This book, though published by an American university press, is based on an Oxford D. Phil. thesis. Where so much is controversial, the author cannot expect to win universal agreement on every point, but he presents his evidence clearly and argues fairly, and this book will be essential reading in an area in which such a book was badly needed.
The Introduction starts with Cleisthenes' system of tribes, trittyes and demes, as an artificially constructed system to be contrasted with the older system of phratries, and then addresses three questions about the phratries. The tendency to contrast a locally-based deme system with a personally- based phratry system is shown to be a dangerous simplification: the demes were established as groups of people with hereditary membership, while the phratries had a local aspect and (despite the meaning which we should expect the word phrater to bear) never claimed that their members were all descended from a common ancestor. The statement of Ath. Pol. fr. 3 that the phratries were identical with the trittyes of the four old tribes is certainly wrong; whether the phratries were nevertheless in some way sub- groups of the old tribes as the demes were sub-groups of the new tribes cannot be decided on the basis of the available evidence; gene do seem to have been sub-groups of phratries, though the relationship between genos and phratry may not have been the same in every case. Lambert believes that (with one exception, to be noted below) it remained the case in the fifth and fourth centuries that every adult male citizen belonged to a phratry: in the fourth century the number of phratries was probably within the range 30-140, and their average membership in the range 1,000-140.
Chapters 1-7 deal with the phratries after Cleisthenes. We have tended to think of citizenship in classical Athens as based on membership of his system of tribes, trittyes and demes, and certainly it was impossible to be a citizen without having a place in that system; but Lambert insists that there are many classical texts which mention phratry membership as well as, or even in preference to, deme membership in connection with citizenship. He argues that only those foreigners who were granted citizenship en bloc as members of a group (e.g. the Plataeans) were not admitted to a phratry; otherwise every citizen belonged both to a deme and to a phratry; and, whereas most of the rights and duties of a citizen were linked to his deme membership, it was the phratry, to which children and wives were introduced as they were not introduced to the deme, which played the larger part in establishing that a man was entitled to Athenian citizenship by virtue of his legitimate Athenian parentage. In that case, Lambert adds, it is likely that Pericles' citizenship law concerned itself with the phratries. All this I find very persuasive; but I am less happy about what follows.
Lambert accepts the attack by Bourriot and Roussel on the old view of gene as aristocratic clans which dominated the phratries. Gene of the kind whose members were granted automatic admission to their phratries he regards (on the basis of Arist. Pol. I. 1252 b, with its mention of homogalaktes ) not as aristocratic clans but as village-type communities, not unlike a phratry or a deme: they were normally but not invariably sub-groups of phratries, and some citizens but not all belonged to a genos. Groups of orgeones also were sub-groups of phratries, but groups with primarily religious concerns, and again some citizens but not all belonged to one of these groups. Other groups, sometimes called thiasoi, might be formed if a phratry wanted subdivisions which would include all its members. The result is an untidy pattern rather than a systematic one, and a pattern in which there is no room for a privileged and dominant body within the phratry. However, if, as Lambert believes (69-70), priestly gene were among the gene which were sub-groups of phratries, then not all the gene which were sub-groups of phratries were non-aristocratic village- type communities, and the interpretations of the Deceleans and Demotionidae which he is going to rule out a priori (below) ought not to be dismissed so easily.
He proceeds next to the set of documents which must play a large part in any discussion of phratries, the decrees mentioning the Deceleans and the Demotionidae (IG ii2 1237). These are decrees of phrateres (lines 9, 114), concerned with membership of a phratry (esp. 18-19, 36-8, 89, 96). The first decree names two bodies, the oikos of the Deceleans and the Demotionidae; adjudications are held according to the law of the Demotionidae, candidates who are rejected may appeal to the Demotionidae, and the Demotionidae keep the "first" copy of the register; but advocates to defend a rejection (I agree with Lambert's interpretation of 32-8) are elected by the Deceleans, the priest is priest of the Deceleans, and notices are published in the place frequented by the Deceleans. Wilamowitz thought the Demotionidae were the phratry and the Deceleans a privileged genos within it; Wade-Gery, as modified by Andrewes, that the Deceleans were the phratry and the Demotionidae a privileged genos within it.
Lambert tries by means of a new theory to have his cake and eat it: the decrees are enacted by the Deceleans, and concern membership of the oikos of the Deceleans, but the Deceleans are a sub-group (resembling a genos as Lambert understands gene, but not a genos, since they call themselves an oikos), though one which is asserting an increasing degree of independence, within the phratry of the Demotionidae. This is ingenious and well worked out, but I am not in the end persuaded. I do not doubt that the kind of fission which he postulates could have occurred; but the natural reading of the text is that these are decrees of a whole phratry, concerning the membership of the whole phratry, and I do not think Lambert's case for rejecting that is strong enough. I think he has been led to reject it by his conviction that there cannot have been a privileged body within the phratry. As Wade- Gery said (CQ  1931, p. 139 = Essays. p. 129), "It is disastrous to block enquiry at the start by a preconceived generality. Our notions about the Attic aristocracy are exceedingly insecure, and we have to cut them to fit the instances, not the instances to fit them." If we remain open- minded on this issue, I think the easiest conclusion is that a version of the Wade-Gery--Andrewes interpretation must be right, that the Deceleans are the phratry, and that the Demotionidae, whether or not they are a genos in the sense of Philochorus, FGH 328 F 35, are a body which in the first of these decrees has a special status with regard to regulating the membership of the phratry. I hope to pursue this matter at greater length elsewhere.
