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Published: 23, March 2015

The modern lifestyle has a number of advantages which includes easing peoples life, saving hundreds of peoples lives by the new development of medicine and vaccines. On the other hand different modern life style patterns have negative effects on health physically, psychologically, and socially. One of these modern ways of living is the high intake of fast foods. This is due to specific reasons such as the short time specified for eating and choosing healthy food. Lack of physical activity combination with fast foods leads to bad effects on the heart's health. Use of high technology machines is another way of modernity. Although use of these machines has helped in saving the time to do a lot of tasks, the wrong use of them will indirectly affect health. Another point is the advanced transportation which reduces the time needed to travel and made travelling an enjoyable time. Last, is the use of computers and internet in the communication, transfer of information, and entertainment as well. Altogether will constitute the elements of a sedentary life style. That means, high fatty foods intake and lack of physical activity. Which both are caused by fast foods, depending on high technology machines and transportation, and sitting long hours in front of the computer.

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Modern life style increases the risk of obesity. Consequently, leading to diabetes, heart diseases, and cancers. Pollution caused by the machines and advanced transportation causes different respiratory diseases. Furthermore, it leads to atopic diseases which are group of hereditary diseases contributing to allergies and asthma. Psychologically, persons are prone to increased stress level and depression. Social isolation will occurs due to spending long time on computer and internet.

Effects of modern life style

Nobody can ignore the usefulness of modernization on our daily life, especially on how much it makes life of humans easier. This is particularly correct about the new evolution of the new development of medicines, vaccines that save people from the fatal endemic diseases. On the other hand, Modern life style becomes more and more an important factor influencing health state of most developed countries. Unhealthy behaviors responsible for increasing the mortality of the cardiovascular, cancers, diabetes, and respiratory diseases. There is increasing evidence that following a healthy lifestyle including appropriate diet, satisfactory physical activity level, and healthy weight can provide significant cardiovascular and metabolic benefits. From that we come to a conclusion that different modern life style patterns affect our health physically, psychologically, and socially. The main life style patterns that are going to be discussed in this research are the use of high technology machines, fast foods, advanced transportation, and the use of the computer including internet and video games that is being used by almost every member of the family.

The way people eat today is far different the way people ate before. Hundred years ago people used to include a lot of fruits and vegetables in their diet. This gives a lot of nutritional value to their meals, and decreases the risk of getting cardiovascular diseases which is related to the less fat content of these foods. These days people have very bad nutritional habits, especially with the fast widespread of fast food culture particularly between young people which they continue to carry on the same eating habits in their adulthood. According to Shepherd et al. (2001), the promotion of healthy eating is high on the health policy agenda in the UK.They mentioned that young people are particularly important group, as poor eating habits established during teenage years may be maintained into adulthood, creating a number of cardiovascular and other health related problems later in life. Ed Edelson (2009) mentioned in his article" that data from 2003-2006 shows that 11.3 percent of children and teenagers were at or above the 97th percentile in body mass index for their age". This shows that overweight teens have a 70 percent chance of becoming overweight adults (Para.6).The reason for people's poor eating habits is the less time provided by them to prepare a healthy food which probably would take time. Furthermore, people don't spent enough time to eat and choose correct and healthy meals. Everyone is just busy in building their future ignoring the fact that this might be interrupted by diseases caused by their poor eating habits. Other reasons include the need for both the man and women to join the work field. This means that the women will be away from home for long hours and depend on the fast foods to feed her family. Therefore, children will acquire this habit and they won't be able to differentiate between healthy and unhealthy food. In addition to poor eating habits, lack of physical activity is a major problem in this today's life. That is, if it is together present with the high consumption of fatty foods, they will lead to disastrous effects on the person's health status. So, maintaining regular exercise is good for the well being of an individual health and helps prevent so many heart and metabolic diseases.

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The use of modern technology makes living better and brings certain advantages to people. Such advantages include fast communication and improvement of travelling. Before, people use animals to help them travel from one place to another which might take days to travel. Now, we spend only few hours using the air planes which make the journey easier. The use of new technology machines is also now in our home. We do most of the house cleaning with machines, which actually makes the life very easy. Every day a new machine is invented for human use to ease their lives. According to Emmanuel Mesthene (n.d.), "Technology is neither good nor bad, it is neutral"(page 12).This means that technology can bring us luxuries, but it also can cause problems. It is a matter on how the technology is used according to him.

Computer and internet are being introduced into most houses. Although they have a lot of advantages, they have adverse effects on people health. Jayashree, 2007 said "Internet has been perhaps the most outstanding innovation in the field of communication in the history of mankind. As with every single innovation, internet has its own advantages and disadvantages"(Para.1). According to her the advantages include better communication, and faster way of getting information, and for entertainment. The internet has made the world smaller; it also provides services for people use. Children also now use the computers very widely. It is even being introduced in the teaching curriculum of majority of schools. They also use it in playing video games for their entertainment and joy. Even a lot of adults enjoy the video games as well.

All of the past modern life style patterns lead to adopting sedentary life style which combines eating high calorie diet and lack of physical activity. Which are major risk factors for getting a lot of different diseases. In my opinion, sedentary life style includes the wrong use of available high technology machines and transportation as well.

Physical effects of modern life style patterns especially the fast foods and the lack of physical activity increase the risk of getting cardiovascular diseases. Acharia (2007), wrote in his article Modern Life Style Could Damage Your Heart, "The modern lifestyle, which puts people under constant stress, could severely damage major organs and lead to heart attacks, kidney disease and dementia"(Para.1). Other diseases caused by sedentary life style include type two diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Doctors said that sedentary life style is a modifiable risk factor. This means that this risk factor can be prevented and changed by following a healthy life style. A healthy life style means healthy eating and regular exercising. Obesity, which is a major health problem of industrialized countries, is a result of following sedentary life style as well. A study done by Rodriguez,Nvalbos, Martinez, and Eschobar (2009)," results shows that the highest levels of obesity associated with daily alcohol consumption, greater consumption of television, and sedentary pursuit. A lower prevelance of obesity is observed among those with active physical activity". (Para. 1) Pollution caused by the use of high technology machines and transportation contributes to many respiratory and skin diseases as well. Furthermore, Herbert et al. (2009) study showed "that so-called western lifestyle may contribute to the development of atopic diseases". (Para. 1). Atopic disease means the hereditary tendency to experience immediate allergic reactions such as asthma or vasomotor rhinitis because of the presence of antibody in the skin or bloodstream.

