Women In Ancient India Essays On Leadership - Homework for you

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Women In Ancient India Essays On Leadership

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What is feminism according to Hinduism?

Thank you for the A2A.

Women in the Vedic times have always been protected by their family members because the senses are very strong and even a learned man can commit mistakes. Hence men are expected and trained to follow high standards of etiquette even when dealing with their mother, sister or any other women. Below is such an injunction:

​One should not allow oneself to sit on the same seat even with one's own mother, sister or daughter, for the senses are so strong that even though one is very advanced in knowledge, he may be attracted by sex.

-Srimad Bhagavatam 9.19.17

Such etiquette for them was very easy for every child was trained since the age of five in Vedas and remain Brahmachari ( Celibate ) by one's activities, mind and words as instructed by Yajnavalkya. Also, they were trained to address and also respect every other women as Mother not sister, as we do today.

Srila Prabhupada explains:

So in India, especially, women are still respected. Therefore Chanakya Pandita says, matrvat para-daresu: "Any woman who is not your wife, she should be treated as your mother." This is moral instruction. Matrvat. At the present moment, they have invented the word behenji. "sister." No. In the Vedic culture, there is no such thing as "sister." "Mother," that is Vedic culture. Because mother is always respected, so any woman, if she is called "Mother. " The brahmacari would go to the householder's house and address the ladies, "Mother. Mother, give us some alms." So from the childhood, a brahmacari is trained to address all women as mother. Therefore, when they are young, they cannot see women in any other way. This is Vedic culture.

- Lecture on Srimad Bhagavatam 1.8.24 October 4 1974, Mayapur

The restrictions on both men and women are put so that the unscruplous cheaters who have malicious intentions for women do not get a chance to fulfill their intentions. Today, such kind of men are taking advantage of women who are may be working, or out for some purpose pertaining to their day-to-day activities. Even babies and girl children have not been spared by such people what can we say about women.

But it is not possible that one lockdown the women and girls in the house, That is not practical. Neither laws have made any changes in the scenario. Even though a public execution may be announced for rapists, still they will attempt it because they are propelled by a strong desire of illicit sex. Hence, it is a change in the mentality of people and also the way people view women and girls need a change. And in fact both, men and women require such training .

We view girls and women as an object of sensual enjoyment, but our bodies irrespective of being a man/woman/animal is a bag of bones, flesh, marrow and stool. Sripada Shankaracharya shows us this harsh reality in his composition of Bhaja-Govindam:

​Having seen the supposed beauty of a woman's heavy breasts and her thin waist, do not become agitated and illusioned, for these attractive features are simply transformations of fat, flesh and various other disgusting ingredients. You should consider this in your mind again and again.

But following Krishna consciousness one can become gradually free of such wild attractions and reserve oneself from viewing women in such disrespectful manner :

Self-control means that one should not accept anything which is detrimental to the path of spiritual progress. One should become accustomed to this and reject anything which is against the path of spiritual progress. This is real renunciation. The senses are so strong that they are always anxious to have sense gratification. One should not cater to these demands, which are not necessary. The senses should only be gratified to keep the body fit so that one can discharge his duty in advancing in spiritual life. The most important and uncontrollable sense is the tongue. If one can control the tongue, then there is every possibility of controlling the other senses. The function of the tongue is to taste and to vibrate. Therefore, by systematic regulation, the tongue should always be engaged in tasting the remnants of foodstuffs offered to Krishna and chanting Hare Krishna.

- Bhagavad-gita As It Is 13.8-12

I hope your question has been answered.

All glories to Srila Prabhupada.

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The Hindu society has always been devoid of ‘isms’, almost all of which are a direct consequence of a gender-dominated, gender-specific, politico-religious ideologies that were developed in the harsh desert landscapes of a war-like Middle East during different periods of time.

These ideologies were developed over time as a means of clan consolidation, preservation and obtaining and utilization of maximum resources possible with minimum input.

The warrior male, in such societies, being the prime gatherer and bounty bringer took the upper hand in shaping divinity as a definite and passionate male form. During the course of centuries, through excesses committed in various empires and countries, there came a point when both women and rational men said “enough is enough”. This was termed as Renaissance in medieval Europe, which further got passed on to its colonized offspring countries like USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, where a large segment of this population migrated and settled.

Centuries of hurt and inequality upto even the late 1900s, coupled with new emerging freedoms of democracy and thought and expression, developed into the various social ‘isms’: Male chauvinism and the other extreme feminism.

The Hindu society on the other hand, never had to deal with such extremes since the very inception of time. Since ancient era (often termed as “myths” by left intellectuals and politically motivated groups), the Hindu society has been a forest/nature society. A nurturer just like a mother, sister, wife, aunt, grandmother etc.

Therefore, a female was not just there for doing men’s bidding but controlled the males through her noble, graceful and nurturing deeds and through following the Vedic studies. Women have always been central to the Hindu society (quite contrary to the dystopian adaptation of western feminism or foreign medieval male chauvinism these days which is destroying families). taking positions of rulers, providers, caretakers, nurturers, lovers, strategists, teachers etc.

Hindus in the Vedic era, would not even dream of mistreating their women whom they didn’t see as someone inferior but instead as equal or mostly superior. The law of karma was always there, which meant that a good deed was rewarded by a good deed even when treating each other.

The 7 rounds that a bride and a groom take around the holy fire is not just ceremonial. With each round, there are chants of the vows that the husband makes to his wife and the wife makes to her husband.

1- The groom assures the bride that their relation has been cemented by circumambulating around lord Agni (the god of fire, deemed as the universal purifier) and that he will ensure to provide all the comfort and love to the bride.

In return, the bride vows to take the responsibility of nurturing and caring for the husband and the family, ensuring their welfare and happiness.

2- The groom promises the bride that he would protect the bride with all his strength, courage, honour and life and protect their future family, in front of the holy Agni.

In return, the bride promises to stand by her husband, encourage him to do better and be his strength at all times.

3- The bride accepts the groom as her husband and vows that he will be the primary man in her life and all other men would be secondary. Her husband will be her universe.

in return, the groom vows that he will stand by his wife and provide for their future children in every way possible.

4- The groom confesses that the bride has brought sanctity and purity in his life and the life of his family. He prays to Bhagwan (God) to give the two good children and long life.

