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Murder Rape And DNA Essay Research Paper

Murder, Rape, And DNA Essay, Research Paper

Murder, Rape, and DNA

February 16, 1997

DNA is the information needed by a cell in order to reproduce an

identical offspring. In some crimes detectives have no evidence or fingerprints

to tell who had committed a crime. Now there is a way of finding who has

committed the crime by a method called DNA Typing. DNA Typing is finding

bacteria or blood on clothing or skin and amplifying the gene. This process was

pioneered in the 1980’s by a Scientist named Alec Jeffreys.

If blood, sperm, or any other human cells are left at the scene of a

crime, the DNA in the cells can be analyzed and compared with some DNA taken

from the suspect’s blood. If they match, this information and testimony of a

scientist can be used to convict a rapist or murderer.

In the O.J. Simpson case DNA Typing was used. There was blood found

on various areas at the crime scene. The investigators gathered the evidence,

and took it to the laboratory where it was analyzed. The jury determined that

the samples were contaminated because of the way they were handled.

DNA Typing is not perfect. There are many loop holes in it. An example

is the O.J. Simpson trial. During the process the DNA may be tampered with or

In most rape cases DNA Typing is used by taking semen off the body of

clothes then amplifying the genes. The machine that copies the DNA is called

the PCR. The DNA is then cut and placed the wells in trays. PCR copies the

small pieces of DNA. It is performed by a blotting process. This process has

21 different catogories.

Other tests include those for tracing genetic diseases within families,

finding the genes that cause genetic diseases. DNA Typing can also prove the

relationship with families.

DNA Typing is becoming more common than ever. This process is helping

to free convicted people of crimes they may not have committed by taking samples

of the prisoners DNA and comparing it with the evidence left at the crime scene.

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Dna Essay Research Paper Deoxyribonucleic Acid 2

Dna Essay Research Paper Deoxyribonucleic Acid 2

Dna Essay, Research Paper Deoxyribonucleic Acid – the fingerprint of life also know as DNA was first mapped out in the early 1950 s by British biophysicist, Francis Harry Compton Crick and American biochemist James Dewey Watson. They determined the three-dimensional structure of DNA, the substance that passes on the genetic characteristics from one generation to the next. DNA is found in the chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. Every family line has it s own unique pattern of restriction-enzyme DNA fragments. This variation in patterns of DNA fragments found in human genetic lineages is called restriction-fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). (Louis Levine. ) Because each person, except for identical twins(which have the exact same DNA), is formed from two family lines the

pattern of sizes of the fragments from an individual is unique and can serve as a DNA fingerprint of that person. These fingerprints have became very important in identifying criminals in a number of violent crimes where the victims aren t able to. Blood or semen stains on clothing, sperm cells found in a vaginal swab taken after a rape, or root hairs are all available for analysis. Although other body tissues such as skin cells and saliva can provide genetic information about a person for Forensic Science purposes, blood is the most useful source of inherited traits. If the DNA fingerprints produced from two different samples match, the two samples probably came from the same person. Here are some examples of court cases where DNA plays an important roll in the outcome of the

trial. —-Hauppauge N.Y.—After 11 years in prison for rape Kerry Kotler cried tears of joy becoming one of the first convicts in the United States to be freed by DNA technology. - 1 - At a banquet held for Kotler he received a standing ovation from the guest s of his lawyer, Barry Schech and Peter Neufeld, who would later use their DNA expertise to help free O.J. Simpson. Now the very weapon used to free Kotler will be used against him and instead of his lawyers praising DNA testing they will be trying to tear it down. Four years after being released from prison Kotler was charged with another rape and the DNA test matched him to the semen found on the victims clothing. Posing as a police officer he forced a 20 year old college student off the highway and raped her. A partial

license plate number and a description of the car led them to Kotler. The semen matched Kotler s blood and the chances of the semen being somebody else s is one to 7.5 million. Also, dog hairs on the victims clothing matched hairs from Kotler s German shepherd. Kotler, 37, is free on $25000 bail and could get up to 50 years in jail if convicted of rape and kidnapping. —-Anamosa, Iowa—22 year old Cathy Jo Bohlken was sexually assaulted and murdered. Genetic evidence from fluid taken from her body points to an 18 year old named Travis Jamieson. Bohlkan s body was found DEC 26, 1993 on the floor of her duplex with a bag over her head and her hands wrapped with duct tape. Autopsy shows she died of multiple stab wounds. The search of a pick-up truck registered to Jamieson s

parents revealed a utility knife and a red-brown stain on the steering wheel. (http://www.wcinet.com/th/news/th0208/stories/1355.htm) —-Norman, Okla—Thomas Webb III was released after more than 13 years in prison for a 1982 rape. DNA testing was not available at the time so Gale Webb, Thomas wife, pushed - 2 - authorities to use DNA genetic profiling on the 14 year old evidence. These DNA tests ruled him out as a suspect. (http://www.wcinet.com/th/news/th0525/stories/12284.htm) —-Santa Ana, Calif—Kevin Lee Green cried as the judge apologized for the mistake and freed him from prison after nearly 17 years. He was convicted of killing his unborn baby and nearly beating his wife to death. He was released as authorities prepared to charge a convicted rapist with the murder of

Free essay - DNA Essay by

In 1944. three American microbiologists. Oswald Avery. Colin MacLeod and Maclyn McCarty. discovered that a substance called deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA ) is the substance of which genes are made. Nine years later. James Watson and Francis Crick. working with molecular models and X-ray information supplied by Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin. determined the physical structure of DNA. In addition. Crick suggested a mechanism for DNA replication and how it works as the hereditary material. DNA. and another substance called ribonucleic acid (RNA. are together referred to as

nucleic acids because they were first discovered in the nuclei of cells (see DNA Grolier Encyclopedia of Knowledge. pp. 234-241

According to the model proposed by Watson and Crick. a DNA molecule consists of two long strands wrapped around each other to form a double helix. The double helix looks like a twisted ladder. Just as amino acids are the structural units of proteins. so nucleotides are the structural units of nucleic acids. Each strand of the DNA double helix is composed of many nucleotides

