Alternatives To Animal Experimentation Essay, Research Paper
The search for alternative methods to animal testing is underway in many laboratories across the entire world. While success has been made, the research is far from over. These alternatives have been developed using the concept of the three R’s.
In 1959, William Russell and Rex Burch defined the principle of the three R’s in the book Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. The three R’s are reduction, refinement, and finally replacement (5).
The first concept, reduction alternatives, covers any strategy that will result in fewer animals being used to obtain the same amount of information. Also, reduction refers to maximizing the information obtained per animal so as to limit or avoid the use of more animals. There are several approaches that can help to reduce the use of animals. Some laboratories alert all of the researchers when animals are going to be killed in an experiment. For example, one researcher may be doing a study on livers, and so other researchers may be able to use the kidneys, heart, or brain tissue for other experiments. In some cases it might also be possible to use in vitro methods, which are studies done with cells or tissues cultured in a petri dish, in place of in vivo methods, which are studies done in the living animal (3).
The second principle, refinement, represents the modification of any procedure from the time the laboratory animal is born until its death, to minimize the pain and distress experienced by the animal. Paying attention to issues of animal welfare is not only important in light of ethics, but also in the matter of good science. The experience of pain and other stress is likely to have an effect on the variability of experimental results. In fact, it is in the best interest of the researcher to ensure that conditions in animal facilities are the best possible. It does not require excessive funding to enrich the environment in which the animals live in. For example, toilet paper rolls, egg cartons, and PVC tubing can provide rodents with places to hide. Bales of straw and rubber tires can be used to create an area for rabbits to interact with other members of their species. Dogs can be given numerous toys to play with, and be provided with a raised platform so they are not forced to stand in their own waste.
It is also important for the staff of the facility to be well trained in handling the animals that are being used, and that they have the correct attitude when working with the animals. Anesthesia should be used whenever possible, and at the end of the experiment, the most humane method of euthanasia should be chosen.
The final concept of the three R’s is replacement. Any experimental system that does not use whole, living animals is considered to be a replacement alternative. Some of these techniques still involve the humane killing of an animal for the purpose of obtaining cells, tissues, or organs for in vitro studies. Other techniques involve no use of any biological material from a fully developed vertebrate, non-human animal. In some cases, replacement methods can be used for the total replacement of animals in a study, in others they will complement animal experiments and reduce the total number of animals used in the whole project. Replacement alternatives can be divided into six categories: information; computer-based systems; physico-chemical techniques; the use of lower organisms and embryo stages; human studies; and cell, tissue, and organ cultures (5).
Access to information can prevent the unnecessary duplication of animal work that has already been done. Also, the in vivo data that has already been found to be reliable can be used to validate alternative methods without having to do any new animal studies.
Developments in computer modeling and expert systems that can predict biological activity and toxicity have already revolutionized the process of drug development by eliminating the need to use animals for pre-screening of potential drug candidates. For example, TOPKAT is a mathematical computer model based on physical and chemical structures and properties of a substance (10). This replacement procedure is used to determine the oral toxicity and possible skin and eye irritancy of a substance. The TOPKAT test is currently 75 to 100% accurate, and is regularly used by the Food and Drug Administration, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the United States Army. Computer simulations and multi-media presentations are often used to replace the use of animals for education purposes. Even though these simulations are available, it is very difficult, and in many cases still not possible, to simulate a hands-on experimental situation. In order to improve upon these programs, a huge amount of data from mostly in vivo studies has to be collected and applied to the programs.
Physicochemical data, pH for example, are used in combination with structure-activity relationships to predict the biological effects of chemicals. One product, the Irritection Ocular Assay System, formerly known as Eytex or Skintex, uses a solution that is made up of proteins, glycoproteins, lipids, and low molecular weight components that self-associate to form a complex molecular matrix. The test works by mimicking the reaction of the cornea and human skin when exposed to a foreign substance. If a chemical has a potential to irritate the eye, then it will cause the solution to coagulate. At the present time, the test can determine the toxicity of over 5000 different materials (8). Many cosmetic companies, such as Avon, use this system to screen potential irritants without testing them on animals.