In return, the bride promises to acquire happiness and harmony through love and respect.

5- The groom accepts the bride as his closest and most intimate friend and the bride honours this and promises to be the best friend.

6- The groom prays for the bride’s happiness and wishes her much prosperity and harmony while the bride commits to standing by his side.

7- The bride promises that she has become the groom’s wife with lord Agni and the devtas and devis (deities) as the holy witnesses while reciting the holy Vedas. She promises that she has spoken these vows with purity of heart and clarity of mind and that she will never deceive her husband.

The groom in return acknowledges the promise and declares that their love and affection has become permanent and have become spiritually one in front of God and all the devas and devis and he completely surrenders to her.

Some other points about women in Hindu society are the following. Please remember that we are discussing about what was actually existent since times immemorial and not what is prevalent now.

1-The very form of supreme is called Shakti, given the feminine form. Some pray the form as Ma Jagdamba.

2- In Vedic civilization women were always encouraged to pursue spiritual advancement without hindrance: "O bride! May the knowledge of the Vedas be in front of you and behind you, in your centre and in your ends. May you conduct your life after attaining the knowledge of the Vedas. May you be benevolent, the harbinger of good fortune and health, and live in great dignity and indeed be illumined in your husband's home." (Atharva Veda. 14.1.64)

3- In Vedic era, women stood as a decisive force in spirituality and the foundation of moral development. There were also women rishis who revealed the Vedic knowledge to others. For instance, in the 126th hymn of the Rig-Veda was revealed by a Vedic woman whose name was Romasha.

The 179 hymn of the same book was by Lopamudra, another inspired Vedic woman. There were several female visionaries and great personalities of the Vedic wisdom, such as Visvavara, Shashvati, Gargi, Maitreyi, Apala, Ghosha, and Aditi who instructed Indra, one of the Devas, in the higher knowledge of Brahman.

Every one of them lived the ideal life of spirituality, being untouched by the things of the world. They are called in Sanskrit Brahmavadinis, the speakers and revealers of Brahman.

4- During the Mahabharata era, there was a revelation by king Bhishma to his grandson prince Yudhishtra, where the former mentioned the consequence of hurting and harming women:"O Yuddhisthira, the lineage in which daughters and the daughters-in-law are saddened by ill treatment, that lineage is destroyed. When out of their grief these women curse these households, such households lose their charm, prosperity and happiness." (Mahabharata. Anushashanparva, 12.14).

5- The much misunderstood document ManuSmriti which is often cited by leftist intellectuals and western-based feminists to justify conversion of Hindus, says: "Women must be honored and adorned by their fathers, brothers, husbands, and brothers‑in‑law, who desire their own welfare.

Where the female relations live in grief, the family soon wholly perishes; but that family where they are not unhappy ever prospers. The houses on which female relations, not being duly honored, pronounce a curse, perish completely, as if destroyed by magic. Hence men who seek (their own) welfare, should always honor women on holidays and festivals with (gifts of) ornaments, clothes and (dainty) food." (Manu Smriti III.55-59).

6- In Vedas. when a woman comes into a family through marriage, she enters "as a river enters the sea" and "to rule there along with her husband, as a queen, over the other members of the family." (Atharva-Veda 14.1.43-44)

7- For mothers, king Bhishma is known to have said, "The teacher who teaches true knowledge is more important than ten instructors. The father is more important than ten such teachers of true knowledge and the mother is more important than ten such fathers. There is no greater guru than mother." (Mahabharata. Shantiparva, 30.9).

These are some of the smallest example of what the position of women is in Hindu society since ancient times and how it slowly got corrupted through a mix of moral degradation, foreign cultural influence during invasions and vested interests.

There was nothing called ‘chauvinism’ or ‘feminism’, both of which are by-product consequences of excesses committed by the preachers of organised Abrahamic religions during their days of inception.

In fact, Hindu texts explicitly cite:

यत्र नार्यस्तु पूज्यन्ते रमन्ते तत्र देवता: ।
यत्रैतास्तु न पूज्यन्ते सर्वास्तत्राफला: क्रिया: ।।

In Sanskrit, it means: ‘where women are honoured, gods reside and divinity prospers. Where they are dishonoured and hurt, all action remains unfruitful’.

These are some very small examples of what women are considered in the Hindu society.

Women's Dharma

Hindu women during the festival of Karva Chauth, during which they fast and pray for the well being of their husbands. Devotion to the husband is considered one of the traditional Hindu values, as exemplified in many stories.

Although women may be classified according to varna. they are also considered a section of society in their own right. They do not pass through the four stages available to men. Rather the Manu Smriti talks of three stages for a woman:
  1. As a child protected by her father: Traditionally, girls did not receive a formal academic education. A woman's role, considered essential in preserving social and cultural values, was learned in the home.
  2. As a married lady, protected by her husband: Hinduism places great value on pre-marital chastity and this has significantly influenced practices. Girls were betrothed and married at a very young age. In married life, the wife's roles were centred on the home and she was not burdened with contributing towards the family income. Fulfilling one's responsibility as a loving and available parent was considered paramount.
  3. As a widow, protected by the eldest son: If the husband died or took sannyasa. then the widow would be looked after by the eldest living son. Elder ladies were always treated with great respect.
According to tradition, women, more delicate than men, require and deserve protection. Hindu texts extol the virtues of womanhood and of the essential role women have in nurturing future generations. Though Hindus are themselves re-examining and restructuring the roles of women, there still remain powerful ideals, exemplified by ladies such as Sita, Gandhari, Draupadi, Mandodari, and Savitri. Such idealism is often at odds with many prevalent attitudes in the West, and those now emerging in contemporary India. Traditional female values and duties are listed below (please note that many similar practices such as the first one below also apply to males):
  • As a child, to be obedient and respectful to her parents and elders.
  • In household life, to serve a worthy husband and treat his friends and relatives with affection. To avoid mixing intimately with other men.
  • To be fully conversant in religious principles.
  • To be expert in household affairs, and to keep the home clean and well-decorated.
  • To dress and decorate herself to please her husband. A wife should avoid dressing up if her husband is away from home.
  • To control her greed and passions and to speak truthfully and pleasingly.
  • To follow certain vratas (vows) such as fasting on days like Ekadasi (the 11th day of the moon).
  • To love, protect and nurture children.
  • In later life, to dedicate time to spiritual practices and to give counsel to younger family members.
Many related practices have been misused, and fossilised as part of the hereditary caste system. The bhakti traditions, which opposed casteism, have featured many women saints who broke away from stereotypical roles. Others remained faithful to their dharma and simultaneously developed their spirituality. Many Hindus acknowledge the need to reassess the practical role of women in society today, but strive to maintain the spiritual principles underpinning traditional practice.

