(4)The latest outbreak of African Swine Fever (ASF) in the West African island nation of Cape Verde threatens the country's entire pig population, according to a 1996 FAO report. The disease has been endemically present in at least part of Cape Verde archipelago since 1985 - with peaks of morbidity/mortality twice a year, in spring and winter. (1) ASF is caused by a particularly resistant virus and is a potentially devastating disease. Authorities reported almost 3000 pigs dead and the FAO has sent a team called EMPRES (Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant.2. Amerigo Vespucci Versus Christopher Columbus
Amerigo Vespucci was planning to sail toward the Fortunate Island and then laying his course toward the west. He directed his course to Cape Verde, crossed the Equator, and saw land, on the coast of Brazil, possibly near at 4° or 5° S. From there, he coasted along the Guianas and the continent, from the Gulf of Paria to Maracaibo and Cape de la Vela; he discovered Cape St. When his health was re-established, he wrote an account of his voyage to Lorenzo di Pier Francesco de' Medici.Then in 1501, he sailed from Lisbon to Cape Verde, and then westward, until, on 1 January, 1502, he.3. A Scientist: Charles Darwin
The Beagle traveled to places like the Cape Verde Islands, Brazil, Tierra del Fuego, Buenos Aires, Chile, the Galapagos Islands, Tahiti, New Zealand, and Tasmania. In the Galapagos Islands, Darwin noticed that each island had its own similar, but unique, form of tortoise, mockingbird, and finch.4. The Federal Government of Brazil and Its History
Brazil's government is a federal republic. They are a federation with 26 states and a federal district. Brazil's federal constitution was enacted on October 5, 1988 and developed a democratic political system with periodic elections for public offices. They, like the United States, have three branch.5. Charles Darwin's Revelations on Human Existence
The Beagle visited various places all over the world including Tenerife, the Cape Verde Islands, Montevideo, Tierra del Fuego, Buenos Aires, Valparaiso, Tahiti, New Zealand and Tasmania, but Charles' main research was done during his visits to South America and the Galapagos Islands.On his visit to South America, Charles noted details of the sea and sky, of plants, animals, people, rocks, birds, clouds, winds and insects. On September 7th, 1835, the Beagle arrived at the Galapagos Islands. Several observations were made involving many animals on the island, but Charles was particula.6. Spanish-American War
The Spaniards had murdered and tortured thousands of Cubans in order to maintain power and control on the island. Even though the Americans destroyed the Spanish fleet in the Pacific Ocean, they had a much stronger Navy in the Atlantic, with the majority located in the Cape Verde Islands. By June 22, 1898 the landings on the island had begun.7. The Effects of Alcoholism To The Lives of The Youth
TABLE OF CONTENTSTitleiApproval SheetiiAcknowledgementiiiTable of ContentsivCHAPTER I.THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUNDIntroduction1Objectives26Statement of the problem27Significance of the study28Scope and delimitation29Hypothesis31CHAPTER II.REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATUREForeign Literature32Local Literature34Definition of terms36CHAPTER III.METHODOLOGYResearch Design39Respondent40Instruments40Data gathering procedure40Statistical41CHAPTER IV.PRESENTATIONAnalysis and Interpretation of data42CHAPTER V.SUMMARY OF FINDINGSConclusion and RecommendationSummary and findings46Conclusions46Recommendat.
About 500km off the coast of West Africa is a scattering of islands that together comprise a fascinating nation. Cape Verde is a challenging place. But if you appreciate the sea, outstanding mountain landscapes with great hiking, and a convivial people with the time to strike up a mournful tune over a glass of thick red wine, then these barren lands pounded by a frothing white ocean are for you.
The dozen or so islands that make up this former Portuguese colony have become a popular destination for package holidays over the past few years, being under six hours by charter flight from the UK. Indeed, they are easily accessible for anyone in search of winter sun. But beyond the beach hotels, Cape Verde is fascinating in terms of both culture and scenery.
Volcanic islands at various stages of erosion, they range from more than 2,800m high to as low as 390m, and this translates into extremes of landscape between the islands – from brooding volcano to flat desert, and from verdant, mist-strewn mountains to panoramic white and abandoned beaches.
The people are a unique race – part African, part Portuguese, part any race with the temerity to land in this isolated, wave-pummelled place since their discovery in the mid 15th-century. Their history, until late last century, was a bleak and moving one, and the people are infused with a poetry and musicality that reflects their melancholy past.
The islands are warm and sunny all year, ranging from an average of 24C in January to 30C in September. The rainy season is July to the end of October and during this time there can be flooding, restricting walking and travel, in the ribeiras of Santo Antao (but you can take a chance: some years it doesn't rain at all).
The islands are at their greenest from September to January. Music – or party – chasers might go in February for the Sao Vicente carnival; August for the Baia das Gatas music festival; or May for the Gamboa music festival in Sao Tiago.
Today, holidaymakers often visit on a package trip to a luxury resort on the main tourist island of Sal. For example, Thomson (0871 231 4787; thomson.co.uk ) flies to Sal from Gatwick, Birmingham and Manchester. Prices start at around £400, but typical trips are significantly more expensive. Many have a good time in Sal enjoying its beaches and watersports but some feel short-changed by promotional material from resorts likening Sal to the new Caribbean or the next Gran Canaria. Sal is not green: it's flat and barren and there is little indigenous culture to enjoy.
The Cape Verde Experience (0845 330 2047; capeverdeexperience.co.uk ) has been devising holidays in West Africa for 20 years, during which it has developed experience in both package holidays and tailor-made trips. It uses charter flights from Bristol, Gatwick, Manchester and Stansted, and has some seat-only availability for independent travellers who want to fly direct rather than via Lisbon.
Specialist operators that go all over the islands include Archipelago Cape Verde (01768 775 684; archipelagocapeverde.com ). Alternatively book a three- or four-island holiday through a small tour operator such as Cape Verde Travel (01964 536 191; capeverdetravel.com ), whose proprietor Ron Hughes knows the islands well and will provide as much or as little organisation as you ask for as well as plenty of advice.