Sometimes it is possible to conduct studies in lower organisms, such as invertebrates, plants and microorganisms, or in vertebrates at early stages of development. Some examples of this type of alternative are the Ames test and the LAL test. The Ames test uses salmonella bacteria to detect any carcinogenicity (the ability to cause or promote cancer) (8). This test has been validated and accepted for screening purposes in toxicology. The LAL test for endotoxins has also been validated for certain purposes. This test detects the presence of fever-inducing endotoxins in intravenous products. This is made possible from blood samples gathered in the wild from horseshoe crabs. The researcher extracts amoebocyte lysate from the samples and mixes it with the endotoxin to see if a reaction occurs (8). Also, hydra can be used to screen for teratogenicity, which is the production of malformations in the embryo. Yeast cells and tobacco plant pollen tubes have also been suggested for toxicity testing. Advances in genetic engineering are opening up even more possibilities to replace the use of higher animals. Genetically engineered roundworms, because they carry human disease genes, have already been used to identify new drugs. Many studies on the development and growth can be carried on animal embryos in vitro rather than in the pregnant mother. Rodents are usually used in these procedures. Fertilized chicken eggs are also used in a test called the HETCAM, which predicts eye irritancy. The researcher can observe the effects a chemical has on the chorioallantoic membrane of the egg (5).
If sufficient consideration is given to ethical and safety issues, studies on humans can replace the use of animals in some cases. Clinical studies in humans have always been required to register drugs, and human volunteers are being used more and more for the skin testing of cosmetics. Non-invasive methods can be used in healthy subjects to investigate disease processes. Some of these methods are nuclear magnetic resonance, electron spin resonance, and positron emission tomography. The great advantage to human studies is that they deal with human beings in their normal environments.
Finally, the use of cell, tissue, and organ cultures are used usually only as relative replacements, because they require freshly obtained animal cells and tissue. However, the animals are used more economically in this way, because one animal can provide tissue for a number of cultures. Human tissue can sometimes be used, but it is difficult to obtain, store, and distribute. Some human tissue is available after surgeries. Human placenta has been suggested as a source of tissue for various types of research. Because it contains mast cells that share certain structures with nerve cells, it can be used in some neurological studies. One drawback is that when human tissue is used, there is a greater risk that it will contain dangerous viruses, and so greater precautions must be taken. One idea is to establish tissue banks, much like blood banks, where the tissue can be screened and then be used to supply researchers.
Because in vitro procedures isolate the system under study from the rest of the organism, they are ideal when trying to avoid the effects of influences such as hormones. This can also be a disadvantage because these external factors may have a crucial effect on the question being studied. There are several different kinds of in vitro systems, and each one has its own advantages and disadvantages.
The first method is to use subcellular fractions of one cell component. An example of this type of in vitro would be to study the role of liver microsomes and their importance to drug metabolism. One drawback to this type is the fact that this system will not provide information about the influence of factors in the cell, let alone in the organ or the entire organism (5).
Primary cell cultures are produced from fresh tissue that has been disrupted to obtain individual cells. These cultures are fairly easy to set up, and the advantage is that they contain normal cells with all the characteristics that determine their specialized functions in the tissue they came from. The disadvantage, however, is that they can only be maintained for a few days, or sometimes weeks, and they tend to lose ability to function with time. This means that fresh tissue is constantly required, and the cultures cannot be used for long-term studies. Another drawback is the fact that these cultures will not permit cell/cell interactions.