Each nucleotide of DNA is composed of three parts - a nitrogen-containing base. a pentose (five-carbon ) sugar called deoxyribose. and a phosphate group (phosphoric acid0. The nitrogen-containing bases are cyclic compounds made up of carbon hydrogen. oxygen. and nitrogen atoms. The bases are named adenine (A thymine (T. cytosine (C. and guanine (G. A and G are double-ring structures called purines. whereas T and C are single -ring structures referred to as pyrimidines (see DNA. Grolier Encyclopedia of Knowledge. pp. 234-241

Nucleotides are named according to their nitrogenous base. Thus. a nucleotide containing thymine is called a thymine nucleotide one containing adenine is called an adenine nucleotide. and so on. The term nucleoside refers to the combination of a purine or pyrimidine plus a pentose sugar it does not contain a phosphate group

Each strand of DNA composing the double helix has a backbone consisting of altering sugar and phosphate groups. The deoxyribose of one nucleotide is joined to the phosphate group of the next. The nitrogen-containing bases make up the rungs of the ladder. Note that the purine A is always paired with the pyrimidine T and that purine G is always paired with the pyrimidine C. The bases are held together by hydrogen bonds A-T is held by two hydrogen bonds. and G-C is held by three (see Deoxyribonucleic Acid. New Standard Encyclopedia. pp 312-315

The in which the nitrogen-base pairs occur along the backbone is extremely specific and in fact contains the genetic instructions for the organism. A certain segment of a nucleotide chain constitutes a gene and a single DNA molecule may contain thousands of genes. Genes determine all hereditary traits. and they control all the activities that take place within cells

A very important consequence of nitrogen-containing base pairing is that. if the sequence of bases of one strand is known. then the sequence of the other strand is also known. For example. if one strand has the sequence .ATGC. then the other strand has the sequence .TACG .Since the sequence of bases of one strand is determined by the sequence of bases of the other. the bases are said to be complementary. The actual transfer of information becomes possible because of DNA 's unique structure (see Deoxyribonucleic Acid. New Standard Encyclopedia. pp. 312-315

The intents of this are to (1 ) know about DNA and chromosomes (2 ) understand the DNA replication and (3 ) recognize the rate of DNA replication

A. DNA and chromosomes

What is the relationship of DNA to chromosomes. Evidence available so far suggests that the DNA in each chromosome - even in the large complex chromosomes of eukaryotes - is one long double helix. Various proteins that function in DNA replication and expression are bound to the DNA

Bacteria typically have a single circular chromosome consisting of a single circular molecule of DNA. The chromosome is looped and folded and at one or several points to the plasma membrane. The DNA of E coli. the best studied bacterium. has about 4 million base pairs and is about 1 mm long - 1000 times longer than the entire cell. However. DNA is very thin and is tightly packed inside the cell. so that this twisted. coiled macromolecule takes up only about 10 of the cell 's volume (see Tortora. G .J. and et al. DNA and Chromosomes Microbiology. 6th edition. pp. 651-654

Eucaryotic chromosomes contain DNA that is even more highly coiled (condensed ) than procaryotic DNA. Eucaryotic chromosomes contain much more protein than prokaryotic chromosomes do. In eucaryotic cells. a group of proteins known as histones form complexes around which DNA is wound. The structure and function of a eucaryotic chromosome are also influenced by diverse nonhistone chromosomal proteins. which help determine many tissue-specific and species-specific phenotypes. The detailed structure of the eukaryotic chromosome. and the precise arrangement of DNA with proteins. is still under investigation Researchers believe that an understanding of the detailed structure is likely to reveal how the cell turns genes on and off to produce crucial proteins when needed. This regulation of gene expression governs the differentiation of eukaryotic cells into the different types of cells found in multicellular organisms as well as an individual cell 's ongoing activities (see Tortora. G .J. and et al. DNA and Chromosomes Microbiology. 6th edition. pp. 651-654

A. DNA Replication

In DNA replication. one parental ' double-stranded DNA molecule is converted to two identical daughter ' molecules. The complementary structure of the nitrogenous base sequences in the DNA molecule provides the key to understanding DNA replication. Because the bases that comprise the two strands of double-helical DNA are complementary. one strand can act as a template for the production of the other strand

When DNA replicates. the two strands of parental DNA unwind and separate from each in one small DNA segment after another. Free nucleotides present in the cytoplasm of the cell match up to the exposed bases of the single-stranded parental DNA. Where thymine is present on the original strand. only adenine can fit into place on the new strand where guanine is present on the original strand. only cytosine can fit into place. and so on. Once aligned. the newly added nucleotide is joined to the growing DNA strand by an enzyme called DNA polymerase Then the parental DNA unwinds a bit further to allow the addition of the next nucleotides. The point at which replication is occurring is called the replication fork (see DNA Replication. Medical and Health Encyclopedia. pp. 113-115

As the replication fork moves along the parental DNA. each of the unwound single strands combines with new nucleotides. The original strand and this newly synthesized daughter strand then rewind. Because each new double-stranded DNA molecule contains one original strand (conserved ) and one new strand. the process of replication is referred to as semi-conservative replication

Before discussing DNA replication is more detail. let us take a closer look at the structure of DNA. Although the two strands DNA are complementary. their backbones have different chemical senses of direction in terms of the orientation of the sugar groups. Each phosphate group in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA attaches the 5 carbon of one sugar to the 3 ' carbon of the next sugar (The nitrogenous base attaches to the 1 ' carbon. If the sugar-phosphate backbone is broken by the action of an enzyme or the DNA is a linear molecule. a hydroxyl group is found at one end of each DNA strand. The end of the DNA strand that has the hydroxyl to the 3 ' carbon of the DNA double helix are therefore said to be antiparallel (see DNA Replication. Medical and Health Encyclopedia. pp. 113-115