Related Concepts
The basic foundation of equality lies in the notion of atman. the self beyond bodily designation. However, Hindus also acknowledge the need to recognise psychological and physiological differences as a practical reality. Equality is manifest through the concept of sanatana-dharma and conditional differences through varnasrama-dharma. Failing to recognise the spiritual equality of all and denying our external differences are both considered signs of ignorance and contrary to dharma. Spiritual equality is affirmed by discerning material differences, and recognising them for what they are — ultimately superficial but practically relevant.

Common Misunderstandings Chastity, faithfulness, and other traditional Hindu values mean that a woman will inevitably be exploited
The scriptures feature stories of women who accepted the female dharma but remained influential and assertive. The above misconception may be based on the notion that social justice is achieved only through one means – complete equality. Hinduism holds that masculinity and femininity are intrinsic and complementary qualities, not merely products of social influence. The value of womanhood is expressed in many features of Hinduism, such as the respect it gives to motherhood, the many goddesses, and the practice of calling India "the Motherland." Some Hindu scholars consider much feminism to be, ironically, an asymmetric endorsement of male values.

In public places such as the temple, men and women are somewhat segregated. The prescribed roles and duties of women acknowledge that they have different tendencies from men.
The Hindu notion of specific roles for men and women is sexist
Dr. Werner Menski, a senior lecturer at the University of London, has written (1996) "It's too superficial to dismiss the Hindu approach to women merely as sexist." Hindu texts do not support the exploitation of any section of society, but they often differ with many currently popular solutions to such abuse.

"It is not that a chaste woman should be a slave while her husband is naradhama, the lowest of men. Although the duties of a woman are different from those of a man, a chaste woman is not meant to serve a fallen [irresponsible] husband."

A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami

Hinduism is probably the only major religion which already places the feminine very high, at least theoretically, and by its very nature, would accommodate Feminism, even the most radical versions of it. There are two reasons for it:
1.Hinduism, at its core, is essentially Egalitarian
It is only in Hinduism that the Supreme Being is not Masculine. Bramha(not to be confused with Brahmaa-the manifestation as Creator) is genderless - referred to as Tat (It), rather than Sa (He). Hence the manifestation of Bramha may be in any form - feminine or masculine.

When it comes to Bramha's manifestation, the Feminine manifestation is always the Power or Shakti. The Masculine manifestation is the Aadhar or the vessel for the Power. From this stems the concept of Gods and Goddesses as consorts. Rudrani is Shiva's power to destroy. Lakshmi is Vishnu's power to sustain. Swaha is Agni's power to burn. Sans the Power, the Vessel is nothing. Hence, the mantra goes 'Om Adharashaktai Namaha'. One cannot be imagined without the other.

Few other religions have as prominent a cult of the Mother Goddess as Hinduism does. One needs to read the 'Chandi' to realize how powerfully is the image of Durga painted - she is the source and the culmination of the strengths of all Gods. Hinduism has been hugely accepting of women's presence in the spiritual sphere. A woman can be, and has been (there are several historical instances) a spiritual leader, a sage, a scholar, a ruler, and what you will. The act of lovemaking is celebrated, the life of a householder is upheld as an essential part of life, motherhood is respected beyond divinity, and in Kamakshya Pith, menstruation is the biggest occasion for worship.

However, it goes without saying that, like almost all other religions, Hinduism has taken its shape in a patriarchal society, so many tenets and practices, especially the later developments and corruptions are often highly sexist. But what comes to the rescue of the modern Feminist is the other factor given below:
2. Hinduism celebrates multiplicity of perspectives

Few other religions of the world accommodate such polar opposites of opinions and yet keep them united under the same banner. So there are people who say there is only one Existence in the cosmos (Advaityabaad) and those who say the number of Gods exceed count. Animal sacrifice coexists with strictest non-violence. Even atheism is a part of Hinduism. So if today someone says that I am a Hindu but I refuse to follow the sexist rituals of Hindu weddings, religious ceremonies, and social order, it only becomes his/her unique strand of Hinduism. There is a school of women priests in West Bengal and they do perform pujas in community festivals. Many are doing away with wedding symbols, and problematic rituals. And the good part is no one Book claims to speak the last word. So violating a Book is not a capital crime. Your belief just becomes a new way of finding the Bramha.

Theoretically, Hinduism opposes nothing - for everything that can exist is by the Divine Will (leela), and every path leads to the same destination. Practically, it is far more accommodating of dissenting voices and alternate opinions than most other religions - so it is likely to be a home for new thoughts, especially a viewpoint that professes the same egalitarianism that Hindu sages spoke of thousands of years ago.

Written 37w ago · View Upvotes · Not for Reproduction · Answer requested by 1 person

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Culture of India - It is not surprising that thinkers as diverse as Ralph Waldo Emerson and Mahatma Gandhi have found inspiration in The Bhagavad Gita, the great HINDU religious poem. At first glance, this statement must seem odd to you: after all, The Bhagavad Gita describes a momentary surcease in a vast battle in which brothers fight brothers in bloody, historical technicolor. The principal character, Arjuna, sits in a chariot in the midst of the mass of soldiers who wait -- surprisingly patiently -- as Arjuna looks into his conscience and questions his divine charioteer, Krishna. [tags: Ancient World Culture]

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The Effects of British Imperialism in India - The Effects of British Imperialism in India One could approach this topic from two points of view; the British and the Indian. One could choose either party and find very different opinions. When British colonizers first arrived in India, they slowly gained more and more control in India through many ways, the most prominent being trade and commerce. At first, they managed India’s government by pulling the string behind the curtain. However, soon they had acquired complete rule over India, converting it into a true British colony. [tags: Politics, India, British]
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The influence of ancient Indian philosophy - Think Classical India, and one instantly conjures images of an exotic land filled with mysticism and rich in lore. Now think Classical Indian politics and the first thought that comes to mind, the infamous caste system. To better understand the caste system, one must know that upon its initial introduction the caste system was foreign to Classical India. It was in actuality the political system ordained by the outsider Aryans, Indo-European nomads who would settle in and later integrate with Classical India through the conquering of its eastern and southern regions, soon going on to establish a stable and partially unified administration and spreading its influence across all of Classical In. [tags: History, Classical India]