The effects of modern life style on the psychological status of people are still on research. But, most researchers agree that to some extent modern life style indirectly impact psychosocial life of individuals. Experts from university of Washington have warned that the way modern technology has been breaking people's connections with the natural world may give rise to a major psychological problem. One of these effects includes increasing the stress level due to the so many obligations today's person might take. Even though some degree of stress might be useful in order to handle different problems we face every day. Chronic stress will have effects on the person's physical state as it will lead to many diseases. Raylopez, (2009) said in his article about causes of stress in modern life style "In modern lifestyle, however, stressful stimuli are continues and stress is daily, so the pressure builds up and eventually causes damage to the body".(Para. 4). A healthy life style will have its positive effects on the psychological status of the individual which will directly affects his physical status as well. The use of high technology machines will reduce person's self independence and make him depend in doing his job on the machines. This will subsequently reduce the self satisfaction. As doing a job on your own will make you more confident about your abilities. Brendan, (2009) cited from lardie's research findings in his article Depression Caused By Modern life style. Those findings are conclusive that "depression primarily stems from modern living: social isolation, fast food laden diets, physical inactivity, sleep deprivation, and less exposure to the outdoors". (Para.6) .Depression finally will damage person's life physically and socially and will deprive him from his normal life.

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Socially, modern life style affects the social relationships very strongly. Especially with the use of internet to chat with others. People use internet messenger widely in their communication with others. This will lead to social isolation as a result of spending long time on the internet. As consequence, the person will isolate himself at home and deprive himself from family and friends social gatherings. Using the internet may lead to declines in visiting with friends and family. Irina, Robert, and Lee, (2004). They mentioned also that frequent internet use has negative social outcomes. They cited in their research the results of other research findings which includes; "internet is associated with increases in depression and social isolation" Kraut et al. (1998).(Para.3). Irina,Robert, and Lee, identified that "frequency of internet use associated with declines in spending time with family and friends and in attending social events". (As cited in Nie et al. 2002). (Para.3).

Conclusion

To sum up, different modern life style patterns affects our health in different aspects physically, psychologically, and socially. I think that if the people's awareness about these effects doesn't increase, this may lead to dangerous consequences in the near future. Adopting this life style patterns and especially sedentary life style for long time might threaten people's life. If this happens then the community health will be affected and we will be having high percentage of diseased and disabled persons. Which finally reduce individual's productivity and development of their own communities. The best way for reducing the effects of these modern patterns of living is by educating people about its effects on their lives. Particularly concentrating in educating children as changing the way these children live will affect future generations coming after them as well. Another part of resolving the problem is the proper use of high technology machines and advanced transportations. Such proper way means correct use in benefiting the humanity not affecting it and increasing the self dependency in doing different tasks of the day. Promoting healthy life style which includes proper eating, physical activity, and better way of communicating and socializing in the community will have its positive impacts. Furthermore, it will reduce the risk of getting so many diseases which cardiovascular diseases and cancers are at the top of them. Finally, maintaining people's health is a primary goal of any country that probably would make her spend millions of dollars to achieve it as people are the' real wealth of a country'.

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Modern lifestyle has made it harder for people to live a healthy and active lifestyle

Modern lifestyle has made it harder for people to live a healthy and active lifestyle. What are the causes of this situation? Suggest what can be done by the government and large organizations to improve it.

Essay topics:
Modern lifestyle has made it harder for people to live a healthy and active lifestyle. What are the causes of this situation? Suggest what can be done by the government and large organizations to improve it.

Submitted by RBH on Sun, 08/09/2015 - 00:30

This is a universally acknowledged fact that “Health is wealth” since the olden days. However, because of the introduction of modern gadgets people, especially, youngsters are not living healthy lifestyles. Some people hold the opinion that there are multifarious reasons for this cause. Here, in the below essay, I will try to enunciate the causes and some probable solutions that regime of a nation can take to improve the overall situation.

To begin with, probably, these are the causes of Modern lifestyle that had made the life harder for living healthy lifestyle. Firstly, as every job demands high commitment and more working hours from the employees, they hardly had enough time and stamina left to perform the exercise on the weekdays. Secondly, as the modern technologies are becoming popular day by day all people are becoming lackadaisical; especially, youngsters and because of their attitude, even though they gets leisure time in the evening; in spite of spending that time for the exercises or doing some fitness activity, they normally sit in front of a Laptop either playing video-games, chatting with friends on the social networking sites. Finally, nowadays, even to travel a distance of 1 to 2 Kms people use their private vehicles like cars or bikes; whereas, in the olden days, people use to take a walk and cover the distance. Laziness is the main reasons of living sedentary lifestyle.

These are some of the major steps that can be taken by the regime and the organizations, so that they can encourage everyone to live better and the healthy lifestyles. First and foremost, there should be enough green areas like parks and gardens that need to be developed in each developing cities. Moreover, regime should create awareness about the benefits of doing an exercise by placing hoarding or through media channels. Admittedly, if every organization can build gym or book some badminton and tennis court for their employees throughout the year and encourage them to participate in this initiative by some high prize money. Definitely, it can make a difference to some extent.

To recapitulate, undeniably, in my viewpoint it is people attitudes and lazy behaviors that are making them live sedentary lifestyles. The governments and the organizations can only encourage people to participate in the exercises but cannot force them. Obviously, in this freedom world, it is each individual decision, how they wanted to live their life.