Several cruise companies stop at the island of Sao Vicente as part of their world tours, including Cunard (0845 678 0013; cunard.co.uk ), P&O (0845 678 0014; pocruises.com ) and Celebrity (0844 493 2043; celebritycruises.co.uk ). But passengers may be unhappy merely to be taken on a tour of the stony plains of that particular island and then herded back into the ship: you need to disembark for long enough to be taken on the short trip over to Santo Antao, preferably overnight. Noble Caledonian is offering its first trip to Cape Verde, with an eight-island tour, as part of a cruise later this year. The 13-day cruise departs from Morocco on 24 November; prices start at £4,695 (020-7752 0000; noble-caledonia.co.uk ).
Cape Verde can be quite expensive compared with other tropical destinations: a decent hotel costs the equivalent of £50-£100 a night; a three-course meal in a quality restaurant is around £15; and hiring a vehicle and driver for the day might cost £75. Take a mix of cash (sterling or euros) and travellers cheques for changing into escudo in the main airports or banks (Caixa Economica is the cheapest). Euros are accepted on the main islands but improvised conversion rates mean it's often cheaper to pay in escudo. Credit cards and ATM machines work sometimes but are not to be relied on.
In summary, Cape Verde is not a nation for people who expect to be served a dream holiday on a plate. It's for people who have a little bit of the adventurer in them, who are curious about people and place, who will lap up the oddities that island life might throw at them.
Aisling Irwin is co-author of The Bradt Guide to the Cape Verde Islands
Uncovering the archipelago
* The brown terrain of Sal makes Mars look fertile but the southern beach town of Santa Maria has the liveliest tourist scene, with plenty of watersports centres, hotels and restaurants, many of them good local businesses straining for tourist patronage in the shadow of the all-inclusive resorts.
* Maio is a flat, desolate brown desert broken by unexpected patches of acacia forest, ringed by stunning beaches and beginning to wake up to the tourist trade.
* Santo Antao is a cluster of high peaks cut by steep, lush valleys. Its people live in houses built high up the near-vertical valley sides. Cobbled paths lead you up past sugar cane and banana plantations crowded on to narrow terraces, to the spectacular ridge tops.
* Known in the past as the "cinder heap", Sao Vicente has a relentlessly harsh, brown landscape fringed by black lava rock pounded by white surf. But its lively capital has a rich British colonial history. Most importantly, it's the party island, hosting a huge Mardi Gras carnival and an August beach music festival as well as plenty of dancing and music-making the year round.
* Menacing Fogo rises sheer from the ocean to a height of 2,829m — a live volcano whose most recent eruption still smokes gently. Hundreds of locals – most of them descended from one fecund French duke – persist in living inside the crater. You can drive up a hairpin, cobbled road into the crater where you can spend a Spartan night in local accommodation, hike up to the rim and quaff some rather good wine that comes from the nearby vineyards.
* Brava is an elusive, tiny, mountainous island, with a quiet and pretty capital embedded in its peaks and some stunning walks down to the sea.
* One of the least-known islands is Sao Nicolau, another dramatic hiking destination. Its parched flanks hide a verdant and beautiful interior.
* Sao Tiago, the "capital island" and the most African, has a lush interior with some good walking and craggy peaks. It is host to Cidade Velha, the first city to be built by Europeans in the tropics and now a World Heritage Site. It was constructed by the Portuguese to oversee the slaving and ship-refuelling trades.
* Boa Vista is a flat, bleached land of sharp, white dunes, petrified forests, and unnervingly remote beaches. It's a place to find yourself – and you can do that in some luxury these days.
The story so far
Nothing more advanced than a turtle graced the islands until their discovery by Portuguese sailors between 1455 and 1461. The Portuguese swiftly recognised the importance of owning a spot of land in an ocean that was growing busier by the year – and settled the largest island, Sao Tiago, where there was a safe harbour and a fresh water supply. They began a trading industry and provided passing ships with supplies.
In the 16th-century, the Portuguese found another commodity from the African coast: slaves. They fetched them, "seasoned" them (weeded out the unsuitable, baptised them and taught them a few Portuguese words), and sold them on mostly as labourers in the plantations of South America.
Some they kept and these and their Portuguese masters interbred to create the nucleus of a new, mestiço people – Cape Verdeans.
As the slave trade dwindled in the 19th-century, Cape Verde was neglected by Portugal and suffered droughts and famine. It won independence in 1975, the year democracy prevailed in Portugal.
Some 35 years later, Cape Verde has a peaceful democracy and has made the rare step of being elevated from "Lower Income" to "Middle Income" country in the eyes of the UN.
Active Cape Verde
* Windsurfers come from all over the world to Sal and Boa Vista, especially in the windy months of January and February (wind which can irritate sunbathers and divers). There are numerous surf-rental shops and schools on the islands. Surf Cabo Verde (00 238 997 8804; surfcaboverde.com ) offers beginner classes for around £80.
* Divers can sample offbeat experiences exploring lava tubes and the shipwreck-strewn ocean floor. There are many good diving companies in Sal (try Scuba Team Cabo Verde, 00 238 991 6543, scubateamcaboverde.com ) and on Maio (Sunfish Scuba Diving Academy, 00 238 954 9562, capeverdeiving.com) and Boavista (Dive School Submarine Centre, 00 238 992 4865, email@example.com ).
* Music-lovers can explore the indigenous offerings, ranging from the mournful to the manic (and which spawned such international names as Cesaria Evora, barefoot diva); cavers head to Cape Verde for the volcanic tubes on Fogo; birders are to be found wedged into obscure cliffs to spot rare species such as the raso lark or the magnificent frigate bird.