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Learning about Ancient Civilization from the Indian Mahabharata - Learning about Ancient Civilization from the Indian Mahabharata I believe that the Mahabharata historically teaches us about ancient Indian civilization wonderfully. Whether the epic really happened or not, many in present day India really do believe in the mystical world of god, goddesses, and god-like warrior kings. For them to have such faith in the epic says a lot about their culture, which is rich of soul and in my opinion imagination. Is it safe to say that some of the cultural make-up exhibited in the Mahabharata such as male and female roles pass on to today India. [tags: essays research papers India Tradition Papers]

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Ancient Aliens - There is a popular belief that aliens walked the Earth in ancient times, and these theories have created quite a stir in the scientific community. Ancient alien theorists, like Erich von Daniken and Zecharia Sitchin, believe that extraterrestrials came to earth thousands of years ago. Some hypothesize that ancient aliens are responsible for ancient technological wonders, and that they helped to shape human civilization. Furthermore, the belief that ancient gods were in fact aliens, misinterpreted as gods by the ancient people. [tags: Ancient Aliens]
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India's Economic History - Indian civilization traces its early origins back to the Harappan civilization in the 3rd millennium BC, had acquired a definite mould by the early centuries of the Christian era. During this period, India had not only developed a unique social order and philosophy of life, but also a set of political norms which in turn shaped its world view (Cox, 1997: pp124). The concept of religious tolerance, for example has been a leit motif throughout Indian history including the period of Turkish rule between the 13th and 8th centuries (pp125). [tags: India]

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Challenging Imperialism in India - The 1857 uprising marks India’s initial war of independence. The revolt is attributed to the efforts of disgruntled sepoys, Muslim elites that were dissatisfied with British rule, and the organization of a number of Indian leaders. The main reason for the war is that the Indians were dissatisfied with British efforts to erode their traditions, especially following the introduction of Christianization. Indians intended to get back what they to Great Britain. Though the Indians thought that they would be successful in their revolt, the British army managed to defeat them. [tags: 1857 Uprising in India]
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Comparing Han China and Ancient Rome - Han China and Ancient Rome are without doubt two of the most powerful and famous empires in ancient times. The Han Dynasty ruled China from 202 B.C. - A.D. 220. The Han Dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin Dynasty (221 B.C.–206 B.C.). It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gao Zu of Han. As emperor, Liu Bang took a series of measures that were good for his people. He ordered the reduction of field taxes on the peasants and let the armies go back to farming. [tags: Ancient Civilizations ]

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Cultural Impact of Hinduism in India - Cultural Impact of Hinduism in India Huge population, pollution, peace, snakes, saris, dance, curry, and religion are probably the most popular words that come up when we think about India. India is a well-known country. Although it is a relatively poor country, it has a rich and diverse culture. India is populated by approximately 953 million people. It has been a home for many religions, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity. The first four mentioned above originated in India (Finegan 151). [tags: Cause Effect India Essays]
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Mysticism in A Passage to India - Mysticism in Forester's A Passage to India The figure of Mrs. Moore, and the problem of what happened to her in the extraordinary Marabar Caves, has fascinated critics for decades. The question has absorbed attention to a degree that does not correspond to the secondary role that Mrs. Moore plays in the plot of A Passage to India. On the surface, she is a supporting character, yet many of the unresolved issues of the novel seem to be concentrated in her experience. Mrs. Moore arrives in India a sympathetic figure, and departs unresponsive and uncaring, transformed beyond recognition by the mysterious voice of the Marabar. [tags: Passage to India Essays]
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India And Its Business Culture - India and its Business Culture In today’s world, globalisation plays a more and more important role. The idea of the “global village” is becoming reality and business is done not only regional but over the whole world. A European enterprise for example nowadays usually does not only have business partnerships in Europe but also in America or Asia, depending on the branch of their business. In this world of doing business with any kinds of nations and cultures knowledge about the culture and business habits is a “must-have”. [tags: Business Culture India International]

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Imperialism and India - The domination of a country’s or region’s political, cultural, or economic life by one country is called imperialism. (Esler, page. 632) European imperialism began in the 1800s. “European nations won empires in the Americas after1492, established colonies in India and Southeast Asia, and gained toeholds on the coast of Africa and China. Despite these gains, between 1500 and 1800, Europe had little influence on the lives of the peoples of China, India or Africa.” (Esler, page.632) Then the Europeans industrialized and believe western cultures were superior to all other. [tags: Nationalism]
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Ancient Egypt - Land of the River - Ancient Egypt - Land of the River "All of Egypt is the gift of the Nile." It was the Greek historian Herodotus who made that observation. The remarkable benefits of the Nile are clear to everyone, but through history he was the first to talk about it and consider its fascination. Through history, the Nile played a major role in the building of civilizations. The first civilizations to appear in history started on a river valley or in a place where resources are numerous and example of these are in India where Indus river is found and Tigris where Euphrates is found and many other places (cradles of civilization). [tags: Ancient Egypt Egyptian History]

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The Impact of the British Empire in India - For better or for worse, Britain has had a lasting effect on India. India became a part of the British Empire in the 1876 but gained its independence in 1947. The East India Trading Company first managed India. After the failure of the first voyage to India by William Hawkins, it appeared that business could not be conducted there. However, things improved and the East India Trading Company expanded into India. Over the years, many achievements were made and records were set, and there were many successes and failures on both sides. [tags: european history]

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India and Italy: Their History and Economy - India and Italy have been part of the world since long time, both of the countries share unique features in them. India and Italy recently started having even stronger bonds with each other. Both the countries are part of ancient civilizations; people of India and Italy have continuous civilization since 2500 B.C.E. Both the countries can be compared and contrasted on the basics of their culture, religion, economy, history and trade stats etc. I have never seen Italy in my life but I hear people from Italy are similar to Indians in most of the ways and Italy itself attracts me as a beautiful country. [tags: Economics Countries]
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Philosophies of China and India - China and India have many philosophical schools of thought. There are multiple similarities as well as a plethora of differences. While China has a wide range of thoughts concerning eternal salvation and everyday rule, India is more narrow-minded in their approach. The differences are astounding and the similarities are few and far between. Each nation has a distinctly different school of thought, which ultimately led to the establishment of their current day societies. China has many different schools of thought, most of which build upon or agree with each other. [tags: Schools of Thought, Contrasts, Differences]