Another in vitro system is cell line cultures. These consist of cells that can grow indefinitely. They are often taken from human or animal tumors and some have been kept for decades. They have undergone a process called transformation that makes them able to ignore the control mechanisms that limit the number of times normal cells can divide before dying. Cell line cultures can be kept frozen in liquid nitrogen. They are used a lot because they are so easy to maintain and do not require fresh tissue. The disadvantage of this system is that it has not been possible to produce cell lines of every tissue. A further drawback is that the cells are abnormal in many ways. In some cases, the cells don’t even resemble the normal cells from the tissue they came from. One advancement that has been made is the development of embryonic stem cell lines. These cells remain unaffected until the researcher manipulates them. This type of cell line culture could be used to test teratogenicity, which is the ability of a chemical to cause malformations in the fetus of an animal or human. Researchers are also interested in using embryonic stem cell lines for gene knock out studies to identify the roles of specific genes. Cell lines can be genetically engineered in many ways. For example, human genes can be inserted into an animal cell line to give it the same enzyme capabilities as human tissues (5).
Tissue culture is a system that is unique in that cell/cell interactions are still possible through fragments or slices of tissue that maintains the tissue’s original architecture. For example, very thin slices of liver and kidney can be used to study possible effects of drugs on these organs. This type can also be very economical because human tissue obtained after surgery can be used in tissue culture. However, these cultures have a limited lifespan and a high level of technical skill is needed to set up and maintain them. The latest breakthrough has come with the development of three-dimensional tissue equivalents, which essentially mimic the real tissue. These equivalents are made by culturing tissues on an artificial support matrix. A lot of human skin equivalents have been developed and work is in progress on tissue equivalents for other organs. One alternative, Testskin, is actual human skin grown in a sterile plastic bag. This test is used to measure irritancy, and is being used by Avon, Amway, and Estee’ Lauder. Epipack, which also uses cloned human tissue, is designed to work much like the Testskin. Finally, the Neutral Red Bioassay test, which is a test performed on cultured human cells, is used to compute the absorption of water-soluble dyes. This can help determine the relative toxicity of the dye (9).
Organ cultures have an advantage in that they allow all of the interactions that take place in the organ. These in vitro procedures are used in a lot of pharmacology studies. The disadvantage, once again, is that they are hard to maintain and are short-lived. Organ cultures also involve killing an animal for an organ, and only one organ can be taken from each of the animals, with the exception of the kidneys.
One in vitro procedure, Corrositex, was developed as an alternative to the rabbit skin test. The test assesses chemical corrosivity using a protein membrane designed to function like the skin. When exposed to a potentially corrosive substance, the biomembrane becomes colored. Results to a Corrositex test are available in as little as three minutes and no longer than four hours. The in vivo rabbit skin method takes two to four weeks to complete (6).
There are many more alternative procedures that are being developed and improved up on every day, and so the hope for replacement of animals in the laboratory continues to grow stronger. Establishments such as the John Hopkins Center for the Alternatives to Animal Testing, the International Foundation for Ethical Research, the Cosmetic, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association, and the Soap and Detergent Association have all started their own programs to validate alternatives.
Although some critics are doubtful that replacement methods will ever be able to take the place of hands-on animal experimentation, the struggle continues for avid animal rights supporters to find alternative testing procedures. The question of whether animals have the right to be protected from such research experiments is a hard one to answer, and has been disputed for many years. The question may be easier to answer when it is asked about testing for such things as cosmetics, but when it comes to cancer studies and the like, the lines aren’t quite as clear cut. It is up each individual to decide whether the life of an animal is just as important, or more important, than research that benefits mankind. In his autobiography, The Story Of My Experiments, Mohandas K. Gandhi states his opinion on animal experimentation:
“To my mind the life of the lamb is no less precious than that of a human being. I should be unwilling to take the life of the lamb for the sake of the human body. I hold that, the more helpless the creature, the more entitled it is to protection by man from the cruelty of man.” (9)
Although companies are continuously searching for alternatives to animal research, the number of animals used in experiments actually continues to increase. The old test, the in vivo method, must be done along with the new test, the in vitro method, to ensure that the new test will have results that are consistent with the old test. It is believed that even if the number is increasing at this time, the number of animals that will ultimately be saved after in vitro methods are improved will greatly outweigh the number of those used during the research to perfect such methods.