* Cape Verde offers some serious big-game fishing for blue marlin and other prizes. The main centre is Sao Vicente (five good outfits, try Centro de Desportiva do Mindelo, 00 238 232 6938, biggamecaboverde.com ) with one centre on Fogo (see Colonial House, under accommodation). World Sport Fishing has all-inclusive one-week fishing holidays available from £2,875 (01480 403293; worldsportfishing.com ).
* Hikers will have the trip of a lifetime on Santo Antao, Fogo and Sao Tiago and Sao Nicolau; Ramblers Worldwide (01707 331133; ramblersholidays.co.uk ) provides walking holidays for £1,849, flights and accommodation included.
Some enterprising travellers have noted the easy availability of charter flights to Cape Verde and decided to fly out for some unplanned island hopping. Be warned, though, that the concept is not nearly so flexible as, say, Greece. This is not the Aegean, it's the mid Atlantic and it's hard to do spontaneous travel between the islands whether by ferry or air. For those on holidays of two weeks or less, don't risk your time on the ferries that toil across the ocean connecting the archipelago, except to travel between Sao Vicente and Santo Antao (reliable, several times a day, one hour, €4); and between Fogo and Brava (on a fishing boat that connects the two virtually every day). Ferries between the other islands fall victim to a soap opera of breakdowns, sinkings, delays, stormy weather and the improbable Cape Verdean propensity to sea sickness.
Only four aircraft journey the hundreds of kilometres of stormy ocean on regular flights between the islands. Three belong to TACV; one to Halcyonair-CaboVerde (00 238 241 2360; flyhalcyonair.com ). Domestic flights are usually heavily booked and, if you haven't booked beforehand your only option may be expensive day trips from Sal to Fogo or Sao Tiago, aimed at a captive audience of package tourists (bookable at many venues on Sal).
Instead, plan well in advance to make sure you get your connections for the following adventurous trip. Fly to the islands of Sao Vicente, Sal or Sao Tiago with the national airline TACV, which is bookable through a code-share agreement with TAP Air Portugal (0845 601 0932; flytap.com ) or a TACV agent in the UK such as Cape Verde Travel.
Travelling out with TACV means you qualify for a Cape Verde airpass, which gives substantial reductions on internal air travel. You should book these connections when you book your international flight. Flights between the islands take between 15 and 40 minutes and cost about €85 per journey, cheaper with a domestic airpass.
Here's a suggested itinerary: spend a night in Sao Vicente enjoying the music scene and promenading on the old colonial front. Next day take the short ferry trip to neighbouring Santo Antao and spend a few days exploring the valleys (on foot is best, though you can see quite a bit by vehicle). Return by ferry to Sao Vicente and fly to Fogo to enjoy the 18th-century Portuguese colonial architecture and ocean proximity of its capital town, and then to see the spectacle of its crater (and spend the night there if you like). Finally, fly from Fogo to Sao Tiago to see the plateau capital and to spend half a day at Cidade Velha, a sombre reminder of the evils of the slave trade.
From Sao Tiago you can fly straight home. Alternatively, if the idea of a day of sun and sand appeals, head for Sal and check into the Morabeza (00 238 242 1020; hotelmorabeza.com ) – a top notch, well-established hotel on the seafront with rooms starting at the equivalent of just over £100.
There are international-standard luxury hotels on Sal, Boavista, Sao Tiago, Sao Vicente, Santo Antao and Fogo. All the islands also have comfortable and characterful mid-range accommodation. In Fogo, try the spectacularly positioned Hotel Xaguate (00 238 281 5000; hotelxaguate.com ) or absorb the distinctive local architecture with a stay in a restored sobrado house such as the Colonial House (00 238 991 4566, zebratravel.net ).
For a memorable stay in Fogo's crater, try the basic but tasteful, lava-brick guest house of Pedra Brabo (00 238 282 1521; pedrabrabo.net ) – or spend a night with a local family in one of the many houses that have opened up to passing trade.
In Santo Antao, stay at the heart of one of its most spectacular ribeiras – Paul – in a guest house such as Casa das Ilhas (00 238 223 1832; firstname.lastname@example.org ) or Cavoquinho ( cavoquinho.com ). Alternatively, you can retire to one of the many sparkling, mid-range pousadas at the wave-lashed coastal town of Ponta do Sol (for cracking proximity to the ocean, stay at Cecilio, 00 238 992 3634).
Across the water in Sao Vicente's Mindelo, there's an abundance of options to suit every taste and pocket. A lovingly restored town house in the centre is Casa Café Mindelo ( casacafemindelo.com ), or try Casa Comba (00 238 994 4130; email@example.com ), on a terrace overlooking the port.
On the tourist islands, for options combining luxury with local attractions try the Morabeza (00 238 242 1020; hotelmorabeza.com ) on Sal or Spinguera (00 238 251 1941; spinguera.com ) on Boavista, for a desolately beautiful experience; rooms from €120 per person, per night.
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James Trotta | Jan 28, 2014 | 0 comments
Guest submission: Last year I ventured to the Cape Verde islands with my beautiful wife to be for our honeymoon. We wanted somewhere remote, far removed from the usual hassle of many traditional holiday destinations. Armed with a few months of research and the convenience of a direct flight route from Manchester, we settled on the island of Sal. The Cape Verde Islands are a 10 island archipelago around 300 miles west of Senegal on the African mainland and 900 miles south of the Canary Islands. They’ve become increasingly popular over the last decade as a tourist destination with many holidaymakers travelling as part of their honeymoon drawn to the islands by their rugged remote natural beauty, world class beaches and new luxury resort developments .
We arrived at Sal International airport (also known as Amílcar Cabral International) mid afternoon and stepped out into the mid-day sun. Two things the islands are noted for, strong winds and barren landscapes, were both in evidence. The airport was very small but relatively new. It didn’t bear much resemblance to a standard European holiday destination arrival and it began to sink in we were in Africa. We knew in advance that Sal was not noted for greenery but had the vista not contained some cars, people and an airport you could be excused for thinking you had just stepped off one of 1070s Viking Landers probes to Mars. A car was waiting for us, pre-booked, and we made our way through a remote dead landscape along a straight apparently newly laid four lane highway to the main tourist town on the island, Santa Maria.