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Fukuyama Francis Fukuyama From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama image from BloggingHeads.tv podcast Fukuyama in 2005 Born October 27, 1952 (age 63) Chicago, Illinois, U.S Website fukuyama.stanford.edu Institutions George Mason University[1] Johns Hopkins University Stanford University Main interests Developing nations Governance International political economy Nation-building and democratization Strategic and security issues Notable ideas End of history Influences [show] Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama (born October 27, 1952) is an American political scientist, political economist, and author. Fukuyama is known for his book The End of History and the Last Man (1992), which argued that the worldwide spread of liberal democracies and free market capitalism of the West and its lifestyle may signal the end point of humanity's sociocultural evolution and become the final form of human government. However, his subsequent book Trust: Social Virtues and Creation of Prosperity (1995) modified his earlier position to acknowledge that culture cannot be cleanly separated from economics. Fukuyama is also associated with the rise of the neoconservative movement,[2] from which he has since distanced himself.[3] Fukuyama has been a Senior Fellow at the Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law at Stanford University since July 2010.[4] Before that, he served as a professor and director of the International Development program at the School of Advanced International Studies of the Johns Hopkins University. Previously, he was Omer L. and Nancy Hirst Professor of Public Policy at the School of Public Policy at George Mason University.[4] He is a council member of the International Forum for Democratic Studies founded by the National Endowment for Democracy and was a member of the Political Science Department of the RAND Corporation.[5] Contents 1 Early life 2 Education 3 Writings 3.1 Neoconservatism 3.2 Fukuyama's current views 4 Affiliations 5 Personal life 6 See also 7 Selected bibliography 7.1 Scholarly works (partial list) 7.2 Books 7.3 Essays 8 See also 9 References 10 External links Early life Francis Fukuyama was born in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. His paternal grandfather fled the Russo-Japanese War in 1905 and started a shop on the west coast before being interned in the Second World War.[6] His father, Yoshio Fukuyama, a second-generation Japanese American, was trained as a minister in the Congregational Church, received a doctorate in sociology from the University of Chicago, and taught religious studies.[7][8][9] His mother, Toshiko Kawata Fukuyama, was born in Kyoto, Japan, and was the daughter of Shiro Kawata, founder of the Economics Department of Kyoto University and first president of Osaka City University.[10] Francis grew up in Manhattan as an only child, had little contact with Japanese culture, and did not learn Japanese.[7][8] His family moved to State College, Pennsylvania in 1967.[10] Education Fukuyama received his Bachelor of Arts degree in classics from Cornell University, where he studied political philosophy under Allan Bloom.[8][11] He initially pursued graduate studies in comparative literature at Yale University, going to Paris for six months to study under Roland Barthes and Jacques Derrida, but became disillusioned and switched to political science at Harvard University.[8] There, he studied with Samuel P. Huntington and Harvey Mansfield, among others. He earned his Ph.D. in political science at Harvard for his thesis on Soviet threats to intervene in the Middle East.[8][11] In 1979, he joined the global policy think tank RAND Corporation.[8] Fukuyama lived at the Telluride House and has been affiliated with the Telluride Association since his undergraduate years at Cornell, an education enterprise that was home to other significant leaders and intellectuals, including Steven Weinberg, Paul Wolfowitz and Kathleen Sullivan. Fukuyama was the Omer L. and Nancy Hirst Professor of Public Policy in the School of Public Policy at George Mason University from 1996 to 2000. Until July 10, 2010, he was the Bernard L. Schwartz Professor of International Political Economy and Director of the International Development Program at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies of Johns Hopkins University in Washington, D.C. He is now Olivier Nomellini Senior Fellow and resident in the Center on Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies at Stanford University.[11] Writings Fukuyama is best known as the author of The End of History and the Last Man, in which he argued that the progression of human history as a struggle between ideologies is largely at an end, with the world settling on liberal democracy after the end of the Cold War and the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Fukuyama predicted the eventual global triumph of political and economic liberalism: What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of history as such. That is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government. Authors like Ralf Dahrendorf argued in 1990 that the essay gave Fukuyama his 15 minutes of fame, which will be followed by a slide into obscurity.[12][13] He continued to remain a relevant and cited public intellectual leading American communitarian Amitai Etzioni to declare him "one of the few enduring public intellectuals. They are often media stars who are eaten up and spat out after their 15 minutes. But he has lasted."[14] One of the main reasons for the massive criticism against The End of History was the aggressive stance that it took towards postmodernism. Postmodern philosophy had, in Fukuyama's opinion, undermined the ideology behind liberal democracy, leaving the western world in a potentially weaker position.[15] The fact that Marxism and fascism had been proven untenable for practical use while liberal democracy still thrived was reason enough to embrace the hopeful attitude of the Progressive era, as this hope for the future was what made a society worth struggling to maintain. Postmodernism, which, by this time, had become embedded in the cultural consciousness, offered no hope and nothing to sustain a necessary sense of community, instead relying only on lofty intellectual premises.[16] Being a work that both praised the ideals of a group that had fallen out of favor and challenged the premises of the group that had replaced them, it was bound to create some controversy. Fukuyama has written a number of other books, among them Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity and Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution. In the latter, he qualified his original "end of history" thesis, arguing that since biotechnology increasingly allows humans to control their own evolution, it may allow humans to alter human nature, thereby putting liberal democracy at risk.[17] One possible outcome could be that an altered human nature could end in radical inequality. He is a fierce enemy of transhumanism, an intellectual movement asserting that posthumanity is a desirable goal. In another work, The Great Disruption: Human Nature and the Reconstruction of Social Order, Fukuyama explores the origins of social norms, and analyses the current disruptions in the fabric of our moral traditions, which he considers as arising from a shift from the manufacturing to the information age. This shift is, he thinks, normal and will prove self-correcting, given the intrinsic human need for social norms and rules. In 2006, in America at the Crossroads, Fukuyama discusses the history of neoconservatism, with particular focus on its major tenets and political implications. He outlines his rationale for supporting the Bush administration, as well as where he believes it has gone wrong. In 2008, Fukuyama published the book Falling Behind: Explaining the Development Gap Between Latin America and the United States, which resulted from research and a conference funded by Grupo Mayan to gain understanding on why Latin America, once far wealthier than North America, fell behind in terms of development in only a matter of centuries. Discussing this book at a 2009 conference, Fukuyama outlined his belief that inequality within Latin American nations is a key impediment to growth. An unequal distribution of wealth, he stated, leads to social upheaval, which then results in stunted growth.[18] Neoconservatism As a key Reagan Administration contributor to the formulation of the Reagan Doctrine, Fukuyama is an important figure in the rise of neoconservatism, although his works came out years after Irving Kristol's 1972 book crystallized neoconservatism.[19] Fukuyama was active in the Project for the New American Century think tank starting in 1997, and as a member co-signed the organization's 1998 letter recommending that President Bill Clinton support Iraqi insurgencies in the overthrow of then-President of Iraq Saddam Hussein.[20] He was also among forty co-signers of William Kristol's September 20, 2001 letter to President George W. Bush after the September 11, 2001 attacks that suggested the U.S. not only "capture or kill Osama bin Laden", but also embark upon "a determined effort to remove Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq".[21] In a New York Times article from February 2006, Fukuyama, in considering the ongoing Iraq War, stated: "What American foreign policy needs is not a return to a narrow and cynical realism, but rather the formulation of a 'realistic Wilsonianism' that better matches means to ends."[22] In regard to neoconservatism he went on to say: "What is needed now are new ideas, neither neoconservative nor realist, for how America is to relate to the rest of the world – ideas that retain the neoconservative belief in the universality of human rights, but without its illusions about the efficacy of American power and hegemony to bring these ends about."[22] Fukuyama's current views Fukuyama began to distance himself from the neoconservative agenda of the Bush administration, citing its excessive militarism and embrace of unilateral armed intervention, particularly in the Middle East. By late 2003, Fukuyama had voiced his growing opposition to the Iraq War[23] and called for Donald Rumsfeld's resignation as Secretary of Defense.[24] At an annual dinner of the American Enterprise Institute in February 2004, Dick Cheney and Charles Krauthammer declared the beginning of a unipolar era under American hegemony. "All of these people around me were cheering wildly,"[25] Fukuyama remembers. He believes that the Iraq War was being blundered. "All of my friends had taken leave of reality."[25] He has not spoken to Paul Wolfowitz (previously a good friend) since.[25] Fukuyama declared he would not be voting for Bush,[26] and that the Bush administration had made three major mistakes:[citation needed] Overstating the threat of radical Islam to the US Failing to foresee the fierce negative reaction to its "benevolent hegemony". From the very beginning showing a negative attitude toward the United Nations and other intergovernmental organizations and not seeing that it would increase anti-Americanism in other countries Misjudging what was needed to bring peace in Iraq and being overly optimistic about the success with which social engineering of western values could be applied to Iraq and the Middle East in general. Fukuyama believes the US has a right to promote its own values in the world, but more along the lines of what he calls "realistic Wilsonianism", with military intervention only as a last resort and only in addition to other measures. A latent military force is more likely to have an effect than actual deployment. The US spends 43% of global military spending,[27] but Iraq shows there are limits to its effectiveness. The US should instead stimulate political and economic development and gain a better understanding of what happens in other countries. The best instruments are setting a good example and providing education and, in many cases, money. The secret of development, be it political or economic, is that it never comes from outsiders, but always from people in the country itself. One thing the US proved to have excelled in during the aftermath of World War II was the formation of international institutions. A return to support for these structures would combine American power with international legitimacy. But such measures require a lot of patience. This is the central thesis of his 2006 work America at the Crossroads. In a 2006 essay in The New York Times Magazine strongly critical of the invasion, he identified neoconservatism with Leninism. He wrote that neoconservatives:[28] believed that history can be pushed along with the right application of power and will. Leninism was a tragedy in its Bolshevik version, and it has returned as farce when practiced by the United States. Neoconservatism, as both a political symbol and a body of thought, has evolved into something I can no longer support. Fukuyama announced the end of the neoconservative moment and argued for the demilitarization of the War on Terrorism:[28] [W]ar is the wrong metaphor for the broader struggle, since wars are fought at full intensity and have clear beginnings and endings. Meeting the jihadist challenge is more of a "long, twilight struggle" [quoting John F. Kennedy's inaugural address] whose core is not a military campaign but a political contest for the hearts and minds of ordinary Muslims around the world. Fukuyama endorsed Barack Obama in the 2008 US presidential election. He states:[29] I'm voting for Barack Obama this November for a very simple reason. It is hard to imagine a more disastrous presidency than that of George W. Bush. It was bad enough that he launched an unnecessary war and undermined the standing of the United States throughout the world in his first term. But in the waning days of his administration, he is presiding over a collapse of the American financial system and broader economy that will have consequences for years to come. As a general rule, democracies don't work well if voters do not hold political parties accountable for failure. While John McCain is trying desperately to pretend that he never had anything to do with the Republican Party, I think it would be a travesty to reward the Republicans for failure on such a grand scale. Affiliations Between 2006 and 2008, Fukuyama advised Muammar Gaddafi as part of the Monitor Group, a consultancy firm based in Cambridge, MA.[30] In August 2005, Fukuyama co-founded The American Interest, a quarterly magazine devoted to the broad theme of "America in the World". He is currently chairman of the editorial board.[11] Fukuyama was a member of the RAND Corporation's Political Science Department from 1979 to 1980, 1983 to 1989, and 1995 to 1996. He is now a member of the Board of Trustees.[11] Fukuyama was a member of the President's Council on Bioethics from 2001 to 2004.[11] Fukuyama is a Fellow of the World Academy of Art and Science (WAAS). Fukuyama is on the steering committee for the Scooter Libby Legal Defense Trust.[31] Fukuyama is a long-time friend of Libby. They served together in the State Department in the 1980s. Fukuyama is a member of the Board of Counselors for the Pyle Center of Northeast Asian Studies at the National Bureau of Asian Research.[32] Fukuyama is on the board of Global Financial Integrity. Fukuyama is on the executive board of the Inter-American Dialogue. Personal life Fukuyama is a part-time photographer. He also has a keen interest in early-American furniture, which he reproduces by hand.[33] He is keenly interested in sound recording and reproduction, saying, "These days I seem to spend as much time thinking about gear as I do analyzing politics for my day job."[25] Fukuyama is married to Laura Holmgren, whom he met when she was a UCLA graduate student after he started working for the RAND Corporation.[8][11] He dedicated his book Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity to her. They live in California, with their three children, Julia, David, and John away in school. See also Daniel Bell Selected bibliography Scholarly works (partial list) The Soviet Union and Iraq since 1968, Rand research report, 1980 Books The End of History and the Last Man. Free Press, 1992. ISBN 0-02-910975-2 Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity. Free Press, 1995. ISBN 0-02-910976-0 The Great Disruption: Human Nature and the Reconstitution of Social Order. Free Press. 1999. ISBN 0-684-84530-X Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 2002. ISBN 0-374-23643-7 State-Building: Governance and World Order in the 21st century. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. 2004. ISBN 0-8014-4292-3 America at the Crossroads: Democracy, Power, and the Neoconservative Legacy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. 2006. ISBN 0-300-11399-4 US edition After the Neo Cons: Where the Right went Wrong. London: Profile Books. 2006. ISBN 1-86197-922-3 UK edition Falling Behind: Explaining the Development Gap between Latin America and the United States (editor). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 2008. ISBN 978-0-19-536882-6 The Origins of Political Order. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 2011. ISBN 978-1-846-68256-8 Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 2014. ISBN 978-0-374-22735-7 Essays The End of History. The National Interest, Summer 1989 Women and the Evolution of World Politics, Foreign Affairs October 1998 Immigrants and Family Values, The Immigration Reader 1998. ISBN 1-55786-916-2 Human Nature and the Reconstruction of Social Order, The Atlantic Monthly, May 1999 Social capital and civil society, paper prepared for delivery at the International Monetary Fund Conference on Second Generation Reforms, October 1, 1999 The neoconservative moment, The National Interest, Summer 2004 After neoconservatism, The New York Times Magazine, February 19, 2006 Supporter's voice now turns on Bush, The New York Times Magazine, March 14, 2006 Why shouldn't I change my mind. Los Angeles Times, April 9, 2006 The Fall of America, Inc. Newsweek, October 13, 2008 The New Nationalism and the Strategic Architecture of Northeast Asia Asia Policy January 2007 Left Out, The American Interest, January 2011 Is China Next. The Wall Street Journal, March 12, 2011 The Future of History; Can Liberal Democracy Survive the Decline of the Middle Class. Foreign Affairs, January/February 2012 What is Governance? Governance (journal), March 2013