The antiparallel structure of DNA affects the replication process. DNA polymerases can join new nucleotides to the growing daughter strand only by adding them to its 3 ' end. That is. a DNA strand grows only in the 5 - 3 ' direction. Therefore. as the site of the replication fork moves along the parental DNA. the two new DNA strands must grow in slightly different fashions. One new DNA strand. called the leading strand. is synthesized continuously in the 5 ' - 3 ' direction (from a template parental strand running 3 ' - 5. In contrast. the lagging strand of new DNA is synthesized discontinuously in fragments of about 1000 nucleotides. which must later be joined to make one continuous strand Thus the overall growth of the lagging strand in the 3 ' - 5 ' direction is achieved by assembling short stretches that have been synthesized in the usual 5 ' - 3 ' direction (see DNA Replication. Medical and Health Encyclopedia. pp. 113-115

The process of DNA synthesis requires many proteins and enzymes including several types of DNA polymerase molecules. At the site of the replication fork. the parental double helix is unwound by enzymes Stabilizing proteins prevent the rewinding of the single-stranded parental DNA. DNA polymerase cannot initiate synthesis of a DNA strand entirely on its own. but it can attach additional nucleotides to the free 3 ' end of an existing DNA or RNA strand to elongate the strand While the leading strand of DNA is being synthesized by DNA polymerase an RNA polymerase starts the synthesis of each DNA fragment of the lagging strand with a short stretch of RNA nucleotides. called an RNA primer. DNA synthesis catalyzed by DNA polymerase can then proceed in the 5 ' - 3 ' direction from the RNA primers. The RNA is later digested away by the 5 ' - 3 ' exonuclease activity that is part of the function of DNA polymerase. Another enzyme. DNA ligase. joins the discontinuous fragments with covalent bonds to make a continuous lagging strand. Each newly synthesized DNA stand forms a double helix with its parental strand. The two daughter DNA double helices that are the final result of the process are indistinguishable from each other and from the original parental DNA (see DNA Replication. Medical and Health Encyclopedia pp. 113-115

B. The rate of DNA replication

DNA synthesis is a surprisingly fast process. about 1000 nucleotides per second in E. coli growing at 37 ?C. At first glance. this speed seems improbable. considering that nucleotide substrates must be synthesized and then must diffuse to the replication fork. Furthermore. several attempts are probably made by wrong nucleotides to pair at each position before the correct bases pair up. Nevertheless. the speed and specificity of DNA replication are governed by the same principles that guide all chemical reactions (see Barbara. K. and et al. The rate of DNA replication. Fundamentals of Nursing. Concepts. Process. and Practice 10th ed. Pp. 649-701

Under some conditions. namely log phase growth in a rich nutrient medium. E. coli can grow faster than the two replication forks can complete the circular chromosome. Under these conditions. the cell initiates multiple replication forks at the origin on the chromosome a new pair of forks begins before the last pair has finished. In this way the overall rate of DNA synthesis matches the rate at which the cell divides. Similarly. when the cell 's growth greatly slows. the initiation of DNA synthesis at the origin of replication may be delayed. The rate at which each replication fork moves is generally constant (at a stable temperature. However. by regulating how often replication is imitate the cell controls its overall rate of DNA synthesis to match its rate of growth and cell division (see Barbara. K. and et al. The rate of DNA replication. Fundamentals of Nursing. Concepts. Process. and Practice 10th ed. Pp. 649-701

DNA replication makes possible the flow of genetic information from in one generation to the next. The DNA of a cell replicates before cell division. so that each daughter cell receives a chromosome identical to the parent 's. Within each metabolizing cell. the genetic information contained in DNA also flows in another way. It is transcribed into RNA and then translated into protein

DNA. Grolier Encyclopedia of Knowledge. pp. 234-241

Deoxyribonucleic Acid. New Standard Encyclopedia. pp. 312-315

Tortora. G .J. and et al. DNA and Chromosomes. Microbiology. 6th edition. pp. 651-654

Barbara. K. and et al. The rate of DNA replication. Fundamentals of Nursing. Concepts. Process. and Practice 10th ed. Pp. 649-701

DNA Replication. Medical and Health Encyclopedia. pp. 113-115

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Prokaryotic Cells
Cells that lack a membrane-bound nucleus are called prokaryotes (from the Greek meaning before nuclei). These cells have few internal structures that are distinguishable under a microscope.
Cell Wall: Made of a murein (not cellulose), which is a glycoprotein or peptidoglycan (i.e. a protein/carbohydrate complex). It’s the outer covering of most cells that protects the bacterial cell and gives it shape.
Plasma membrane: Controls the entry and exit of substances, pumping some of them in by active transport.
Cytoplasm: Contains all the enzymes needed for all metabolic reactions, since there are no organelles.
Ribosome: The smaller cell structures all free in the cytoplasm meaning attached to membranes. They are used in protein synthesis which is part of gene expression.
Nucleoid: Is the region of the cytoplasm that contains DNA. It is not surrounded by a nuclear membrane. DNA is always a closed loop (i.e. a circular), and not associated with any proteins to form chromatin.
Flagella: These long thread-like attachments are generally considered to be for movement. They have an internal protein structure that allows the flagella to be actively moved as a form of propulsion.
Pilli: Hair-like structures on the surface of the cell that attach to other bacterial cells. Shorter pili called fimbriae help bacteria attach to surfaces. They are associated with different types of attachment. In some cases they are involved in the transfer of DNA in a process called conjugation or alternatively as a means of preventing phagocytosis (being engulfed by another cell)
Cell Capsule: it’s a thick polysaccharide layer outside of the cell wall. Used for sticking cells together, as a food reserve, as protection against desiccation and chemicals, and as protection against phagocytosis. In some species the capsules of many cells in a colony fuse together forming a mass of sticky cells called a biofilm. Dental plaque is an example of a biofilm.
Plasmids: they.