Santa Maria is a small fishing town about 25 kilometres south of the airport. The area is synonymous with the recent growth in Cape Verde tourism and associated development boom. The resort is notable for is beautiful sandy beaches and various watersport activities but before we could visit the beach we had to check into our catered beach villa at Tortuga Beach Resort. This was located just north of Santa Maria town centre further round the coast heading west and was nestled perfectly on the edge of another one of Cape Verde’s endless pristine white beaches. Our stay in the resort for 10 days was serene and most days we spent relaxing on beach sun loungers and most nights watched the sun set from the beach also.
We ate some nights in the resort complex and others made our way into Santa Maria by taxi to eat at one of the local restaurants. Santa Maria is not a mature tourist destination yet and we knew we wouldn’t find a plethora of gourmet restaurants but one we did find and grow to love was La Prive. Hidden away and set around a secret walled garden, it was gem which we returned to on several occasions during our stay. The food was excellent but the outside dining set up in the garden was the perfect setting for romantic dinners during our honeymoon.
During our stay, whilst we wanted to relax as we were on honeymoon, we did enjoy many of the watersport activities on offer in Santa Maria, by learning to windsurf and enjoying some snorkelling. Cape Verde winds are legendary so you can always windsurf whilst choppy seas make surfing possible as well.
All in all we loved our stay in Cape Verde and it made for the perfect honeymoon; no unnecessary travel, completely stress free, great weather and beaches and complete relaxation. We intend to return to Cape Verde as soon as we can and next time want to explore some of the other islands like Sao Vincente and Santo Antao.Leave a Reply Recent Comments Categories
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Still current at: 24 July 2016 Updated: 13 June 2016 Latest update:
Safety and Security Section (Crime) – crime rates in many parts of Cape Verde are low, but there there’s been a significant increase in crime in Praia and Mindelo, as well as a small increase in muggings and burglaries on the main tourist islands of Sal and Boavista intercity bus services can be dangerous due to poor driving
Cases of locally transmitted Zika virus have been confirmed in the last 3 months. You should follow the advice of the National Travel Health Network and Centre and discuss your travel plans with your healthcare provider, particularly if you’re pregnant or planning to become pregnant.
There is no British Embassy in Cape Verde. If you need consular assistance you should contact +44 1908 516666. See Consular assistance
Most visits to Cape Verde are trouble-free, but you should take sensible precautions against petty crime. See Crime
Many British nationals have experienced serious problems when buying property in Cape Verde. Before buying property anywhere on the islands, you should seek independent qualified legal advice.
There is a low threat from terrorism. See Terrorism
Take out comprehensive travel and medical insurance before you travel.Travel abroad
Information about travel agents in Cape Verde.
A travel agent in Cape Verde can be a wonderful source of information for both planning a trip to Cape Verde, and while traveling inside Cape Verde itself. Travel agents can help arrange or educate on a variety of regional topics, such as transportation, hurdling government bureaucracy, and problem areas within the country.
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Cape Verde, a dart-shaped archipelago consisting of ten volcanic islands and eight islets, offers endless entertainment, hotels. and opportunities for relaxation to travelers looking for secluded beach vacations. The island country is also well-known for surfing and hiking activities, as the mountainous terrain of the volcanic islands provides great opportunities for trekking trips. Located approximately 300 miles off the west coast of Africa. the Cape Verde islands provide dream getaways for adventure-loving travelers. These islands are classified into two groups: the southern group including Santiago, Fogo, Brava, and Maio; and the northern group, which consists of the Santo Antao, Santa Luzia, Sao Nicolau, Sal, Sao Vincente, and Boa Vista islands. The southern group of islands is known as the Sotavento (leeward) islands, and the northern group is called Barlavento (windward) islands
With a nice climate and excellent beach ambience, travel to Cape Verde is possible throughout the year, and the tropical weather attracts many tourists from the Americas and Western Europe. The warm sunny days make this an ideal destination for a holiday at any time, but the best time to visit Cape Verde islands is between December and May, when the temperature rarely exceeds 75 degrees Fahrenheit. On Cape Verde holidays, island-hopping is one of the main activities, and you can access different islands via minibuses and trucks. A flight between the islands of Sao Vincent, Santiago, and Sal is available through the local carrier TACV Cabo Verde Airlines, but booking the regular ferry services is also a good option, as they offer access to all the islands of Cape Verde.
The Cape Verde islands have an interesting combination of West African and Portuguese influences, and the European-style architecture of the buildings blends beautifully with the traditional African scenery. The islands were colonized by the Portuguese seafarers in the fifteenth century and used as trading outposts for shipping and whaling. Cape Verde gained independence from Portugal in 1975, and today this secluded island country is focused on attracting tourists to its beautiful destinations, beaches. and notable attractions, such as the fifteenth-century Fort Real de Sao Filipe in Santiago Island. It was built to defend the Portuguese colony against French and English buccaneers, and the solitary fort still stands 390 feet above sea level and draws tourists from all over the world.
Diving is one of the most popular activities among travelers, who enjoy seeing the marine life and going treasure hunting through the many shipwrecks. The waters off Cape Verde are home to more than 70 wrecks dating from the sixteenth through the nineteenth centuries. The Boa Vista and Santiago islands are well-known for some of the best shipwrecks in the country. These islands provide some of the finest diving opportunities and windsurfing conditions in the world, and travelers on adventurous Cape Verde holidays will find Boa Vista an ideal place to enjoy such activities.
