (in 1900), and the relationship between the sudden end of the periodic table. Using this, periodic law, and some experimental evidence, Bohr hypothesized the following:

- Each electron has a fixed quantity of energy related to the circular orbit in which the election is found.

- Electrons cannot exist between orbits, but they can move to unfilled orbits if a quantum of energy is absorbed or released.

- The higher the energy level of an electron, the further it is from the nucleus.

- The maximum number of electrons in the first three energy levels is 2, 8, and 8.

- An atom with a maximum number of electrons in its outermost level is stable, that is, it is unreactive.

Bohr's theory was developed mathematically, so as to explain the visible spectrum of hydrogen gas, as well as to predict other lines of ultraviolet and infrared light. One of the great things about Bohr's theory is that it explains periodic law. The theory states that properties of elements can be explained by the way that their electrons are arranged. Due to the fact that orbits can only contain certain amounts of electons.

Quantum mechanics is a highly mathematical theory developed in the 1920s that describes the positioning of electrons as patterns of probability, instead of distinct orbits. It explains the positioning of protons, and atomic numbers. It describes the energy levels of electrons outside the nucleus, stability of atoms, and the amounts of electrons that can exist at certain levels. It is a very complex theory which explains much about atomic theory.

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A Brief History Of Atomic Theory Essay

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A Brief History Of Atomic Theory
In the beginning of the 1800s John Dalton, an English scientist did work some work on gases, which lead him to the creation of a complex system of symbols for.

In the beginning of the 1800s John Dalton, an English scientist did work some work on gases, which lead him to the creation of a complex system of symbols for all known elements at the time. He took all the information he had collected, along with the Laws of Conservation of Mass, Definite Composition and Multiple Proportions and updated Aristotle�s theory of matter with the Atomic Theory of Matter, which stated: - All matter is composed of tiny, indivisible particles

A Brief History of Atomic Theory
In the beginning of the 1800s John Dalton, an English scientist did work some work on gases, which lead him to the creation of a complex system of symbols for.

called atoms. - Atoms of an element have identical properties. - Atoms of different elements have different properties. - Atoms of two or more elements can combine in constant ratios to form new substances. In the late 1800s a man named J. J. Thomson did some experiments, who�s results did not agree with Dalton�s Atomic Theory. Thomson passed electricity though gases, my his experiments, he theorized the existence negatively charged subatomic particles he called electrons. From this theory Thomson created

Atomic Theory
Chemistry: A Brief History of Atomic Theory February 28, 1999 In the beginning of the 1800s John Dalton, an English scientist did work some work on gases, which lead.

a model of a atom which had the electrons placed evenly inside the atoms. In the early 1900s a Japanese scientist named H. Nagaoka designed an atom model as a large sphere surrounded by a ring of negatively charged electrons. Also, during the early 1900s (1898-1907) a physicist named Ernest Rutherford worked on experiments to test current atom models. His experiments involved shooting rays of alpha particles (small positively charged particles) though very thin pieces of gold foil. Based on

The Beginning Of Time
The Beginning Of Time There was a period in history when the beginning of the world in which we live in was a expressed through legends and myths, now.

Thomson�s model, Rutherford hypothesized that the alpha particles would travel through the gold foil mostly unaffected by the gold. He was right. Most of the particles did pass through, but a small amount of particles were deflected. From this Rutherford hypothesized that the atoms must have a small positively charged core, the nucleus, which is surrounded by mainly empty space, which contains the electrons. In 1914 Rutherford made up the word �proton,� which were subatomic particles that had a positive

The Beginning Of Time
THE BEGINNING OF TIME There was a period in history when the beginning of the world in which we live in was a expressed through legends and myths, now.

charge. A student of Rutherford�s, a man named H. G. J. Moseley was the one who gathered the empirical support for Rutherford�s work. In his experiments he used X-rays to show that the positive charge in the nucleus grows by one, from each element to the other. From this Moseley devised the concept of Atomic Number. In 1932, James Chadwick established that the nucleus must contain heavy neutral particles as well as positive ones, this was to explain the entire

Fleur's Tracks
Fleur s Tracks In Louise Erdrich s Tracks. the readers discovers by the second chapter that there are two narrators, Nanapush and Pauline Puyat. This method of.

mass of the atom. He called the neutral subatomic particles neutrons. I Danish scientist named Niels Bohr created a theory explaining the periodic law. Bohr took the Quantum Theory of Energy, proposed by Max Planck (in 1900), and the relationship between the sudden end of the periodic table. Using this, periodic law, and some experimental evidence,

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