Until alternative methods can be proven to be just as, if not more, effective than in vivo methods, the question of the rights of animals and experimental research will continue to be debated and questioned. Advancements are being made every day, and, hopefully, one day animals will not have to be used in experiments.
1. Animal Protection Institute. Oct. 15, 2000. www.api4animals.org/
2. Animal Welfare Institute. Oct. 24, 2000. www.awionline.org/
3. Center For Alternatives to Animal Testing: John Hopkins University.
Oct. 2, 1998. www.altweb @jhsph.edu (17 Oct. 2000).
4. Chang, Maria L. “Animal Research: Right Or Wrong?” Science World
23 March 1998: 18-22.
Animal Experimentation Essay, Research Paper
Animal experimentation has been going on for a while now and people have been protesting against it since it has begun. It seems now days there are more cons for animal experiments because of how it has become a popular topic to this day. The pros seem to think that animal experiments are necessary for living a healthy life. With all of the debating going on, animal experimentation may be halted.
Should animal experimentation be regulated? Do animals have the same rights we do? These are questions that are of much debate. Animals are used in experiments all of the time, whether they are testing a new drug, or testing their reactions to a new fabric softener. But is this morally O.K. First of all, billions of dollars of taxpayer money is spent on animal experimentation annually. Money is given to big name corporations and the military. It is used for wound testing, radiation testing, and other chemicals of war. Agricultural experiments include finding ways to ?improve? farm animals. Private companies also invest in the vivisection industry. These experiments are actually more expensive than experiments on human subjects (Internet 3). Animals are not humans, obviously, but we test drugs that are meant to be used on humans all of the time. It is good that we don?t have to make humans suffer, but just because something works on, or doesn?t effect an animal, doesn?t mean it will do the same on a human. For instance, the drugs thalidomide, Zomax, and DES were all tested on animals and thought of as safe, but they had devastating effects on humans (Internet 3).Many of the protests now days for animals are to give them rights against experimentation. The company that people protest against most is the Procter and Gamble pharmaceutical. They do a various number of tests, and one of the most common is the draze test. In the draze test the animals get multiple soaps and detergents placed and dropped into their eyes to test if the soap will be safe for at home usage.Usually what happens is if the soap is not safe to eyes then it may cause serious damage to
the animal?s eyes. Some other tests include cures for cancers and many other tests that usually cause the animals to live the rest of their life abnormal (Internet 4).Some people feel that animal experimentation is not bad at all because the animals help keep us safe and alive. Some of the tests they do to animals may seem crude but they are helping people in everyday life. After most animals are tested on they can be put to sleep easily and may suffer no further pain.They also do vivisection?s on animals and connect computer ports, such as parallel ports ( which you would connect a printer too) too there head which is linked to there brain activity areas. They use the port on their head to read such things as their cholesterol and blood pressure and various other things instead of having to use a needle, etc.But many believe that even though they are put to sleep afterwards, that is no excuse for the misery they are put through before that (Book 1). There are alternatives however to animal testing, for instance testing on death row inmates. The government does already highly regulate these experiments. They are only allowed to use certain species and living conditions must be up to par. They even do surprise inspections, but many illegal operations go on all of the time without the government even knowing. You can find pictures of these sorts of things all over the Internet, and they are very disturbing.Animals can not talk, they can not say whether or not they want to be tested on. They did not do anything to deserve such torture. But, it is for the good of man right? Humans really need to get their morals straight. There are still so many questions; did God intend for us to do whatever we want with animals? Do animals have rights? But one thing will always be for sure; it is your decision.