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History of Religion in India - Ancient India has lots of rich history from the first settlers, the Aryans and Vedic ages, the great religions and to the Mauryan Empire. I will focus on the three major Religions to come from India: Jainism, Buddhism and Hinduism. I will explain the origins of all three religions and further compare their similarities as well as their differences between them. The practice of all three religions still today in countless countries proves the importance of this history. Jainism, Founded by Varhamana Mahavira in 520 B.C.E. Son to chief of state. [tags: Religion ]

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Ancient Roman Beast Hunting - The beast hunts were held in the Colosseum or the amphitheaters across the Roman Empire as the first event in the morning of The Games before the executions and gladiator games. The purpose of the beast hunts was to show the wealth of the editor, or giver of The Games, and for the Romans to show their political authority in being able to obtain animals from far distant places. Also, beast hunts symbolized the power of man's control over nature. For the Romans, greater numbers and varieties of animals demonstrated the extent of their power. [tags: ancient modern sport athletic competition]

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Death in Ancient Egyptian Culture - Every individual experiences the act of death, and most persons experience the death of someone they know of. Whether family, kin, or someone infamous, the living deal with the process of dying. Anthropology seeks to understand the universal process of death ritual and how different cultures deal with death differently. An anthropologist can extract social values of a given culture, past or present, from how death ceremony is practiced. Such values could be regarding political hierarchy or an individual’s status in a society, and about a culture’s spiritual or religious faith. [tags: Anthropology ]
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Writing Inspired by Ancient Empires - Strong, loyal, populous are only some adjectives to describe a great leader such as myself. But there are many weak and poor leaders in current and past empires. And as any other successful ruler the source of my imperial authority is to rule all of the land. I would have my emperor army in one hand and the trust of my people in the other. My main source of power would be no other then my council and my populace. I also wish to regain and establish the dignity and respect of my empire. As well as the admiration and trust in others. [tags: History Ancient Empires]

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Comparison and Contrast of Mathematics in India and China - The period 213 BCE to 1425 CE, are characterized by the beginning of a gradual ceasing of the isolation of China and India to the outside world. Due to natural boundaries (mountains, seas and deserts) providing the isolation, mathematics in India and China were almost developed independently during the ancient era. It was the Silk Road, began during the Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE), that opened up communication between the West and Southern and Eastern Asia. With this communication, cultures and ideas moved, including mathematical knowledge, allowing undiscovered concepts to enter and discovered concepts to be leave, developed elsewhere and re-enter further advanced. [tags: mathematics, trigonometry, zero, numbers]
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An Unsuccessful India - India is one of the worlds oldest and richest civilizations, the treasure chest of the Far East, and the desire of all the great powers of Europe. After years of battle it ended up under the control of Britain, making it "the most precious jewel in the crown of the Empire". Yet for India, the rule of the British did not bring promises of rebuilding a nation. Rather, it brought new dilemmas to face the Indian people. The British constantly exploited the nation for its prime resources and yet India had no gain from them. [tags: essays research papers]

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Imperialism And India - Imperialism and India Throughout history, many nations have implemented imperialism to enforce their will over others for money, protection and civilization. India was no exception. Since its discovery, Europeans were trying get a piece of India's action. In many cases England was the imperial, or mother country. Since India was put under imperialism, a great deal of things changed, some for the good, mostly though for the bad. Between 1640 and 1949, India was ruled by two periods of imperialism, both of which effected India in a very profound and permanent manner. [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Culture Of India - Nearly one sixth of all the human beings on Earth live in India, the world's most populous democracy. Officially titled the Republic of India, it's 1,269,413 sq. mi. lie in South Asia, occupying most of the Indian subcontinent, bordered by Pakistan (W); China, Nepal, and Bhutan (N); and Myanmar (E) and Bangladesh forms an enclave in the NE. Its borders encompass a vast variety of peoples, practicing most of the world's major religions, speaking scores of different languages, divided into thousands of socially exclusive castes, and combining the physical traits of several major racial groups (Compton's). [tags: essays research papers fc]

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Asoka of India - Asoka was one of the greatest rulers of ancient India. He was the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya of Magadha who established the first Indian empire. Chandragupta reigned for twenty-four years before relinquishing his throne in favor of his son, Bundusara (Asoka’s father), who left no noticeable mark upon the empire. Asoka was born in 304 B.C. and was known in his youth as Canda Asoka (the fierce Asoka) because of his aggressive nature. Asoka came to the throne in 270 B.C. after a power struggle that ended in the death of one of his brothers. [tags: essays research papers]

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Music of India - The Music of India Indian music is a very varied type of music which ranges from classical to film, more commonly known as pop. Both types are extremely popular throughout the Indian society in all classes. Music is apparent in Indian culture as a way of expression. The history of Indian music extends back many centuries. Traditionally in that period, there were various kingdoms, in which the power was held equally by the king and the temples. This was the division of music. The temples presented religious music to all that wanted it while the kings patronized the separate artists. [tags: essays research papers]

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The 19th Century Renissance in India - The nineteenth century witnessed a cultural, religious and literary resurgence in India- the Indian Renaissance. It was a period of great social, cultural and political change. The Europeans, especially the British, who came to trade in India assumed the role of colonisers and greatly influenced the Indian life. Though the British rule caused much destruction to the wealth and culture of India it also brought forth a reawakening of the Indian spirit, with the introduction of the English language and education. [tags: World Literature]

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The Influence of Caste System in India and Confucianism in China - The caste system and the Confucianism have profound effect on the society of India and China. Confucianism constitutes the main body of traditional Chinese culture and possesses many facets. Fundamentally, it has influenced Chinese for more than two thousand years. There are two core virtues of Confucianism – “li,” and “Ren.” “Li” emphasized a man had to live in accordance with the highest code of conduct, which can be expected as a true gentleman in a very broad sense. “Ren,” concerned about the attitude of an ideal ruler or an ideal father who was graciously kindly to his subjects or children (Homer, 1951). [tags: han dynasty, confucius, case system]
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Industrialization in India - The quest for development started from ancient civilization. History shows that human being always tried to enhance their lifestyle in comparison with the existing environment. In different civilization with the help of science and technology human being achieved their expected goal. Starting from the ancient civilisation society was divided in main four divisions on the basis of the individuals work. There was scholar, ruler, trader and worker and every civilisation has been developed with the help of these four classes. [tags: Economics]