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Francis Fukuyama From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama image from BloggingHeads.tv podcast Fukuyama in 2005 Born October 27, 1952 (age 63) Chicago, Illinois, U.S Website fukuyama.stanford.edu Institutions George Mason University[1] Johns Hopkins University Stanford University Main interests Developing nations Governance International political economy Nation-building and democratization Strategic and security issues Notable ideas End of history Influences [show] Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama (born October 27, 1952) is an American political scientist, political economist, and author. Fukuyama is known for his book The End of History and the Last Man (1992), which argued that the worldwide spread of liberal democracies and free market capitalism of the West and its lifestyle may signal the end point of humanity's sociocultural evolution and become the final form of human government. However, his subsequent book Trust: Social Virtues and Creation of Prosperity (1995) modified his earlier position to acknowledge that culture cannot be cleanly separated from economics. Fukuyama is also associated with the rise of the neoconservative movement,[2] from which he has since distanced himself.[3] Fukuyama has been a Senior Fellow at the Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law at Stanford University since July 2010.[4] Before that, he served as a professor and director of the International Development program at the School of Advanced International Studies of the Johns Hopkins University. Previously, he was Omer L. and Nancy Hirst Professor of Public Policy at the School of Public Policy at George Mason University.[4] He is a council member of the International Forum for Democratic Studies founded by the National Endowment for Democracy and was a member of the Political Science Department of the RAND Corporation.[5] Contents 1 Early life 2 Education 3 Writings 3.1 Neoconservatism 3.2 Fukuyama's current views 4 Affiliations 5 Personal life 6 See also 7 Selected bibliography 7.1 Scholarly works (partial list) 7.2 Books 7.3 Essays 8 See also 9 References 10 External links Early life Francis Fukuyama was born in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. His paternal grandfather fled the Russo-Japanese War in 1905 and started a shop on the west coast before being interned in the Second World War.[6] His father, Yoshio Fukuyama, a second-generation Japanese American, was trained as a minister in the Congregational Church, received a doctorate in sociology from the University of Chicago, and taught religious studies.[7][8][9] His mother, Toshiko Kawata Fukuyama, was born in Kyoto, Japan, and was the daughter of Shiro Kawata, founder of the Economics Department of Kyoto University and first president of Osaka City University.[10] Francis grew up in Manhattan as an only child, had little contact with Japanese culture, and did not learn Japanese.[7][8] His family moved to State College, Pennsylvania in 1967.[10] Education Fukuyama received his Bachelor of Arts degree in classics from Cornell University, where he studied political philosophy under Allan Bloom.[8][11] He initially pursued graduate studies in comparative literature at Yale University, going to Paris for six months to study under Roland Barthes and Jacques Derrida, but became disillusioned and switched to political science at Harvard University.[8] There, he studied with Samuel P. Huntington and Harvey Mansfield, among others. He earned his Ph.D. in political science at Harvard for his thesis on Soviet threats to intervene in the Middle East.[8][11] In 1979, he joined the global policy think tank RAND Corporation.[8] Fukuyama lived at the Telluride House and has been affiliated with the Telluride Association since his undergraduate years at Cornell, an education enterprise that was home to other significant leaders and intellectuals, including Steven Weinberg, Paul Wolfowitz and Kathleen Sullivan. Fukuyama was the Omer L. and Nancy Hirst Professor of Public Policy in the School of Public Policy at George Mason University from 1996 to 2000. Until July 10, 2010, he was the Bernard L. Schwartz Professor of International Political Economy and Director of the International Development Program at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies of Johns Hopkins University in Washington, D.C. He is now Olivier Nomellini Senior Fellow and resident in the Center on Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies at Stanford University.[11] Writings Fukuyama is best known as the author of The End of History and the Last Man, in which he argued that the progression of human history as a struggle between ideologies is largely at an end, with the world settling on liberal democracy after the end of the Cold War and the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Fukuyama predicted the eventual global triumph of political and economic liberalism: What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of postwar history, but the end of history as such. That is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government. Authors like Ralf Dahrendorf argued in 1990 that the essay gave Fukuyama his 15 minutes of fame, which will be followed by a slide into obscurity.[12][13] He continued to remain a relevant and cited public intellectual leading American communitarian Amitai Etzioni to declare him "one of the few enduring public intellectuals. They are often media stars who are eaten up and spat out after their 15 minutes. But he has lasted."[14] One of the main reasons for the massive criticism against The End of History was the aggressive stance that it took towards postmodernism. Postmodern philosophy had, in Fukuyama's opinion, undermined the ideology behind liberal democracy, leaving the western world in a potentially weaker position.[15] The fact that Marxism and fascism had been proven untenable for practical use while liberal democracy still thrived was reason enough to embrace the hopeful attitude of the Progressive era, as this hope for the future was what made a society worth struggling to maintain. Postmodernism, which, by this time, had become embedded in the cultural consciousness, offered no hope and nothing to sustain a necessary sense of community, instead relying only on lofty intellectual premises.[16] Being a work that both praised the ideals of a group that had fallen out of favor and challenged the premises of the group that had replaced them, it was bound to create some controversy. Fukuyama has written a number of other books, among them Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity and Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution. In the latter, he qualified his original "end of history" thesis, arguing that since biotechnology increasingly allows humans to control their own evolution, it may allow humans to alter human nature, thereby putting liberal democracy at risk.[17] One possible outcome could be that an altered human nature could end in radical inequality. He is a fierce enemy of transhumanism, an intellectual movement asserting that posthumanity is a desirable goal. In another work, The Great Disruption: Human Nature and the Reconstruction of Social Order, Fukuyama explores the origins of social norms, and analyses the current disruptions in the fabric of our moral traditions, which he considers as arising from a shift from the manufacturing to the information age. This shift is, he thinks, normal and will prove self-correcting, given the intrinsic human need for social norms and rules. In 2006, in America at the Crossroads, Fukuyama discusses the history of neoconservatism, with particular focus on its major tenets and political implications. He outlines his rationale for supporting the Bush administration, as well as where he believes it has gone wrong. In 2008, Fukuyama published the book Falling Behind: Explaining the Development Gap Between Latin America and the United States, which resulted from research and a conference funded by Grupo Mayan to gain understanding on why Latin America, once far wealthier than North America, fell behind in terms of development in only a matter of centuries. Discussing this book at a 2009 conference, Fukuyama outlined his belief that inequality within Latin American nations is a key impediment to growth. An unequal distribution of wealth, he stated, leads to social upheaval, which then results in stunted growth.[18] Neoconservatism As a key Reagan Administration contributor to the formulation of the Reagan Doctrine, Fukuyama is an important figure in the rise of neoconservatism, although his works came out years after Irving Kristol's 1972 book crystallized neoconservatism.[19] Fukuyama was active in the Project for the New American Century think tank starting in 1997, and as a member co-signed the organization's 1998 letter recommending that President Bill Clinton support Iraqi insurgencies in the overthrow of then-President of Iraq Saddam Hussein.[20] He was also among forty co-signers of William Kristol's September 20, 2001 letter to President George W. Bush after the September 11, 2001 attacks that suggested the U.S. not only "capture or kill Osama bin Laden", but also embark upon "a determined effort to remove Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq".[21] In a New York Times article from February 2006, Fukuyama, in considering the ongoing Iraq War, stated: "What American foreign policy needs is not a return to a narrow and cynical realism, but rather the formulation of a 'realistic Wilsonianism' that better matches means to ends."[22] In regard to neoconservatism he went on to say: "What is needed now are new ideas, neither neoconservative nor realist, for how America is to relate to the rest of the world – ideas that retain the neoconservative belief in the universality of human rights, but without its illusions about the efficacy of American power and hegemony to bring these ends about."[22] Fukuyama's current views Fukuyama began to distance himself from the neoconservative agenda of the Bush administration, citing its excessive militarism and embrace of unilateral armed intervention, particularly in the Middle East. By late 2003, Fukuyama had voiced his growing opposition to the Iraq War[23] and called for Donald Rumsfeld's resignation as Secretary of Defense.[24] At an annual dinner of the American Enterprise Institute in February 2004, Dick Cheney and Charles Krauthammer declared the beginning of a unipolar era under American hegemony. "All of these people around me were cheering wildly,"[25] Fukuyama remembers. He believes that the Iraq War was being blundered. "All of my friends had taken leave of reality."[25] He has not spoken to Paul Wolfowitz (previously a good friend) since.[25] Fukuyama declared he would not be voting for Bush,[26] and that the Bush administration had made three major mistakes:[citation needed] Overstating the threat of radical Islam to the US Failing to foresee the fierce negative reaction to its "benevolent hegemony". From the very beginning showing a negative attitude toward the United Nations and other intergovernmental organizations and not seeing that it would increase anti-Americanism in other countries Misjudging what was needed to bring peace in Iraq and being overly optimistic about the success with which social engineering of western values could be applied to Iraq and the Middle East in general. Fukuyama believes the US has a right to promote its own values in the world, but more along the lines of what he calls "realistic Wilsonianism", with military intervention only as a last resort and only in addition to other measures. A latent military force is more likely to have an effect than actual deployment. The US spends 43% of global military spending,[27] but Iraq shows there are limits to its effectiveness. The US should instead stimulate political and economic development and gain a better understanding of what happens in other countries. The best instruments are setting a good example and providing education and, in many cases, money. The secret of development, be it political or economic, is that it never comes from outsiders, but always from people in the country itself. One thing the US proved to have excelled in during the aftermath of World War II was the formation of international institutions. A return to support for these structures would combine American power with international legitimacy. But such measures require a lot of patience. This is the central thesis of his 2006 work America at the Crossroads. In a 2006 essay in The New York Times Magazine strongly critical of the invasion, he identified neoconservatism with Leninism. He wrote that neoconservatives:[28] believed that history can be pushed along with the right application of power and will. Leninism was a tragedy in its Bolshevik version, and it has returned as farce when practiced by the United States. Neoconservatism, as both a political symbol and a body of thought, has evolved into something I can no longer support. Fukuyama announced the end of the neoconservative moment and argued for the demilitarization of the War on Terrorism:[28] [W]ar is the wrong metaphor for the broader struggle, since wars are fought at full intensity and have clear beginnings and endings. Meeting the jihadist challenge is more of a "long, twilight struggle" [quoting John F. Kennedy's inaugural address] whose core is not a military campaign but a political contest for the hearts and minds of ordinary Muslims around the world. Fukuyama endorsed Barack Obama in the 2008 US presidential election. He states:[29] I'm voting for Barack Obama this November for a very simple reason. It is hard to imagine a more disastrous presidency than that of George W. Bush. It was bad enough that he launched an unnecessary war and undermined the standing of the United States throughout the world in his first term. But in the waning days of his administration, he is presiding over a collapse of the American financial system and broader economy that will have consequences for years to come. As a general rule, democracies don't work well if voters do not hold political parties accountable for failure. While John McCain is trying desperately to pretend that he never had anything to do with the Republican Party, I think it would be a travesty to reward the Republicans for failure on such a grand scale. Affiliations Between 2006 and 2008, Fukuyama advised Muammar Gaddafi as part of the Monitor Group, a consultancy firm based in Cambridge, MA.[30] In August 2005, Fukuyama co-founded The American Interest, a quarterly magazine devoted to the broad theme of "America in the World". He is currently chairman of the editorial board.[11] Fukuyama was a member of the RAND Corporation's Political Science Department from 1979 to 1980, 1983 to 1989, and 1995 to 1996. He is now a member of the Board of Trustees.[11] Fukuyama was a member of the President's Council on Bioethics from 2001 to 2004.[11] Fukuyama is a Fellow of the World Academy of Art and Science (WAAS). Fukuyama is on the steering committee for the Scooter Libby Legal Defense Trust.[31] Fukuyama is a long-time friend of Libby. They served together in the State Department in the 1980s. Fukuyama is a member of the Board of Counselors for the Pyle Center of Northeast Asian Studies at the National Bureau of Asian Research.[32] Fukuyama is on the board of Global Financial Integrity. Fukuyama is on the executive board of the Inter-American Dialogue. Personal life Fukuyama is a part-time photographer. He also has a keen interest in early-American furniture, which he reproduces by hand.[33] He is keenly interested in sound recording and reproduction, saying, "These days I seem to spend as much time thinking about gear as I do analyzing politics for my day job."[25] Fukuyama is married to Laura Holmgren, whom he met when she was a UCLA graduate student after he started working for the RAND Corporation.[8][11] He dedicated his book Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity to her. They live in California, with their three children, Julia, David, and John away in school. See also Daniel Bell Selected bibliography Scholarly works (partial list) The Soviet Union and Iraq since 1968, Rand research report, 1980 Books The End of History and the Last Man. Free Press, 1992. ISBN 0-02-910975-2 Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity. Free Press, 1995. ISBN 0-02-910976-0 The Great Disruption: Human Nature and the Reconstitution of Social Order. Free Press. 1999. ISBN 0-684-84530-X Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 2002. ISBN 0-374-23643-7 State-Building: Governance and World Order in the 21st century. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. 2004. ISBN 0-8014-4292-3 America at the Crossroads: Democracy, Power, and the Neoconservative Legacy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. 2006. ISBN 0-300-11399-4 US edition After the Neo Cons: Where the Right went Wrong. London: Profile Books. 2006. ISBN 1-86197-922-3 UK edition Falling Behind: Explaining the Development Gap between Latin America and the United States (editor). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 2008. ISBN 978-0-19-536882-6 The Origins of Political Order. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 2011. ISBN 978-1-846-68256-8 Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 2014. ISBN 978-0-374-22735-7 Essays The End of History. The National Interest, Summer 1989 Women and the Evolution of World Politics, Foreign Affairs October 1998 Immigrants and Family Values, The Immigration Reader 1998. ISBN 1-55786-916-2 Human Nature and the Reconstruction of Social Order, The Atlantic Monthly, May 1999 Social capital and civil society, paper prepared for delivery at the International Monetary Fund Conference on Second Generation Reforms, October 1, 1999 The neoconservative moment, The National Interest, Summer 2004 After neoconservatism, The New York Times Magazine, February 19, 2006 Supporter's voice now turns on Bush, The New York Times Magazine, March 14, 2006 Why shouldn't I change my mind. Los Angeles Times, April 9, 2006 The Fall of America, Inc. Newsweek, October 13, 2008 The New Nationalism and the Strategic Architecture of Northeast Asia Asia Policy January 2007 Left Out, The American Interest, January 2011 Is China Next. The Wall Street Journal, March 12, 2011 The Future of History; Can Liberal Democracy Survive the Decline of the Middle Class. Foreign Affairs, January/February 2012 What is Governance? Governance (journal), March 2013