1. Fox, Michael W. (1980). Returning to Eden: Animal Rights and Human Responsibility New York: The Viking Press2. Morris, Richard K. & Fox, Michael W. (1978) On the Fifth Day: Animal Rights & Human Ethics Washington D.C. Acropolis Books3. PETA online www.peta.com4. The Sad Faces of Vivisection in America http://members.tripod.com/
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Animal Experimentation Essay, Research Paper ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION Holly Anderson was a strong supporter for animal rights. When she was a little girl, she saw a cat get run over by a car. As she watched it die slowly, some young boys were poking it with a stick. She screamed, “Why don’t you leave that poor cat alone!” One boy replied, “We wanted to see if maggots will come out of its nose! Hey Jimmy!” the boy yelled at his friend, “Go get your firecrackers!” Holly started crying and ran away. From then on, she viewed all scientists who use animals to experiment on as immature little boys just trying to get a kick out of blood and guts. Not only did she not like what the scientists did to the animals, she was so close-minded about the issue, she hadn’t even
considered the other side, and she refused to. Now Holly is thirty-five years old and is happily married with five children and just as many cats. One summer day, she walked upstairs to wake up her children. She walked into the room to see them all very sick in their beds. They were all running a high fever and were having trouble breathing. She took them all to the emergency room where they were tested immediately. After a whole day’s waiting, she was called into a meeting with all the doctors. They told her that her children had contracted a deadly virus that they had never seen before and that they might not live unless the origin of this virus was found. They asked her if she had any animals and how many. She told them she had five cats. The doctors all talked privately and
finally made a decision. “I’m sorry, Ms. Anderson, but I think we’re going to need those cats to find the serum for the virus. “What are you going to do with them?” she asked. They then told her they were going to take the cats to the lab where all of them would go through a series of experiments until they found the problem. They also explained they couldn’t guarantee that any of the cats would live through the tests or that they wouldn’t feel any pain. When they told her this, she pictured in her head a bunch of scientists standing around her cats poking them with needles everywhere while the cats were restrained and struggling for breath. She shuddered at the thought of her cats going through that, but even more at her children dying. It took her less than five
minutes to decide because she realized that animal experimentation could save her children’s lives. A few days later she left the hospital with her children, who were back to their normal, healthy selves. She felt bad for her five cats that were dead, but it was a good feeling having all five of her children there at the funeral for Fluffy, Furry, Frisky, Grumpy, and Stinky. She now understood the other side. She didn’t exactly approve of it now, but she knew that animal testing must go on for her children’s children. Holly finally realized that animal testing must go on because it benefits society. There are many reasons a person should agree with animal experimentation, but there are also a few reason why some people are against animal experimentation. A few of these
reasons are that animal experimentation is cruel and inhumane, animal experimentation is under regulated, and that there are alternatives to animal experimentation. Many people claim that animal experimentation is cruel and inhumane. It is said that many labs are unsanitary and small. Animals have been seen in cages with unbandaged wounds (Day 67). It is also said that primates are treated inhumanely and are put in small living quarters (Goo 96). They are kept alone and isolated. This is not good for their psychological well being (Wil 79). Actually, most of these claims are invalid due to the laws and regulations that have been set to make sure animals are not being treated like this. For every lab that does any type of animal testing, there has to be a veterinary staff just to
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Are we to let concern for the ‘rights’ of pests cost human lives? The answer is a simple one—no. Animal research, although often the subject of debate is a positive thing. Without it, where would the world be? Tests certainly cannot be done on humans, for what human will risk his or her life if there is a more convenient and sensible option. Yes the animals endure pain and, at times, lose their lives but new advances are being made in that field as well. Studies are always being done to ensure the maximum safety and comfort for these subjects.
Animal Testing—Good for Mankind or Violation of Rights?
Animal testing—is it inapplicable? Many researchers shout yes; results received from small animals and rodents do not apply to humans. If this is so, then why have so many advances been made since the dawning of animal testing? Dozens of vaccines have been found not to mention antibiotics. “Indeed, we cannot think of an area of medical research that does not owe many of its most important advances to animal experiments (Rowan, p.21).”
The main argument of animal research opponents is that animal tests are inapplicable. “Animals and humans biologically differ from each other. So results from animal experiments can’t be applied directly to humans (Chang, p.2).” Other arguments include:
Humane alternatives to much of animal research, such as tissue samples and computer models, already exist.