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Women in Ancient Civilizations - The role of women in different civilizations, even though on different spectrums of the world, had many similarities and only a few differences. Women in these four civilizations: Greece, Egypt, China, and India faced many of the same hardships, struggles, and prejudices. Some of this treatment of women didn’t even end until present day (1920’s). In some of these civilizations women were able to rise up somewhat in their communities but it didn’t come without some kind of interference. When it came to the rights of these women, they really didn’t have any at all. [tags: essays research papers]

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A Passage to India by Forster - Today, for the most part, women are seen as equal to men. Women are given the same opportunities as men and an equal chance at getting a job as men. In today’s society, women do not just have one role and that role and that being to have kids, but they can pursue any career they wish. However, it was not always this way. According to feminist theorists, western civilizations were patriarchal which means that the society is dominated by males. The society is set up so that the male is above the female in all cultural aspects including family, religion, politics, economics, art, and the social and legal realms. [tags: Gender Roles, Equality, Novel Analysis]
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Ancient Calendars - Time Keepers Celestial bodies - the sun, moon, planets, and stars - have provided us a reference for measuring the passage of time throughout human existence. Ancient civilizations like: China, India, Babylon, and Greece relied upon the apparent motion of these bodies through the sky to record and determine seasons, months, and years. We know little about the details of timekeeping in prehistoric eras. However, records and artifacts usually uncover that in every culture, people were preoccupied with measuring and recording the passage of time. [tags: essays research papers]

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MAHĀBHĀRATA: The Epic of India - Mahābhārata has always been the dominant cultural text of Ancient Bhāratavarṣa to stir the imagination of different ages. In this article, I venture to study the interpretation of Mahābhārata and the Woman of Mahābhārata during Colonial Rule, with the intention to understand the dialogic process between a colonized culture and colonizer culture. As such, in this paper, with reference to Kunti’s portrayal in Romesh Chunder Dutt’s (1848-1909) Mahābhārata re-telling, I propose to study the Construction/Re-Construction and Fashioning/Re-Fashioning of the Woman of Mahābhārata in Colonial India in English Re-tellings. [tags: colonized culture, Kunti, colonial rule]
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Ancient Indian Architecture - Ancient Indian Architecture The Science of Architecture and Civil Construction was known in Ancient India as Sthapatya-Shastra. The word Sthapatya is derived from the root word Sthapana i.e. 'to establish'. The technique of architecture was both a science and an art, hence it is also known as Sthapatya-kala, the word Kala means an art. From very early times the construction of temples, palaces, rest houses and other civil construction was undertaken by professional architects known as Sthapati. [tags: Papers]

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The History of Gambling in Ancient Civilizations - The History of Ancient Gambling Gambling was present in almost every major, ancient civilization. From the Mesolithic rolling of hucklebones, to the Mesopotamian invention of the six-sided die, and finally to the Chinese invention of the card, not only did gambling survive through countless civilizations of ancient history, it evolved into a global phenomenon. Stakes on these games could range from Quadrans, the Roman equivalent of pennies, to betting an entire estate on a simple throw of the die. [tags: research paper, term paper, sports]

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Ancient Civilization: The Epic of Gilgamesh - To study history, you first have to examine the way that the people lived and what factors could have caused them to live that way. For many people, they have to adapt their ways of living based on their geographical location. This could include things like the way they dress all the way to the type of jobs that they do. It is a fact that you are only going to be able to grow certain types of food in a specific type of soil. Even in today’s society we still have to adapt to our environment, which is affected by the geographic location. [tags: nomadic hunters, early civilization]
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Comparison of Civilizations in the Ancient World - Early civilization consisted of core values that defined the communities that resided within it. These communities were driven by numerous factors in which would decide the overall outcome of the civilization. Geography, social and economic values, and they’re culture all played an important role in the makeup of these civilizations. Mesopotamia was a successful farming community early on. Utilizing the Tigris and Euphrates rivers this community was able to create a successful way of farming through the use of irrigation and drainage ditches (Duiker & Spielvogel, 2010). [tags: egyptian civilization, mesopotamia, nile]
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Libraries in the Ancient World - Writing in the ancient world was recognized as a powerful skill, the scribes were a very important people and not many were to be found. Starting with the Mesopotamian society, scribes were needed to send messages, convey news, take down Kings orders, register laws, write religious text, and much more as well as entertaining people with their readings. “The Mesopotamian scribes were an aristocratic elite, they contained power in their hands.” (Manguel 180). Text books in the past were found in the wealthier of homes not for the poor or common people. [tags: Bibliotheca Alexandrina]
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Ancient Kingship and Rulers - Kings and rulers started to emerge as soon as people moved away from living in tribes. This was the case with the Jews when they have decided to unite under one ruler. However, long before them the first empire was established in Mesopotamia by Sargon of Akkad in 2334 BCE (Kelly, 2011). The essay will compare kingship in three geographically and chronologically different societies. They are the following: Babylonians during Hammurabi’s reign (1792-1750 BCE), Neo-Assyrians (934-610 BCE), and the Jews (1000 BCE). [tags: Social Studies]
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The Last Labyrinth and Hindu Vision - Mythology refers to the beliefs or opinions that people have about something when one things that they are false and untrue. So we can say that mythology caters the material, spiritual and cultural aspirations of the people. Some of the traits of mythology are also referred in the religion and culture. Religion reflects both God and man. It is a life to be lived which allows scope and validity to varied approaches to the Divine. All great religions preach respect for other ways of life whatever their practices may be. [tags: religion, mythology, identity, India]
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Music of India - Music of India The music of India is a mosaic of different genres and levels of sophistication. At one extreme, classical music is performed in the urban concert halls for purely artistic reasons, and at the other, many kinds of functional rural music accompany life-cycle and agricultural rites. In between are many other musical genres of different regions of the country, reflecting the diversity of its peoples. The origins of classical music can be traced to the Natya Shastra, a Sanskrit treatise on drama, which encompasses music as well. [tags: Papers]