The beaches in Boa Vista, including the beautiful eleven-mile wide Santa Monica Beach, are perfect places to enjoy diving, sailing, and other types of water sports. Known for its mournful native music called "morna," Boa Vista is an ideal place for enjoying Cape Verde holidays that combine activities with cultural experiences. The island boasts an ideal habitat for a large variety of wildlife and is home to the endangered loggerhead turtle, which makes it one of the most important places in the world for turtle conservation. Boa Vista is the third-largest island in Cape Verde, with more than 30 miles of white sandy beaches—a perfect destination for tourists in need of a relaxing and secluded beach holiday.
Santiago Island is also a great spot for diving, surfing, and fishing. The Tarrafal beach is regarded as the best place to dive and surf, but other well-known surfing spots in Santiago include the southeast coast and Ponte de Lobo. This volcanic island is also known for great hiking opportunities. With an elevation of more than 4,560 feet, Pico do Antonio is an excellent hiking spot for adventure-seekers.
Another great island for hiking is Fogo, which is located between Santiago and Brava islands. This destination is well-known for its active volcanic mountain called Pico de Fogo, which last erupted in 1995 and forced the island inhabitants to evacuate their homes. The 9,314-foot peak provides excellent trails, but hikers are advised to seek the help of an organized local tour due to the perils of its active volcano.
Travelers looking for unexplored Cape Verde islands can head straight to Santo Antao. Much of the terrain of this island is unexplored, but the northeast corner provides nice hiking opportunities. In addition, the Ponto do Sol area of Santo Antao is great for hiking, scuba diving, and rock climbing. Sal Island is also regarded as a surfer's dream destination, but whichever island you choose to visit, you're certain to have a wonderful trip to Cape Verde.Cape Verde
The unforgiving seas and the fierce wind of the Atlantic Ocean are the factors that
allowed the early seafarers and conquerors of the new world to seek shelter in the island fortress of Cabo Verde--a Portuguese name of the present Cape Verde 's Republic. European ambition of finding a route to the east and monopolizing the spicy trade lead to the discovery of Cape Verde. The island 's strategic location became a converging point of development ' coming from Europe to the East (Asia. Americas and vice versa. The country is near the major north-south sea routes being located at 500 kilometers from the west coast of Africa thus. it serves an important communications stations as well as a sea refueling site
This research will examine Cape Verde 's history. geography politics. economy. and culture and how these factors will affect her as a nation both in the present and in the future
Cape Verde 's Geography
The importance of geography spell out the differences in the attitude and culture of each state. The so-called geographical locations or surroundings dictate the kind of responses one particular country exhibit to various factors confronting it as well as molds its people to success or stagnation of which Cape Verde is the former
The islands composing the Cape Verde Republic are 620 kilometers or 385 miles off the West African coast or at 15 .02N. 23 .34W. The 10 islands and 5 islet ' composed the archipelago Republic of Cape Verde. These islands and islets are divided into two groups namely. the HYPERLINK "http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Barlavento " \o "Barlavento " Barlavento (windward ) and HYPERLINK "http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Sotavento " \o "Sotavento " Sotavento (leeward. Barlavento 's six islands are HYPERLINK "http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Santo_Ant C3 A3o " \o "Santo Antgo " Santo Antgo. HYPERLINK "http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /S C3 A3o_Vicente " \o "Sgo Vicente " Sgo Vicente. HYPERLINK "http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Santa_Luzia 2C_Cape_Verde " \o "Santa Luzia. Cape Verde " Santa Luzia. HYPERLINK "http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /S C3 A3o_Nicolau " \o "Sgo Nicolau " Sgo Nicolau. HYPERLINK "http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Sal 2C_Cape_Verde \o "Sal. Cape Verde " Sal. and HYPERLINK "http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Boa_Vista 2C_Cape_Verde " \o "Boa Vista Cape Verde " Boa Vista and Sotavento 's groups are. HYPERLINK "http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Maio " \o "Maio " Maio. HYPERLINK "http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Santiago 2C_Cape_Verde " \o "Santiago. Cape Verde " Santiago. HYPERLINK "http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Fogo 2C_Cape_Verde " \o "Fogo. Cape Verde Fogo. and HYPERLINK "http /en .wikipedia .org /wiki /Brava " \o "Brava Brava. The entire islands are inhabited by people except the island of Santa Luzia. Figure 1 shows the geographic location of Cape Verde (Geography of Cape Verde. n .d
According to the Geography of Cape Verde (2006. the island 's land area is 4 ,033 kilometers per square meter and it has 965 kilometers of coastline. Comparatively. the island is slightly larger than the US 's Rhode Island or of UK 's Suffolk. Cape Verde 's highest point is Mount Fogo. a volcano of the Fogo Island. The mountainous islands are characterized by jagged cliffs from the sea brought about by the massive soil erosions due to strong high winds. and the lack of natural vegetations of the uplands and the coastal areas. Though in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. Cape Verde 's rainfall is highly erratic causing periodic droughts and famines ' In the capital town of Praia. the average rainfall is only 240 millimeters or 9 .5 inches
According to wikipedia .org. the famed Cape Verde-type hurricanes which is considered to be the most violent and destructive hurricanes are formed in the ocean near the island. Lobban (1995 ) states that by being an African republic of oceanic islands would be lush and moist but the Cape Verdean archipelago is better understood as a western extension of the [great] Sahara Desert ' Loban further states that the islands are extremely dry and have long been troubled by cycles of prolonged drought. The two-season weather cycle of this region is caused by the north-south movement of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ. The ITCZ is associated with hot. dry winters north of the zone and hot. wet summer weather to the south of the zone. The clashing weather fronts of the ITCZ in the region of Cape Verde also spawn hurricanes that regularly torment the Caribbean and the east coast of the United States in the late summer months
Finally. the country 's natural resources are. salt. basalt rock pozzuolana (a siliceous volcanic ash used to produce hydraulic cement limestone. kaolin (a clay mineral use for manufacturing of glossy and fish (Geography of Cape Verde. n .d
Figure 1. Republic of Cape Verde 's Map
Demographic Pro of Cape Verde