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World Yoga Day International day of yoga is also called as the world yoga day. United Nations General Assembly has declared 21st of June as an International Yoga Day on 11th of December in 2014. Yoga in India is considered to be around 5,000 year old mental, physical and spiritual practice. Yoga was originated in India in ancient time when people were used of meditation to transform their body and mind. Launching a particular date of practicing yoga all across the world and celebrating as yoga day was initiated by the Indian Prime Minister to the United Nations General Assembly. Yoga is very necessary and beneficial for all human being if it is practiced by all on daily basis in the early morning. Official name of this day is UN International Yoga Day and also called as Yoga Day. It is a worldwide event celebrated by the people of all countries through practicing yoga, meditation, debates, meetings, discussions, variety of cultural performances, etc. International Day of Yoga 2015 (World Yoga Day) World Yoga Day or International Day of Yoga was celebrated by the people throughout the world first time on 21st of June in 2015, at Sunday. History of World Yoga Day Celebrating yoga day all over the world as World Yoga Day or International Day of Yoga on 21st of June every year was declared by the United Nations General Assembly on 11th of December in 2014. The declaration was done after the call by the Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi to the United Nations General Assembly on 27th of September in 2014 during his address to the UN General Assembly. He call the United Nations General Assembly for adopting 21st of June as an International Yoga Day to get all the benefits of yoga for the people all around the world. Narendra Modi has said during his address to the UN General Assembly that “Yoga is an invaluable gift of India’s ancient tradition. It embodies unity of mind and body; thought and action; restraint and fulfilment; harmony between man and nature; a holistic approach to health and well-being. It is not about exercise but to discover the sense of oneness with yourself, the world and the nature. By changing our lifestyle and creating consciousness, it can help us deal with climate change. Let us work towards adopting an International Yoga Day.” The declaration of International Day of Yoga is the great moment for the India in the history. It took less than three months to be declared as the World Yoga Day by the United Nations General Assembly. Narendra Modi had called for it on 27th of September in 2014 which was finally declared on 11th of December in 2014. It was first ever in the history that the initiative of any country has been proposed and implemented in the UN body within 90 days. This resolution has been adopted under the Global Health and Foreign Policy by the General Assembly in order to provide a holistic approach to the people worldwide for their health and well-being. In order to create a great level of consciousness and positively changing the lifestyle of worldwide human population Indian PM, Mr. Narendra Modi has put his views for adopting a day especially for yoga while address to the United Nations General Assembly. He asked to the world leaders for adopting international Yoga day to deal with the declining health because of negative climate changes. Especially, he suggested 21st of June for adopting the International Day of Yoga as this day is the longest day in Northern Hemisphere regions as well as of great significance for people in many parts of the world. World Yoga Day Celebration The celebration of the event International day of yoga is supported by various global leaders. It is celebrated by the people of more than 170 countries including USA, China, Canada, etc. It is celebrated on international level by organizing the activities like yoga training campus, yoga competitions and so many activities to enhance the awareness about yoga benefits among common public all over the world. It is celebrated to let people know that regular yoga practice lead to the better mental, physical and intellectual health. It positively changes the lifestyle of the people and increase the level of well-being. All members, observer states, United Nations system organizations, other international organizations, regional organizations, civil society, governmental organizations, non-governmental organizations, and individuals get together to celebrate the International Day of Yoga in suitable manner according to the national priorities to raise the awareness about yoga. Objectives of World Yoga Day International Day of Yoga has been adopted to fulfill the following objectives: To let people know the amazing and natural benefits of yoga. To connect people to the nature by practicing yoga. To make people get used of meditation through yoga. To draw attention of people worldwide towards the holistic benefits of yoga. To reduce the rate of health challenging diseases all over the world. To bring communities much close together to spend a day for health from busy schedule. To enhance growth, development and spread peace all through the world. To help people in their bad situations themselves by getting relief from stress through yoga. To strengthen the global coordination among people through yoga. To make people aware of physical and mental diseases and its solutions through practicing yoga. To protect unhealthy practices and promote and respect the good practices to make health better. To let people know their rights of good health and healthy life style to completely enjoy the highest standard of physical and mental health. To link between protection of health and sustainable health development. To get win over all the health challenges through regular yoga practice. To promote better metal and physical health of people through yoga practice.