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The Birth of Religions and Philosophies in the Ancient World - The Birth of Religions and Philosophies in the Ancient World From the beginning of time, people all over the world have wondered where we come from, what our divine purpose in life is, and what we can expect after death. Questions about right and wrong, society and government, and nature and the cosmos, are some of the few wonders that ultimately created some of the earliest philosophies and religions, helping people find peace and explanation to the vast curiosity that still troubles us in modern times. [tags: hinduism, buddhism, indo-aryans]
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Ancient Chinese Culture - While the fertile banks of the Tigris, Euphrates, and Indus rivers were giving rise to thriving civilizations in the Middle East and India, the same was happening along the banks of the Yellow River in China. A civilization arose untouched by the outside world in parallel to those of Mesopotamia, Harappa, and Mohenjo-Daro. The Yellow River civilization not only mirrored the advances made in the other two civilizations but also contributed unique ones of their own. Due to China’s geographical location - high mountains of the Tibetan Plateau to the west and vast deserts of the Gobi to the north - communication with the West and South Asia was difficult. [tags: Chinese History ]
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Ancient Chinese Civilization - Our book is designed to give a basic history of ancient world civilizations. A civilization that is not normally studied by Western nations is the Asian civilization. Asian culture and history had been a relative mystery, unknown to the Western world. But in realizing the objective of this class and the overall subject of world civilizations, Asian history is given a basic examination. Therefore, I believe theme to our readings of chapters three, six, and twelve is an introductory study of the vast history of ancient Asian civilization. [tags: East Asia, Culture Evolution]
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Ancient Greek Historians: Herodotus and Thucydides - Thesis statement: While the ancient Greek historians made great strides in perfecting the writing of history, the Roman historians (and the Greek historian writing Roman history) continued perfecting the art of writing good history. The two Greeks Herodotus and Thucydides started the practice of reporting truth and personal knowledge of historical events above prose and poetry (vis-à-vis Homer), as well as removing much of the theological-centric content. The Roman historians that came after improved on this practice, particularly Tacitus, who used the better developed record-keeping of the times to write more concise, accurate histories with personal knowledge of the movers and shakers of t. [tags: greece, writing roman history, polybius]
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The Political System in India and America - Man, being a social animal, has to live in harmony with fellow human beings. Human society has created the unique institution of organized state in order to maintain public order, defend frontiers, and ensure harmony among individuals and groups. After centuries of struggle, only in the modern era has it generally come to be accepted that the state cannot be controlled by divine right or power. Neither hereditary succession nor favors are acceptable as arbiters of political power in a civilized society. [tags: Comparing Political Systems]

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The Three Main Modern Civilizations - The Big Three While all past cultures contributed to the forward march of progress, there are three highly developed historical cultures which did even more - they thrived. The three main civilizations each had phenomenally developed cultures which evolved through their system of writing, their architecture, their philosophy, their government, and their religion. These three cultures eventually set the standards for western civilizations. For example, Washington D.C. could be called a modern Athens, in which its architecture is nearly the same and the justification for its existence is the administration of the government. [tags: DC, greece, ancient greece]
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India - India I. Introduction India, country in southern Asia, south of Afghanistan and east of Pakistan. Including the portion of Jammu and Kashmir administered by India but disputed by Pakistan, India has an area of 1,222,243 sq miles. The capital is New Delhi. and the largest city is Mumbai (formerly Bombay). II. Land and Resources India may be divided into four main regions. The Himalayas, the highest mountain system in the world, lie along India's northern and eastern margins. (This region includes Jammu and Kashmir, a territory disputed between India, Pakistan, and China. [tags: Papers]

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The Politics of Name Changes in India - The Politics of Name Changes in India Ever since independence in 1947, many locations in India have changed their names. Much of this resulted from the reorganization of the states on linguistic lines (as opposed to British colonial divisions). However, in the last six years, many major towns and cities have been renamed in ways that affect foreigners more. Among this flood of changes, three stand out. These are the former cities of Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta, which, together with Delhi, are considered the "mega cities" of India.1 They are the four most populous cities in India, and all but Madras are among the 15 most populous cities in the world.2 As a result, they are important commerc. [tags: Town City]
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Gendered Work Conditions in India: Experiences and Lessons - It is a trite fact that women have been a subjugated section of the society in India. It is also a known fact that the women have earlier been deprived of their real place in the society. This has happened despite the fact that ancient Indian texts have advocated honour and dignity for the women. This phenomenon has perpetrated even in the modern work place scenario in India. The working women, in India, face a lot of gender biases. These biases hinder the professional growth of the working women. [tags: women dignity, working women, indian women]
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India - For more than 200 years before the Indian Mutiny of 1857, there had been a British presence in India. They began as merchant ventures and their holdings on the land were relatively small. Over the years they had expanded, creating forts for protection and larger trading stations. Eventually, to make certain that there would be stability and a successful trade business, Britain deployed many of its armed forces there and also raised forces of natives, thus becoming an active power in 18th Century India. [tags: essays research papers]

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Voices of Women in India: Vedic Times and Now - It is much easier to briefly observe another culture and assume that their way of life is harder; to tell yourself that the people living under those certain constraints are oppressed. Often times, this is done without any prior education or knowledge about the culture. Frequently people who live in western cultures find this to be the case about women in India. They are unaware of the history of the nation and they only focus on the negative aspects of their lives today. The voices of women in India can be hidden behind the current stereotypes forced upon them from those outside of their culture. [tags: culture, women's role, hindu society]
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India - "If on Earth be an Eden of bliss, it is this, it is this, none but this". That says a very well known Persian verse, written on one of the walls of the Public Auditorium of Lal Quila (Red Fort), in Old Delhi. They say India changes your state of mind and soul. India has this impact through its inhabitants, music, traditional dances and its marvelous monuments. Nobody can resist a warming welcoming and `spicy' country which smoothly seduces you. Our plane resound of applauses the very minute we landed in New Delhi; the Indians started preparing for getting off the plane, fixing up their turbans and combing their moustaches. [tags: World Cultures]