The archipelago of Cape Verde was a not inhabited by man until the Portuguese discovered it in 1456. The presence of the Portuguese plantations in the islands had resulted to the flow of African slaves to work on these plantations. Thus. the Cape Verdeans race is a mixture of African and European origins. The remnants of African culture are prominent on the HYPERLINK "http /wikipedia .org /wiki /Santiago_Island \o "Santiago Island " \t "_blank " Santiago Island. where 50 of the people live. The meager natural resources of the country forced Cape Verdeans to seek greener pasture in other countries. Only one-third of Cape Verdean ancestry is actually living on the islands and the rest can be found in the United States. mainly in New England. Portugal. the Netherlands. Italy. France. and Senegal ' Portuguese is the Cape Verde 's official language. but most Cape Verdeans speak a HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Creole " \o "Creole " Creole HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Dialect " \o "dialect dialect -- HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Crioulo " \o "Crioulo " Crioulo --which consists of archaic Portuguese modified through contact with African and other European languages. Cape Verde has a rich tradition of Crioulo literature and music (Demographics of Cape Verde. n .d
Any student of history has to go back to the past in to rightfully chart one 's future. In the case of a country. its history will offer many adventures and lessons proved to be useful in its quest for the future as in the case of Cape Verde
In 1995. Richard Lobban Jr 's book entitled Cape Verde. Crioulo Colony to Independent Nation revealed the possibility that the Phoenicians Moorish Arabs. and Lebou fishermen from Senegal. but the first Portuguese sighting of the islands occurred in the mid-fifteenth century ' This possibility of sighting these various nationalities were made in July 1944 by Antunio da Noli Usodimare both Genoan or in May 1456 by a Venetian Cadamosto. These people were not Portuguese though they sail under its flag. [A]fter four more years. the Genoan brothers Antunio and Bartolomeu da Noli and the Portuguese Diogo Afonso and Diogo Gomes completed charting the Sotavento "southern "leeward Islands ' Lobban emphasizes that it was in 1460 as the date of first settlement because this is when Antunio da Noli was appointed capitgo "captain ) of Sgo Tiago Island (1995
Lobban (1995 ) went to tell that among the Barlavento "northern "windward ) Islands. the easternmost Boa Vista was [was given the distinction of having been first reached by] Da Noli and Gomes in 1460 and the remaining westerly islands of the Barlavento group were reached in 1461-1462 during the voyages of Diogo Afonso
Cape Verde according to Lobban 's (1995 ) scholarly research was set up as a plantation system like that of the neighboring island of Canaries and Madeiras. Sugarcane and cotton plantations were organized and slaves were given assignments to weave cotton. gather indigo. or do labor in the salt flats of Sal and Maio. Spinning. weaving. and dyeing cotton were the high valued skills of the Cape Verdean people in its early history. Lobban went to tell that the Wolof women slaves were highly regarded as spinners. and [the] Wolof men were the weavers. as was the custom among the Mande and Senegambian groups ' The six cloth strips of parallel design. as their produce. were sewn [into] a variety of pano or barafula "trade cloths these cloths were re-exported to the coast as a standard currency in slave trading
A Venetian named Cadamosto described the Wolof and Senegambian 's political structure together with their rituals and habits as both unusual and disgusting. The Cadamosto vivid and disgust to their rituals and habits lay the foundation of racism that later European adopted. In unprecedented move. the Portuguese crown established a rapport with their royalty in 1488 at Lisbon on the occasion of the latter 's visit. Though this was the scenario in Lisbon at that time. few Portuguese guards murdered some of these Wolof upon their return in Senegal for the fear of competition in commercial trade (Lobban. 1995
The Treaty of Alcacovas which demarcated specific domains for future trade and exploration between Spain and Portugal somehow spelled the future of the two countries and perhaps the re-discovery of some trade routes in the East. The treaty resulted to the Canary Island 's annexation to Spain while the Madeiras. the Azores. and the Cape Verde Islands still were under Portugal. As a result of the treaty. several explorations were undertaken by various explorers. One explorer by the name of Diego da Azambuja explored the West African coast trading gold etc (Lobban. 1995
The Cape Verde 's (Lobban. 1995 ) strategic location had served Portuguese crown as its regional command center. It dominates the West African maritime trade resulting to the extraction of ten of thousands of slaves. tons of ivory. and immeasurable quantities of gold. hides spices. woods. grain. and dyes ' The economic benefits derived from having Cape Verde as a regional command post. supported Portugal 's economy for the last one and half century
It was in the 16th century that Cape Verde experienced development because of the growth of the transatlantic slave. The new development in the islands has caused many problems like the occasional pirates attack and the 1712 French attack. The transatlantic slave trade 's decline had resulted to the economic downturn of Cape Verde along with the islands recurrent droughts and famines since the 18th century. Though this was the case. its importance to the new world is still intact by virtue of its position astride mid-Atlantic shipping lanes .an ideal location for resupplying ships. The islands ' importance in the transatlantic maritime trade was due to its excellent [natural] harbor. HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Mindelo " \o "Mindelo " Mindelo [located on the HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /S E3o_Vicente " \o "Sgo Vicente Sgo Vicente Island which] became an important commercial center during the 19th century (History of Cape Verde. 2006. 2 3
The end of the Second World War had brought many political changes across the globe and Cape Verde was not an exception. In to satisfy the growing demand for nationalism and independence within Cape Verde. Portugal succumbed to the pressure and changed the colonial status of the of the islands to that of an overseas province in 1951. It was in 1956 [that] HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Am EDlcar_Cabral " \o "Amnlcar Cabral " Amnlcar Cabral. a Cape Verdean. and HYPERLINK "http /wikipedia .org /wiki /Rafael_Barbosa " \o "Rafael Barbosa " \t "_blank " Rafael Barbosa organized (in Guinea-Bissau ) the clandestine African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Partido_Africano_da_Independ EAnci a_da_Guin E9_e_Cabo_Verde " \o "Partido Africano da Independkncia da Guiny e Cabo Verde " PAIGC. which demanded improvement in economic social. and political conditions in Cape Verde and Portuguese HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Guinea " \o "Guinea Guinea and formed the basis of the two nations ' independence movement ' The PAIGC 's head office was moved to Conakry. Guinea in 1960. and a year later started its armed rebellion against Portugal. The rebellion escalated into a full fledge war in Portuguese Guinea that pitted 10 ,000 Soviet bloc-supported PAIGC soldiers against 35 ,000 Portuguese and African troops (History of Cape Verde. n .d. 4