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DNA Sequences and Species Boundaries - Discussion The use of genetic markers has been an effective way to examine population structure (Bucklin and Kocher 1996) and mitochondrial DNA sequences have been used broadly to delimit species boundaries (Wiens 1999). More recently the use of mitochondrial DNA sequences has been contentious, and two extreme viewpoints have emerged (see review in Rubinoff and Holland 2005), one position criticizing the exclusive use of mtDNA while others have endorsed one particular gene (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) as a universal marker. [tags: Biochemistry]

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DNA Replication and Heterochromatin - Heterochromatin is a tightly packed DNA region where genes in such regions are usually not transcribed. Numerous transposable elements (TEs) and repetitive DNA are found in heterochromatic regions. As they can transpose along the genome and disrupt gene functions, it is essential to repress such TEs and DNA repeats (Lippman et al. 2004). Heterochromatin is able to maintain internucleosomal interactions as well as chromatin fiber interactions between cis-elements. It can be passed on to subsequent generations and can control gene expressions by inhibiting transcription epigenetically, a process known as silencing. [tags: anatomy, heterochromatin]
. 13 Works Cited

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DNA Hydroxymethylation of Mammals - Epigenetic changes refer to mechanisms which alter gene expression without altering the underlying DNA sequence. Sometimes, these changes are inherited throughout the cell’s life via cell division. Mechanisms that induce epigenetic changes include DNA methylation, histone modification, prions (which can be inherited without modifying the genome), and RNA signalling. This paper will focus on DNA hydroxymethylation in mammals. DNA methylation is a postreplicative modification that occurs when a methyl (-CH3) group is added at position 5 of the cytosine pyrimidine ring and “establishes a silent chromatin state by collaborating with proteins that modify nucleosomes.” (Rudolf Jaenisch, 2003). [tags: Medical Research]
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DNA Profiling - From cases such as OJ Simpson to Chandra Levy, DNA profiling also called DNA fingerprinting or DNA typing has played a major role in the criminal justice system. The law enforcement community uses DNA profiling to rule out or identify suspects. Unlike hair microscopy, bite mark comparisons, shoe print comparisons, and firearm tool mark analysis, DNA typing has been developed through massive scientific research and has undergone meticulous scientific evaluation (Innocence Project). DNA is a foolproof method of identifying a perpetrator of a crime. [tags: Forensic Science]
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DNA Report - Many people have heard about this mysterious DNA molecule but don’t know much about it (what it is, where it’s located, what it does, etc.) In this report it will state the basics and investigate this mysterious molecule: deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA is a thin chainlike molecule found in almost every cell (Rubenstein, 2006), and is used in developing and functioning all known living organisms (“Wikipedia”, 2009). DNA is a Hereditary Material in a human body, (“U.S. National”, 2009), genomes determine hereditary (Rubenstein, 2006). [tags: Biology]

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DNA Technologies - The structure of DNA was discovered in 1953 and revealed to the world by James Watson and Francis Crick.1 Since then, there has been a whirlwind of activity and discovery in the fields associated with DNA. We have found that DNA is not only a set of instructions for the body, but that it also contains a lot of information about the individual who “owns” the DNA. As it is rapidly becoming cheaper and easier to process DNA, it is becoming more difficult to make sure that there is adequate legislature to protect members of society. [tags: Biology ]

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DNA Testing - The criminal justice system is not perfect. Throughout the process there can be many errors that can result in the incarceration of an innocent person. There are examples of this in the case of Gerald Wayne Davis. Faulty eyewitness testimony and double jeopardy are two of errors that will be reviewed in this case. The focus is the use of unreliable scientific evidence. In the past non-DNA testing of evidence was use to prove guilt or innocence. These tests can be inconclusive and can be used to mislead a jury. [tags: Criminal Justice]
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Bilogy: DNA Fingerprinting - DNA Fingerprinting When you were born you were given your own DNA. The genetic information you carry is very similar to your parents. Even though you and your parents have very similar DNA you also have genetic differences, one example is your fingerprint no one but yourself will have your unique fingerprint pattern. Police use what is called DNA Fingerprinting to extensively investigate crime scenes. DNA in/on a crime scene can be found through the process of DNA Fingerprinting. Police collect evidence from the crime scene to take in for testing. [tags: Genetic Information, Fingerprint Pattern]
. 6 Works Cited

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DNA Molecule - Haruan Channa striatus is in great demand in the Malaysian domestic fish market. Therefore, detailed knowledge of the genetic diversity and population genetics of Haruan C. striatus are needed for sound management, conservation, stock identification and successful fishing of the species. Haruan, the local name for the snakehead Channa striatus is an obligate freshwater fish of the family Channidae, which has important economic value as food fish, and has pharmacological properties as well as medicinal value (Mat Jais, 1991, 2007a, 2007b; Rahim et al. 2009; Jamaluddin et al. 2011). [tags: Biology, The Mitochondrial Cyt B]

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Familial DNA Searching - Nowadays, DNA is a crucial component of a crime scene investigation, used to both to identify perpetrators from crime scenes and to determine a suspect’s guilt or innocence (Butler, 2005). The method of constructing a distinctive “fingerprint” from an individual’s DNA was first described by Alec Jeffreys in 1985. He discovered regions of repetitions of nucleotides inherent in DNA strands that differed from person to person (now known as variable number of tandem repeats, or VNTRs), and developed a technique to adjust the length variation into a definitive identity marker (Butler, 2005). [tags: Genetics]
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How DNA Helps to Solve Crimes - Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has been used to analyze and prove innocence or guilt of suspects of crimes with great accuracy. DNA is part of everyday life. It is the heredity material in humans and almost all other organisms. While being part of an investigation. DNA has helped to solve crimes. There is a couple ways that DNA left behind can be tested to solve a crime. Either if the suspect has been caught and or had his or her DNA tested, or if he or she has left behind any biological evidence. Which then needs to be tested to see if it matches the DNA found in the crime scene to his or hers DNA. [tags: criminal justice]