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Since the beginning, trees have furnished us with two of life's essentials, food and oxygen. As we evolved, they provided additional necessities such as shelter, medicine, and tools. Today, their value continues to increase and more benefits of trees are being discovered as their role expands to satisfy the needs created by our modern lifestyles.

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पेड़ों के महत्व के बारे में हिंदी निबंध

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Essay As I covered each destination, I came to know more about the people living in this splendorous place, their lifestyle, culture and many other things. The most astonishing were the costumes that they wore. I had never seen any Rajasthani wearing pale colors. Interestingly, they all wore opulent colors like bright red, dazzling yellow, lively green against the backdrop of the sandy land. Another common thing I found was the use of silver and golden laces Laces on their dress.

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Costumes of Kerala Costumes of Kerala reflect simplicity and the traditional essence of the state. Most dresses of the state are either off-white or white in colour for both men and women. Costumes of Kerala reflect the inherent simple lifestyle of the Malayali people. The people of the region, both men and women, generally dress in off-white or white attires. The principal dress which the people of Kerala wear is largely traditional in nature. The traditional form of dress worn by the Keralites is Mundu and Neriyathu, a piece of white cloth having borders of golden zari symbolising royalty, for both men and women. The women also wear Sari, a 5-6 m long cloth which is embroidered with golden border and jacket.

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Ara insan çevirisi cümleler

Çeviri araçları - Bilgisayar çevirileri istatistiksel makine çevirisi aracımız, Google. Microsoft. Systran ve Worldlingo kombinasyonu ile sağlanmaktadır.

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