In spite of the fact that there was a full scale war between the PAIGC and Portugal resulting to the control of almost all of Portuguese Guinea. and for logistical reasons. [it] did not attempt to disrupt [latter 's] control in Cape Verde ' The organization became an active political movement after the April of 1974 's Portugal 's revolution. Both parties reached an agreement in December of '74 for a transitional government composed of Portuguese and Cape Verdeans resulting to the election of the National Assembly on June 30. 1975. which received the instruments of independence from Portugal on July 5. 1975
The successful 1980 coup in HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Guinea-Bissau " \o "Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau strained its relationships with Cape Verde and the latter abandoned all its hope for unification with the said country. The strained relations of the two resulted to the creation of the African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde (PAICV. The PAICV worked hard for normalizing the two countries strained relationship and was successful. As a result. the party and its predecessor established a one-party system [that] ruled Cape Verde from [its] independence until 1990 (History of Cape Verde. n .d. 5
The one-party system in Cape Verde opened so many problems such as growing discontent among the population and the political instability Thus. responding to this growing political pressures the PAICV in an emergency congress in February 1990 called for a discussion focusing on the constitutional changes specifically. the end of one-party rule Cape Verdean opposition groups formed the the HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Movement_for_Democracy " \o "Movement for Democracy " Movement for Democracy (MpD ) in HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Praia " \o "Praia " Praia in April 1990 ' resulting to their rigorous campaign for the right to participate in the December 1990 scheduled presidential election. The MpD 's efforts bore fruits when the one-party state was abolished [in] HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /September_28 " \o "September 28 September 28. HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /1990 \o "1990 " 1990. and the first multi-party elections were held in January 1991 ' The January 1991 's multi-party election gave MpD a majority seat in the National Assembly and defeating the PAICV 's presidential candidate by 73 .5 of the votes cast. MpD 's presidential candidate HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Antonio_Mascarenhas_Monteiro " \o "Antonio Mascarenhas Monteiro " Antonio Mascarenhas Monteiro succeeded HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Aristides_Pereira " \o "Aristides Pereira " Aristides Pereira as the country 's first president since 1975. The December 1995 's legislative elections had increased the MpD majority in the National Assembly and held 50 of the National Assembly 's 72 seats. The 1996 presidential election re-elected President Mascarenhas Monteiro to office (History of Cape Verde. n .d ?6
In 2001. PAICV return to power during the legislative and presidential elections with Pedro Pires narrowly winning the presidential race That same year. food shortages - a common predicament for the country - worsened considerably. and the government relied heavily on foreign aid and food imports to feed the country (Cape Verde. n .d
Like any other government around the world. the constitution laid down the foundations of the government and defines the inter-departmental legations
The Government. The Cape Verde 's constitution was first approved in 1980 and was substantially revised in 1992. The Cape Verde 's revised constitution declares that the government defines. leads. and executes all governmental policies of the country and is accountable to the National Assembly. The Cape Verdean 's head of government is reposed to the Prime Minister and is helped by other ministers and secretaries of state. The 72 seats unicameral Assembleia Nacional or National Assembly 's member 's election is by a popular vote for five-year terms The President appointed the Prime Minister upon the nomination of the National assembly. As a head of state. the President is elected by popular vote with a five-year term. The President. the National Assembly. and the Superior Board of the Magistrature appoint the members of the Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Supremo Tribunal de Justia as well as the regional courts. Civil and criminal cases are heard by the separate courts and its decision could be appealed to the Supreme Court Cape Verde 's legal system is patterned with that of Portugal and the legal age of suffrage is 18 years of age (Politics of Cape Verde. n .d ?1
The present Cape Verde government officials are. President HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Pedro_Pires " \o "Pedro Pires " Pedro Pires (Since March 2001 Prime Minister. HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Jos E9_Maria_Neves " \o "Josy Maria Neves " Josy Maria Neves (Since February 2001 President of the National Assembly. HYPERLINK "http /wikipedia .org /wiki /Aristides_Lima " \o "Aristides Lima " \t "_blank " Aristides Lima (as of 2000 Minister of Foreign Affairs HYPERLINK "http /wikipedia .org /wiki /Victor_Borges " \o "Victor Borges \t "_blank " Victor Borges (since 2004 and Minister of National Defense. HYPERLINK "http /wikipedia .org /wiki /Armindo_Maur EDcio " \o "Armindo Maurncio " \t "_blank " Armindo Maurncio (as of 2003 (Politics of Cape Verde. n .d ?1
Foreign Relations of Cape Verde. By virtue of its strategic location in the transatlantic maritime route. Cape Verde established foreign relations with other countries. As a member of the non-aligned movement (NAM ) it seeks cooperative and diplomatic relations with other friendly countries. The following countries maintain embassies in Cape Verde 's capital - Praia. HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Angola " \o "Angola " Angola HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Brazil " \o "Brazil Brazil. the HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /People 27s_Republic_of_China " \o "People 's Republic of China " People 's Republic of China. HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Cuba " \o "Cuba " Cuba HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /France " \o "France France. HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Germany " \o "Germany " Germany. HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Portugal " \o "Portugal " Portugal. HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Senegal " \o "Senegal " Senegal. HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Russia " \o "Russia " Russia. and the HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /United_States " \o "United States " United States. Being adjacent to the African mainland Cape Verde is interested in its foreign affairs. It has bilateral relations with other lusophone nations and holds membership in a number of international organizations. It also participates in most international conferences on economic and political issues (Foreign Relations of Cape Verde. n .d ?1