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Pros and Cons of Recombinant DNA Technology - Introduction – A historical overview The history of rDNA technology dates back to 1865 when Gregor Mendel, using the pea plant demonstrated and proved some of the basic laws of genetics such as 1) Law of segregation, 2) Law of independent assortment and 3) Law of dominance. Mendel laid the foundation for genetics upon which experiments were conducted in later years. Later in 1915, T.H. Morgan established the fact that chromosome contains genes and these genes are linked through inheritance using Drosophila as a model organism. [tags: anatomy, RNA]
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Biology: DNA Forensics - DNA forensics is a division of forensic science that focuses on the use of genetic material in criminal investigation to answer questions pertaining to legal situations, including criminal and civil cases. Through DNA testing, law enforcement officers are able to identify human remains or the individual responsible for a crime. DNA testing is a highly advanced scientific process that involves replicating the human DNA sequence to create a genetic map of an individual. Because of its reliability, DNA testing has become a significant factor in criminal cases. [tags: genetic material, criminal investigation]
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Investigating the DNA - Investigating the DNA Objectives 1. Understand the semiconservative nature of DNA replication. Realize that the process begins at unique origins of replication, and proceeds bidirectionally. 2. Know that DNA synthesis is catalyzed by a family of enzymes called DNA polymerases. Understand that DNA polymerase has a requirement for a template on which to synthesize the new DNA strand, and for a primer from which to extend the DNA strand. 3. Understand the various functions of the RNA polymerases, such as exonuclease and polymerase activities, and their function in the replication process. [tags: Papers]

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DNA and Replication - DNA and Replication You pose an interesting question – There are different types of Human DNA – which there are various classifications, Chromosomal DNA and Mitochondrial DNA. There is also the DNA present from normal flora microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, mites, etc. Some of this microorganism DNA may be significant, such as E. coli DNA in the gut or Staphylococcus DNA on the skin. You even have DNA present from viruses of bacteria such as phage DNA. Some human viruses may be present in blood cells such as EBV, CMV in nerve cells like herpes simplex 1, in skin cell like HPV (human papilloma virus) or integrated into the Human Chromosomal DNA such as v. [tags: Papers]

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Dna And Crime - DNA and Crime Deoxyribonucleic Acid - the fingerprint of life also know as DNA was first mapped out in the early 1950’s by British biophysicist, Francis Harry Compton Crick and American biochemist James Dewey Watson. They determined the three-dimensional structure of DNA, the substance that passes on the genetic characteristics from one generation to the next. DNA is found in the chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. "Every family line has it’s own unique pattern of restriction-enzyme DNA fragments. [tags: essays research papers]

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The DNA Molecule - The DNA Molecule In the autumn of 1951, James Watson (left) and Francis Crick (right) started work on unravelling the structure of DNA. It was known at the time that DNA was present in the nucleus of every living cell, and that it had something to do with heridity, but without a knowledge of its structure little more could be understood about how it actually worked. They approached the problem with the same methodology that had been pioneered by Linus Pauling, who after years of exhaustive study had earlier discovered that many proteins exhibited a helical structure. [tags: Papers]

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DNA Testing and the Conviction of Criminals - DNA Testing and the Conviction of Criminals There have been many incidents where cases have needed a solid prosecution in order to convict the defendant in a murder or rape case. This is where DNA Testing comes in to help. By taking a DNA test, a person can be found guilty or not guilty. If a person claims they have been raped there can be a sperm sample taken from the suspect in order to prove that he is guilty or not. In addition, in a murder case there can be blood taken from the suspect so they can tell of his innocence. [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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The Use of DNA in Forensics - The Use of DNA in Forensics DNA (noun) [deoxyribonucleic acid] first appeared 1944. any of various nucleic acids that are usually the molecular basis of heredity, are localized especially in cell nuclei, and are constructed of a double helix held together by hydrogen bonds between purine and pyrimidine bases which project inward from two chains containing alternate links of deoxyribose and phosphate. What is forensics. fo*ren*sic [1] (adjective) First appeared 1659 1. belonging to, used in, or suitable to courts of judicature or to public discussion and debate. [tags: Papers]

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DNA Profiling Used in Courts - DNA Profiling Used in Courts DNA profiling is a technique often used to identify criminals or the biological parents of a child through the analysis of their deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The technique is very successful as it is based on the fact that every person possesses their own individual set of DNA, which is unique to them with the exception of identical twins. DNA found in materials such as blood, semen, bone and hair is extracted for analysis. There are issues involved in its application as it can be seen as an invasion of ones privacy through the use of DNA banks. [tags: Papers]

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The Power of DNA in the Courtroom - The Power of DNA in the Courtroom In 1893, Francis Galton introduced a remarkable new way to identify people ("Fingerprinting" pg 1 par 3). His observation that each individual has a unique set of fingerprints revolutionized the world of forensics. Soon, all investigators had adapted the idea to use fingerprints as a form of identification. Unfortunately, over the course of the past century, criminals have adapted to this technique and seldom leave their incriminating marks at the crime scene. [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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The Future Potential of DNA Fingerprinting - The Tremendous Potential of DNA Fingerprinting Abstract; This paper explors the effects DNA fingerprinting has had on the trial courts and legal institutions. Judge Joseph Harris states that it is the "single greatest advance in the search for truth since the advent of the cross examination (Gest, 1988)." And I tend to agree with Judge Joseph's assertion, but with the invention and implementation of DNA profiling and technology has come numerous problems. This paper will explore: how DNA evidence was introduced into the trial courts, the effects of DNA evidence on the jury system and the future of DNA evidence in the trial courts. [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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A DNA Bank Is Necessary - Imagine that a convicted child molester is released from jail and that he is now traveling around the country looking for work. One day this criminal returns to his old ways and he attacks a young child whose dead body is found in a deserted field the following day. The only trace of evidence at the crime scene is a semen specimen on the boys clothes. Now this specimen could be useful if the police tracked down, and arrested the suspect, and then took a blood sample of his that matched the crime scene specimen. [tags: essays research papers fc]
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The Use of Recombinant DNA Technology - The Use of Recombinant DNA Technology Recombinant DNA technology is the technology of preparing recombinant DNA in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and splicing together fragments from more than one organism.(1) This is the process of using recombinant DNA technology to enable the rapid production of human protein from a single gene of insulin. Firstly the single gene required must be isolated. This can be done three ways: Either by working backwards from the protein- Finding the amino acid sequence for the protein needed, the order of bases can be established using known genetic code. [tags: Papers]