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Festivals and Holidays of India - There are many holidays and festivals in India. In my report I will explain what the holidays of Holi, Diwali, Dussera, and Basanto commemorate. I will give details about their dates and customs. ****************************** Holi: The Fire Festival The Hindu Fire Festival, called Holi or Basaat is celebrated in India on the fifteenth day of the Light Half of the Moon, in the Hindu month of Phalguna (March). Holi is a spring festival for Hindus. It is celebrated before the monsoon, the great rainstorms which come each year. [tags: essays research papers fc]
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The Positive Impact of Globalization Upon China and India - To globalize means to “to extend to other or all parts of the globe; make worldwide” (Dictionary.com, 2010). While globalization is a fairly ‘new’ term, it is actually as old as our ancestors. The process was longer back then but, as they were discovering new foreign lands, they were bringing commerce and culture with them. Silks, spices and crops were traded along trade routes and opened new worlds of luxury and taste. Today, globalization has influenced our modern world far beyond those predecessors’ wildest dreams. [tags: International Trade, Global Commerce]
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Rape in India: Victim Blaming Must Stop! - “Do not tell me how to dress, tell them not to rape.”- One of the slogans of anti-rape protest in India. It was made so that the blind society can realize it is men who are the rapist. It is men for whom women are suffering social restriction by the name of protection. From the ancient time, the access of women in various facilities of life has been restricted because, people think that the more women go out the more rape will happen. As women need protection, they have to be in house and lead their life with highly restricted rules. [tags: The Road of Lost Innocence]
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Arranged Marriages in India, Japan and the Elizabethan Era - Arranges marriages have had a successful yet oppressive impact on the World’s society since the Elizabethan Era. They have been most commonly found in the eastern cultures such as India and Japan. In the western culture it used to be extremely popular during the Elizabethan Era. As though it seems today that a marriage is to seal the love one has for another, having an arranged marriage is as if sealing a contract with your parents. Arranged marriages influence the societies that use them by providing wealth, money, and power to the couples and their families even if the marriage is unjust. [tags: Arranged Marriages Essays]
. 18 Works Cited

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India by Rail Commentary - India by Rail Commentary Aimed at the older, more experienced readers with sophisticated lexis, 'India by Rail' is an informing and entertaining piece of text, fit for a supplement of a Broadsheet. Opened with literary devices and simple facts, the scene and tone of the text are set solid leaving the theme and mood to be subtly stressed. The usage of the present tense rather than the past allows the text to be more personal with the reader, in turn helping them to understand and appreciate the true feel of travelling on an Indian railway. [tags: Papers]

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Women's Place in India - Women's Place in India Break Silence They want to break our success Time demands that we break this silence If we are raising our voice Why should They get angry. We are fighting so that we have equality We are fighting so that we have dignity We are fighting so that we have happiness We are fighting so that we have peace We are fighting so that we have justice We are fighting for Women's liberation Break Silence. They are scared of our strength They are scared of our struggles They are scared of our unity They are scared of our organisation They are scared of our emancipation Hence, they are trying to break us by creating barriers of religion, caste, ethnicity, and. [tags: Indian Females Rights Equality Essays]
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The Historical Context of The Bhagavad Gita and Its Relation to Indian Religious Doctrines - The Historical Context of The Bhagavad Gita and Its Relation to Indian Religious Doctrines The Bhagavad Gita is perhaps the most famous, and definitely the most widely-read, ethical text of ancient India. As an episode in India's great epic, the Mahabharata, The Bhagavad Gita now ranks as one of the three principal texts that define and capture the essence of Hinduism; the other two being the Upanishads and the Brahma Sutras. Though this work contains much theology, its kernel is ethical and its teaching is set in the context of an ethical problem. [tags: India Religion World Culture]

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The Rejection of Vedic Sacrificial Ritual in Indian Culture - The Rejection of Vedic Sacrificial Ritual in Indian Culture My intention in this piece is to explore the development of the concepts of brahman and atman in ancient Indian culture. I intend to examine the role of the Upanisads in Vedic society and to investigate their abandonment of Vedic sacrificial ritual. I contend that the writers of the Upanisads turned towards a mystical path away from society in order to explore a viable alternate way of living that did not involve sacrificial ritual. Although the only record we have of this shift in thought is a set of philosophical discourses, I suggest that this was not solely an intellectual move. [tags: India Culture Religion Papers]
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India's Population Growth - India's Population Growth The Evolving Nation India the mysterious nation some times referred to as "the Jewel in The Crown" or "The Land of the Snake Charmers" has been a star of the East, an exotic, ancient land that has consistently beckoned the curious and adventurous. Although, it is believed that the nation is on path towards becoming a powerful industrial nation within the next twenty years. India. even today is a of culture aged for centuries and preserved by time itself. Its forts, palaces temples provide a living history of time. [tags: Environment Sustainability Essays]
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The Evolution of Music through History - Prehistoric Music categorizes all music that was created in the preliterate age (a period before any cultures had created a system to read and write.) Because it’s occurrence was prior to recorded history, the origin of music is still unknown; however, some believe that it’s creation was stemmed through the occurrence of natural sounds and rhythms. Humans may have learned to incorporate these natural sounds into their music by using patterns, repetition, or tonality. Even today, many cultures create music that is purposely intended to imitate certain sounds in nature. [tags: romantic era, ancient music, acapella]
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Cyrus the Great - Cyrus the Great Builds the Persian Empire by Governing With Toleration and Kindness The greatest leaders in history often leave behind some sort of legacy. Cyrus the Great was the founder of the Persian Empire around 500 B.C. which was the largest empire of its time (Cyrus II, the Great). The empire stretched from ancient Iran, and grew to include an area reaching from Greece to India (Persian Empire). Cyrus’ reign saw some of the first contacts between Persia and Greece, and helped Persia gain the political power that had once been held by the people of Mesopotamia (Cyrus, the Great). [tags: Ancient History, Persian Empire]
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Ancient Religions - Religions of the Ancient World Religions of the ancient world were in a state of constant flux. Karl Jaspers states that between the eighth and fourth centuries B.C.E, “great changes took place in all the civilized world” (qtd. in Basham 36), and the great thinkers of these times began thinking independently and individually. Moreover, “after these great thinkers the world was never the same again” (qtd. in Basham 36-37). These times were dubbed the “axial period” (qtd. in Basham 37). The axial religions that emerged during this period were profound and lasting. [tags: essays research papers fc]
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