U .S .-Cape Verdean Relations. Cape Verde 's relationship with other countries is documented in its history because of its unique geographical locations important then and even until now. For U .S. and Cape Verde. their relationships can be traced back to the early days when U .S. is still a new nation
According to the U .S. State Department ' background note on Cape Verde it was in the 18th century that U .S. whaling ships had reached the abundant waters of the islands of Cape Verde to recruit crews from Brava and Fogo. Not only whaling activities that was chronicled in the early histories of these two countries. it was also written that as early as 1740s that American ships routinely anchored in Cape Verdean ports to trade for salt or buy slaves (Background Note. Cape Verde. 2006. 1 to 3
In consideration for Cape Verde 's importance in the region. the United States opened its first consulates in the sub-Saharan Africa in 1818 and continued until today. The U .S. recognized the Cape Verde 's independence and even supporting its admission to the United Nations resulting to the subsequent exchange of ambassadors between the two countries. When Cape Verde suffered natural disasters like the hurricane that struck the island of Brava in 1982. and after a severe volcanic eruption on Fogo in 1995. the United States provided emergency humanitarian aid and economic assistance. Also. Cape Verde is a recipient of an annual 15 ,000 metric tons of grain yearly from the United States and is eligible for trade benefits under the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA. Finally the U .S. has signed an Open Skies agreement to facilitate air travel safety and expansion and on the 4th of July of 2005. Cape Verde became the third country to sign a compact with the U .S. Government-funded Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC the three-year assistance package is worth over 110 million in addressing rural economic expansion. infrastructure development. and development of tourism and a community college system (Background Note. Cape Verde. 2006. 1 to 3
The vibrant economy is an indicator of development and progress of a country the absence of which is very gloomy not for the country itself but for its people
Poor natural resources and the serious water shortages resulting to a severe and long spell of drought affects the Cape Verde 's low Gross Domestic Product (GDP. On a normal wet season. only the islands of Santiago. Santo Antgo. Fogo. and Brava can produce significant farm produce. Only salt. pozzolana (a volcanic rock used in cement production. and limestone are the country 's mineral resources. The country 's lobster and tuna industries are not fully exploited and developed resulting to low inflow of capital even if [f]ish and shellfish are plentiful. and small quantities are exported. [The country] has cold storage and freezing facilities as well as fish processing plants in [the islands of] HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Mindelo " \o "Mindelo " Mindelo Praia. and on Sal. Cape Verde 's economy is a service oriented one with commerce. transport. and public services [that accounts] 70 of [its] GDP. These economic indicators resulted to the importation of the 90 of food needed by the country (Economy of Cape Verde. n .d. 1
The 1991 democratic government aimed to develop the private sector and its role in the economy as the country moved to diversify it. It opened its market to foreign investors by privatization program and it prioritized the promotion of market economy and of the private sector the development of tourism. light manufacturing industries. and fisheries and the development of transport. communications. and energy facilities ' The 1991 economic reforms by the Cape Verde government resulted to about U .S 50 million in foreign investments. of which 50 was in industry. 19 in tourism. and 31 in fisheries and services in 1994-95 (Economy of Cape Verde. n .d. 1
The Mindelo 's harbor at Porto Grande and at Sal 's international airport 's improvements enhance the country 's strategic location as a crossroads of mid-Atlantic air and sea lanes ' In 1983. Mindelo 's harbor has opened a [s]hip repair facilities
Culture and Music
For several centuries. Cape Verde is under the control of Portugal. It was in this regard that Cape Verdeans culture and customs had permeated the mainstream society and influenced its way of life. Also. by virtue of its proximity to the West African coast it acquires some African cultural heritage that can be seen in its popular culture. Cape Verde possessed a rich body of oral narratives and one of those is the popular story of Ti Lobo and Chibinho ( Uncle Wolf and Nephew (Culture of Cape Verde. n .d
Like any other African culture. Cape Verdeans is famed for its improvised singing which can be seen in its social gatherings and festivities. One form of singing that is unique to the Cape Verdeans is the melancholic morna ' which is an expression of sorrows of emigration and love
The Music. M HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Morna " \o "morna " orna [is] a form of HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Folk_music " \o "folk music " folk music usually sung in HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Portuguese_Creole " \o "Portuguese Creole " creole-Portuguese. accompanied by HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Clarinet " \o "clarinet " clarinet. HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Accordion " \o "accordion " accordion. HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Violin " \o "violin " violin HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Guitar " \o "guitar guitar and HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Cavaquinho " \o "cavaquinho cavaquinho. Morna has primarily European roots. but the islands also boast HYPERLINK "http /wikipedia .org /wiki /Funana " \o "funana " \t "_blank " funana and HYPERLINK "http /wikipedia .org /wiki /Batuco " \o "batuco " \t "_blank " batuco music that are more closely related to HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /West_Africa " \o "West Africa " West African styles
Morna is the national song-style beloved by Cape Verdeans across the many islands of the country ' and is related to HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Portugal " \o "Portugal Portuguese HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Fado " \o "fado " fado and its close cousin. HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Brazil " \o "Brazil " Brazilian HYPERLINK "http /wikipedia .org /wiki /Modinha " \o "modinha " \t "_blank modinha. Lyrics are usually in HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Kriolu " \o "Kriolu " Kriolu. and reflect highly-variable themes. including HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Love " \o "love " love and HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Lust " \o "lust " lust HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Patriotism " \o "patriotism " patriotism and HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Mourning " \o "mourning " mourning ' It was believed that it originated on HYPERLINK "http /www .reference .com /browse /wiki /Boa_Vista 2C_Cape_Verde " \o "Boa Vista. Cape Verde " Boa Vista as a cheerful song-type. HYPERLINK "http /wikipedia .org /wiki /Eug 26eacute 3Bnio_Tavares " \o "Eug.
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