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The Implications of DNA Profiling - The Implications of DNA Profiling Former attorney General Janet Reno described our system of justice as a search for the truth.(1) Increasingly, the forensic use of DNA technology is an important ally in that search. DNA fingerprinting, better known in the scientific realm as DNA profiling, has given police and the courts a means of identifying the perpetrators of rapes and murders with a very high degree of confidence. However, nine years after its introduction, forensic DNA typing is still used only selectively. [tags: Genetics Technology Testing Papers]
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The Process of DNA Replication - The Process of DNA Replication The process of DNA replication plays a crucial role in providing genetic continuity from one generation to the next. Knowledge of the structure of DNA began with the discovery of nucleic acids in 1869. In 1952, an accurate model of the DNA molecule was presented, thanks to the work of Rosalind Franklin, James Watson, and Francis Crick. To reproduce, a cell must copy and transmit its genetic information (DNA) to all of its progeny. To do so, DNA replicates following the process of semi-conservative replication. [tags: Expository Process Essays]

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The Pros and Cons of DNA Profiling - The Positive And Negative Effects of DNA Profiling Genetic engineering has developed and blossomed at a frightening rate in the last decade. Originating as merely an area of interest for scientists, genetic engineering has now become an area of which all people should be somewhat knowledgeable. DNA profiling has many uses, both positive and negative, in our society. Aside from its usefulness in many legal investigations, DNA profiling can be used in the workplace to discriminate against employees whose profiles could pose a financial risk. [tags: Pro Con Essays]
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Pos. and Neg. of DNA Profiling - The Positives and Negatives on DNA Profiling DNA testing has many uses, both positive and negative, in our society. Genetic profiling has been beneficial in paternity suits and rape cases, where the father or the assailant could be identified. However, despite its growing number of utilizations, DNA profiling is extremely hazardous when results are inaccurate or used to discriminate. Many have benefited from the genetic engineering that has developed at a frightening rate in the last decade. Evabeth T. [tags: essays research papers fc]
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The Legal and Social Issues Surrounding DNA Databanking - Advances in Science and Genetic Research have significantly impacted the criminal justice system. With the development of programs aimed at utilizing biological or genetic samples collected from potential suspects of a crime, investigators are able to compare the samples against samples collected from the crime scene. One of the most widely-known programs, the Combined Deoxyribonucleic Acid Index System (CODIS), was developed as a law enforcement resource to compare new samples of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) against the registered DNA samples of “convicted offenders, unsolved crime scene evidence, and missing persons across local, State, and national databases” (Office of Justice Programs, 2. [tags: Medical Research]
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Serious Problems with DNA Fingerprinting - Serious Problems with DNA Fingerprinting Is there any piece of physical evidence so foolproof it could be used to prove or disprove anyone's case in a trial. Many people believe the answer to this question is DNA. In theory, this argument is true, but many believe certain factors can lead to inconsistent data gathered from DNA. There are many differing opinions on how DNA should be used, or if it should be used at all. Many people are uninformed about what DNA actually is or how it is used in criminal trials. [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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Tracing Human migration paths through Mitochondrial DNA - How humans spread around the world is still one of the mysteries in the history of mankind. Mitochondrial DNA has been a crucial line of experimental evidence in developing the current understanding of our genetic history. It has shed significant light in determining the population patterns and human migrations around the world. Studies of mitochondrial DNA have provided new insights in the way humans spread around the globe throughout time. Studies have suggested two major routes from East Africa through which humans exited Africa and colonized the globe. [tags: Population Patterns, Human Migration]
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Discovery of the Structure of DNA - Discovery of the Structure of DNA On the last day of February in 1953, according to James Watson, Francis Crick announced to the patrons of the Eagle Pub in Cambridge, “We have discovered the secret of life” (Watson 115, 1980). As Brian Hayes, the author of “The Invention of the Genetic Code” states, “If life ever had a secret, the double helix of DNA was surely it” (1). However, it was not the work of these two men alone that led to the discovery of the power the lies within the double helix, but rather the work of many scientists that was carefully picked apart and pieced together by the two who received the most fame for the work. [tags: History Historical Science Biology Essays]
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DNA Analysis: Validity And Doubts - DNA. Criminal Identification Validity and Doubts DNA, although controversial on accuracy, has provided a new means of identifying criminals where there is little physical evidence. This allows you to take a piece of hair, a spot of blood, or skin tissue and make a positive identification on a suspect. Since it's first use by the FBI in December 1988 it has grown to become a major factor in criminal investigation. This new key gives them help when the crime scene lacks evidence. [tags: essays research papers]

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DNA - DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid are two chemical substances involved in transmitting genetic information from parent to offspring. It was known early into the 20th century that chromosomes, the genetic material of cells, contained DNA. In 1944, Oswald T. Avery, Colin M. MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty concluded that DNA was the basic genetic component of chromosomes. Later, RNA would be proven to regulate protein synthesis. (Miller, 139) DNA is the genetic material found in most viruses and in all cellular organisms. [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Using DNA in Criminal Trials - Using DNA in Criminal Trials DNA evidence is extremely helpful in criminal trials not only because it can determine the guilt of a suspect, but also because it can keep innocent people from going to jail. The suspect must leave a sample of their DNA at the crime scene in order for testing to occur, but DNA can be found in the form of many things such as semen, blood, hair, saliva, or skin scrapings. According to Newsweek, "thousands of people have been convicted by DNA's nearly miraculous ability to search out suspects across space and time… hundreds of innocent people have also been freed, often after years behind bars, sometimes just short of the death chamber" (Adler ). [tags: Papers]

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DNA - DNA DNA, or Deoxyribonucleic Acid, is described, in Encarta Encyclopedia as a genetic material of all cellular organisms and most viruses. DNA carries the information needed to direct protein synthesis and replication. Protein synthesis is the production of the proteins needed by the cell or virus for its activities and development. Replication is the process by which DNA copies itself for each descendant cell or virus, passing on the information needed for protein synthesis. In most cellular organisms, DNA is organized on chromosomes located in the nucleus of the cell. [tags: Deoxyribonucleic Acid essays research papers]