Animals have rights. When engaging in animal research, “they violate the rights of an animal to be free of unnatural diseases, injuries, or mental and behavioral problems (Chang, p.2).”
If cures are to be found, animal testing is necessary. In addition to discovering microorganisms, animal experimentation has led to significant medical findings related
to Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, as well as breast cancer and heart disease. “The variety of tests performed on animals is nearly endless—from injection of experimental drugs to performing organ transplants, all to help humans (Chang, p.2).”
“Experiments on animals are a mainstay of modern medical and scientific research (Rowan, p.17).” The majority of scientists do not enjoy having to use animals but they believe that it is crucial in battling human diseases. Arguments given to opponents include:
Animals, especially mammals, are very similar to humans. “While no animal is completely identical to humans, some have particular organ systems that are similar (Chang, p.3).”
Alternatives such as computer models cannot replace the need for animal experimentation.
Animals also benefit from the research such as discovering treatments for rabies and distemper (Chang, p.2).
Possibly the first vaccine ever developed was one against rabies. In 1885, French scientist Louis Basteur developed a rabies vaccine after extensive testing on rabbits. And one of the most important and common vaccines used today could not have been found without animal research—polio. After 40 year of research using monkeys, rats, and mice, Jonas Salk developed the vaccine in 1952.
Today, several major medical research successes have used lab rodents. For example, researchers at Washington University have recently discovered that “genetically altered mice lacking an immune-system enzyme didn’t develop emphysema even after exposure (Berardelli, p.1).”
Vaccines for dozens of infectious diseases would not be available without animal testing. Diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, tuberculosis, measles, mumps, and rubella are just a few on the list of cures that give thanks to animal experimentation.
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In 1998 Dr. Jack Kevorkian performed his last assisted suicide before entering prison. having been found guilty of carrying a controlled substance. The substance he was carrying was the one which he used to help his patients ease into death at their own rate and time Dr. Kevorkian believed. and still believes. that assisted suicide. or euthanasia. is a humane way to deal with terminal illness. The term euthanasia is derived from two Greek words. eu meaning goodly or well
br and thanotos which means death. Eu thanotos a good death .1 People were appalled. for the most part. at Dr. Kevorkian 's philosophy regarding death and terminal illness. Yet. thousands of animals. family pets. strays. and other animals are put to death each day for a variety of reasons. For many people. the family dog or cat is not just a pet it is a dearly loved family member. In the following paragraphs we will take a look at the arguments for and against the mercy killing of pets Although I work closely with animals on a regular basis in a veterinary clinic. I will do my best to approach this subject with an open mind to the moral and ethical issues involved
Veterinarians are invaluable when it comes to determining what level of suffering a dog or cat is
1 HYPERLINK "http /www .medicinenet .com " www .medicinenet .com Definition of euthanasia
enduring due to a specific malady. Granted. the vet cannot know exactly what the animal feels
just the same as a doctor cannot know what a patient feels without experiencing what the patient
is experiencing. A vet is trained to understand the complexities of various maladies afflicting an animal and can judge. to a certain extent. what the pet may or may not be feeling. The best
source for understanding. however. is the pet owner. Having established a close relationship with the pet. the owner will be able to understand when the quality of life has deteriorated to such an extent as to be no longer enjoyable for the animal. The decision to end a life is never easy. It is a personal. loving decision to euthanize a pet for which the quality of life has deteriorated. It takes courage to assume this last duty and is our last responsibility to a pet which has given us love and companionship ' 2 This is the loving. kind compassionate approach to a very difficult problem
What about the individual who euthanizes an animal simply because it is no longer wanted and all the shelters are filled to capacity. Is this humane. Would you call Dr. Kevorkian when Grandma got on your nerves Perhaps not. and yet people will find a way to get rid of a pet for the least amount of provocation. The dog may bark too loud at night. The cat may have exercised its feline responsibility of claw sharpening on an expensive chair. Possibly the pet owner neglected.
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