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Normalization of Genomic DNA Using Duplex-Specific Nuclease - Whole genome shotgun sequencing (WGS) is an effective method for the study of reference sequences in genomes. It generates several sequences data, which result in overlapping sequences eventually. The aligning DNA sequences achieved overlapping sequence assembly into contigs that could read through the computer program. The WGS method is not applicable when redundant repetitive sequences exist in large genomes1 (cited in 1). Several methods such as methylation-spanning linker libraries (MSLL), Methylation filtration (MF) and others have used eradicating redundancy in higher plant genomes that depended on the hypermethylation tendency of repetitive sequences. [tags: Article Analysis ]
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The Implications Involving Dinosaur DNA - The Implications Involving Dinosaur DNA Of course it was the movie Jurassic Park who seemed to coin the phrase “Dino DNA.” This movie gave the public the thought that, a) it is possible to find dinosaur DNA and b) we can clone dinosaurs from this DNA. This essay is not going to pick apart Jurassic Park’s scientific value, however it will share the current knowledge and information on dinosaur DNA. The discovery of DNA is important because it may uncover different bits of information. The idea of cloning dinosaurs, especially at this point is out of the question. [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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DNA - DNA is a term that has been used in science as well as in many parts of daily life. The general public knows that DNA is a part of our bodies but they may wonder what exactly is DNA. DNA is a term used for deoxyribonucleic acid and it is the genetic material of all organisms, it is the molecule of life and it determines all of our physical characteristics. DNA is present in every single form of life. More than 50 years after the science of genetics was established and the patterns of inheritance were clarified, the largest questions remained unanswered: How are the chromosomes and their genes copied exactly from cell to cell, and how do they direct the structure and behavior of living thing. [tags: essays research papers]

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The Use of DNA to Treat Disease - The Use of DNA to Treat Disease In recent years there have been great advances in medical science. Scientists believe that a gene can be transplanted into humans who suffer from severe diseases that are life threatening. These gene transplants could perhaps cure diseases for which no effective treatment now exists. This treatment is called gene therapy, one method in a series of genetic techniques called genetic engineering. Many benefits can be seen in the future if this research is allowed to continue, however, concerns about how gene therapy could effect humans in the future and the ethics involved with possible misuse of the techniques could hinder this vital res. [tags: Papers]

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Normalization of DNA Using Duplex-Specific Nuclease - Normalization of genomic DNA using duplex-specific nuclease Whole genome shotgun sequencing (WGS) is a potent method for the study of reference sequences in genomes. It generates several sequence data, which result in overlapping sequences eventually. The aligning DNA sequences achieved overlapping sequence reads assembly into contigs, which could read through the computer program. Due to the presence of redundant repetitive sequences in small genomes, the WGS method is not applicable1 (cited in 1). [tags: Scientific Research ]
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The Race to Understanding and Manipulating DNA - Early 1953. Three labs, two in England and one in California, raced to discover the structure of deoxyribose nucleic acid. At Cal Tech in Pasadena, California, Linus Pauling had recently discovered the alpha-helix. Now he was turning his attention to DNA. At King's College in the University of London, Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin, although hampered by their inability to get along with one another, had taken actual pictures of DNA using x-rays and were hot on the trail. The most unlikely pair in the race, a 24-year-old American biologist and a 36-year-old English physicist, were also close to identifying the elusive molecule, although they were forbidden from directly working on it. [tags: Exploratory Essays Research Papers]
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Neanderthals Genetic Role in Modern Human DNA - Introduction “We cannot despair of humanity, since we ourselves are human beings.” (Albert Einstein) There is no question we are human beings as Einstein stated, but with new genetic research what it means to be a human being is constantly evolving. In one aspect of how we are evolving our understanding of ourselves as human being is the debated issue of whether or not Homo Neanderthalensis provided any genetic material to the human genome. There are just three sides to the debate; Neanderthals left no genetic material behind in modern humans, Only Europeans came straight from Neanderthals and finally Neanderthals contributed a minimal amount of genetic material to overall humans. [tags: ancient history, neanderthals]
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DNA - DNA "There is no substance as important as DNA," Watson, 1991. Gene therapy is a controversial issue in today’s science society. Debates in the United States are covering a wide range of topics. I will discuss just a few viewpoints from both sides. First of all, a little background on DNA and genetics. DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a complex structure consisting of a double stranded helix made up of complementary base pairs. Adenine (A) pairs up with thymine (T) and guanine (G) matches with cytosine (C). [tags: Biology Biological Essays]
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DNA - DNA After staying on the plant Earth reaching the human genetic technology, I have come up with this report the four things I am going to talk about in this report are: 1) What is the chemical basis of the plant Earth 2) What do human mean by "genetic technology" and how is it possible 3) How have human used this technology 4) Are humans concerned about this technology 1)The chemical basis of the plant earth is deoxyribonucleic acid (generally shortened to DNA), it has the shape of a long twisted ladder each rung of this ladder is made up of a pair of chemical bases, the information that human body need to make proteins is coded and contained in the order of these bases along t. [tags: essays research papers fc]
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DNA replication -a historical perspective - By the end of the 19th century, the first chapter of a powerful new science was all but written. The science was genetics and the critical first chapter concerned the rules, governing transmission of hereditary traits from generation to generation. Genetics is the study of inheritance (heredity) of parental characteristics and of variability of the characteristics of an organism. Variability can occur by genetic change and is in fact the basis of evolution. The first step in understanding heredity was the work of Gregor Johann Mendel, an Australian monk & philosopher who showed in 1865 that crosses (hybrids) of different garden pea varieties had a definite pattern of inheritance of pare. [tags: essays research papers]

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The Use of Recombinant DNA - The Use of Recombinant DNA I agree that recombinant DNA benefits humans only to a certain extent though. During the late 1960s and early 1970s a series of independent discoveries made in rapid succession yielded a new technology whereby humans have the capability to manipulate and direct the very evolution of life itself. This is accomplished through the process of gene splicing (Recombinant DNA). There are four essential elements of the process: a method of breaking and joining DNA molecules from different sources, a gene carrier that can replicate both itself and the foreign DNA, a means of introducing the foreign DNA into a functional bacteria cell, and a m. [tags: Papers]

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Cell Biology: The DNA of Both Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes - Driving successfully on the wrong side of the highway requires a bulldozer: Surviving RNAP-Replisome Collisions INTRODUCTION The DNA of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes is populated with thousands of bound proteins in vivo. Among these proteins are the replisome and RNA Polymerase (RNAP). The replisome is a large molecular machine that replicates DNA in living cells. It consists of many individual proteins which vary based on the organism, but in general must consist of DNA polymerase, a helicase, primase, ligase, RNase H, some variation on a single stranded binding protein (SSB), and a gyrase/topoisomerase. [tags: equity theory, e coli, helicase]
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Identifying DNA Abnormalities Through Genetic Testing - Genetic testing involves examining an individual’s DNA and identifying abnormalities within the chemical makeup of specific structures. It, essentially, maps the person’s genome and can be interpreted to predict future issues. By analyzing the chromosome, genes, and even certain proteins, physicians and researchers can find changes that lead to inheritable disorders. These changes can lead to possible diagnosis or cure for the disorder in question. In most cases, genetic testing is used to determine the probability that an individual will develop a certain disorder. [tags: presymptomatic testing, crime, genome]
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Presentation on DNA Vaccines - Vaccines • Vaccines are “one of the greatest achievements of modern medicine” • In developed nations, vaccines have almost exterminated polio and smallpox and tightly controlled diseases like hepatitis A and B or typhus • There are three generations of vaccinations • First generation vaccines are either weakened or killed forms of whole organisms • There is a problem with first-gen vaccines: the pathogens can still revert to dangerous forms and cause diseases in immunocompromised vaccine recipients. [tags: Powerpoint Presentation]

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DNA and common elements - Biology Topic Three Chemical elements element Function Prokaryotes Plants animals Sulphur proteins proteins Proteins Calcium Flagella movement Forms cell plate during cytokinesis Shells, bones, vesicle fusion Phosphorus Nucleic acids and ATP Nucleic acids and ATP Nucleic acids and ATP iron Cytochrome- used in respiration Cytochromes-used in reparation Cytochromes – used in mitochondria respiration, haemoglobin Sodium Main cation in cytoplasm Transmission of nerve impulses Water - Polar molecule - Oxygen has slight negative charge - Hydrogen has slight positive charge - Opposite charges attract - This forms hydrogen bonds - This is called coh. [tags: Biology]

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DNA testing - DNA testing has overthrown the way police collect evidence in a number of criminal cases, especially rape and murder and consequently had a large impact on many past cases. However there are many disadvantages to DNA testing, such as a challenge of accuracy, the costs of DNA testing and the possible misuse of DNA. The prospect of a national DNA database in Australia has been heavily criticised with complaints of invasion of privacy and stigma against those with terminal diseases. Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA as it is most commonly known, is a strand of molecules found within the cell nucleus of all living things. [tags: essays research papers fc]
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Dna Replication - DNA REPLICATION WHAT IS DNA. DNA is a molecule that has a repeating chain of identical five-carbon sugars (polymers) linked together from head to tail. It is composed of four ring shaped organic bases (nucleotides) which are Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C) and Thymine (T). It has a double helix shape and contains the sugar component deoxyribose. THE PROCESS OF DNA REPLICATION How DNA replicates is quite a simple process. First, a DNA molecule is “unzipped”. In other words, it splits into two strands of DNA at one end of the DNA molecule. [tags: essays research papers]

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DNA Extraction - DNA Extraction In extracting chromatin from the cells of wheat germ there are seven steps to follow. The optimal cell to use would be the polyploidal eukaryotic. Eukaryotes have nucleus membrane-bound organelles, while prokaryotic does not. The polyploidal eukaryotic cell has DNA that is held in the nucleus while the prokaryote has DNA that floats freely around the cell. The DNA of eukaryotes is more complex and extensive than the other. Prokaryote is a bacterial cell that usually has DNA in one large strand and only has one chromosome while the eukaryotic cell has more than one chromosome and is considered to be a higher organism. [tags: Process Biology Biological Essays]
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DNA Fingerprinting - DNA Fingerprinting It is widely known that each individual has a DNA profile as unique as a fingerprint. Actually, over 99% of all 3 billion nucleotides in human DNA which we inherit from each parent are identical among all individuals. However, for every 1000 nucleotides that we inherit there is 1 site of variation or polymorphism, in the population. These DNA polymorphisms change the length of the DNA fragments produced by the digestion of restriction enzymes. The resulting fragments are called restriction fragments length polymorphisms. [tags: Technology, Science]

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The Use of Force to Gain DNA Samples - The Use of Force to Gain DNA Samples Police forces consider DNA testing to be the biggest break through of the century in solving crime. They have lobbied for legislation to give them the right to take samples from violent suspects and store them in a central Data Bank. In 1995, the Government had drafted a bill that would permit police to take blood, hair, or saliva samples from uncooperative suspects of violent crimes. The Justice Minister then had announced plans to introduce another statute that would favor a data bank of DNA samples. [tags: Papers]

547 words
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A DNA Match is NOT Sufficient to Prove Guilt - DNA is the "master molecule of life". In every living creature from the amoebas to zebras, it carries the coded messages of heredity, governing everything from eye color to allergies. Its discovery solved by James Watson and Francis Crick 41 years ago has brought on one scientific triumph after another. Shelley and I explored these findings and presented the class with the most applicable use of DNA in society today--DNA and its service to the sensational field of criminal investigation. As such, our aim was to first explain the structure of DNA, the two methods of analysis used to examine DNA, the contentions one might have using these methods and then finally its impact on the field of for. [tags: Persuasive Argumentative Essay Examples]

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Computers Predicting the outcomes of cutting DNA - The focus of this study is the interaction between DNA and I-Msol, an endonuclease. An endonuclease is a protein that cuts DNA at a certain sequence with a certain length; I-Msol cuts DNA at approximately 20-24 base pairs and is highly specific in what sequence it is designed to cut. The interaction between DNA and an endonuclease like I-Msol is difficult to determine just by looking at the amino acid sequence of the protein. The difficulty arises because of the many molecular interactions such as hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions are affected by how the protein specifically interacts with the DNA, 3-dimensionally. [tags: Biology]

568 words
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