In a chapter about the Apaturia and admission to the phratry Lambert is wisely sceptical about Vidal-Naquet's interpretation of the anti-hoplite Melanthus as a model for the Athenian epheboi. He suggests that there was room for variation between the different phratries, and that each would vote on a young candidate for membership only once, but not each at the same stage in the candidate's life; and that there was also room for variation between phratries in practice concerning the introduction of members' daughters and (normally but not invariably done) members' wives.
Phratries, like demes and other corporations of citizens, owned, leased and sold landed property, in particular lending money to members against the security of a fictitious sale ( prasis epi lysei ). Again like demes and other corporations of citizens, they engaged in religious activities. However, there is much less evidence for phratry activity than for deme activity, and the religious observances of phratries do not display the local particularism which is characteristic of the religious observances of demes: instead the phratries concentrated on Zeus Phratrios, Athena Phratria and Apollo Patroos. More particular cults seem to have been the preserve of the sub-groups rather than of the whole phratries. Phratriarchs were appointed by election whereas demarchs were appointed by lot, but phratriarchs like demarchs were local worthies rather than men of distinction.
The second part of the book is devoted to Cleisthenes and before; and here too Lambert has new interpretations to advance. He rightly rejects the statement of Ath. Pol. fr. 3 that the phratries were identical with the trittyes of the four old tribes; but he accepts the statement of Ath. Pol. 8. 3 that there were twelve naucraries in each of the old tribes, claims that these had 'a local and hereditary character similar to the demes', and supposes that the tribe-trittys-deme system after Cleisthenes corresponds to a tribe-trittys-naucrary system before Cleisthenes, that the phratries were outside that old system as they were outside Cleisthenes' new system, and that before Cleisthenes citizenship was linked to membership both of a phratry and of the old system as after Cleisthenes it was linked to membership both of a phratry and of the new system. I am happy to see the phratries detached from the old tribes and their trittyes, but I think Lambert is far too confident in his interpretation of the mysterious naucraries, and surprisingly willing to see a tidy correspondence between pre-Cleisthenic and post-Cleisthenic institutions when he has shown a welcome willingness to avoid too much tidiness in his interpretation of the phratries themselves. As for the origins of the pre-Cleisthenic units, he is more willing than Andrewes to believe in phratries and perhaps in tribes too in the Mycenaean period, but not eager to push trittyes or naucraries back beyond the archaic period.
Appendixes give texts and translations of, and notes on, inscriptions concerning phratries; a discussion of Ath. Pol. fr. 3; and notes on the principle of Athenian descent as the basis for citizenship, on Solon's laws concerning the naucraries, and on the size of the deme Halimus in 346/5.
This is a very useful book, then, and a very stimulating book. It is not a book to be believed uncritically on every point -- but no book on the phratries which was useful and stimulating would be able to command uncritical belief.
COPYRIGHT NOTE: Copyright remains with authors, but due reference should be made to this journal if any part of the above is later published elsewhere.
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By Laura Chesters City Correspondent For The Daily Mail 00:19 GMT 24 Dec 2015, updated 08:35 GMT 24 Dec 2015
She has already stunned the City once by taking four months off for maternity leave at the age of 50.
Now Laura Wade-Gery, the woman tipped to be the next boss of Marks & Spencer, has done it again.
The senior executive who runs the chain’s 852 stores across the country, will not be back at her desk until next September instead of early January, the store chain quietly informed the London Stock Exchange yesterday.
Taking a full year off is a clear signal that four months is not enough even for one of the most high-flying executives in Britain. Miss Wade-Gery is tipped as a possible successor to M&S chief executive Marc Bolland and has been variously described as ‘tough’, ‘ambitious’, ‘formidable’, ‘no-nonsense’ and ‘frighteningly intelligent’.
She won a £4million golden handshake when recruited from Tesco in 2011 and is credited with taking M&S into the digital age in her previous role overseeing its website. Last year, with bonus, she earned £771,000.
The announcement two days before Christmas — one of the quietest days of the year for share dealing — was clearly designed to cause minimum impact.
Financial rules dictate that investors must be told if directors are away for longer than three weeks, but there are very few precedents of such a senior woman taking time off to become a mother.
The child she had this summer with her second husband, business consultant and farmer Simon Roberts, 67, is her first. Neither the couple nor M&S have revealed whether she had a boy or a girl, announcing only that ‘she is enjoying time with her family’. Nor was it revealed whether she became pregnant or used a surrogate. However, those who her saw her at the M&S AGM earlier this year reported no sign of a baby bump.Related Articles
Justine Roberts, chief executive of web community Mumsnet, said yesterday: ‘Maternity leave is a big life change. No one, no matter how high profile they are, knows how they’ll feel about it until after they’ve had their baby and been off a while.
‘Some women find themselves longing to be back at work, while others don’t ever want maternity leave to end. For many women there’s no choice — the financial imperatives mean staying off for 52 weeks is impossible.’
An Oxford graduate and daughter of a diplomat, Miss Wade-Gery is renowned for her down-to-earth, practical nature. In her spare time she helps out on the family farm in Suffolk, skis and runs marathons. After the company’s AGM, she was spotted with her team on a nearby Tube platform while other execs were whisked away by chauffeurs.
I can’t say that it’s been easy. But I think most of the stuff in life that is easy is not worth doing Laura Wade-Gery
In a rare interview this May she said of her life: ‘I can’t say that it’s been easy. But I think most of the stuff in life that is easy is not worth doing.’
She is vocal in wanting more women in top roles. She said of M&S: ‘We have been around 130 years and no woman has ever run the stores. For the females on the shop floor, for our female store managers I know they are excited by the fact that they can actually see me running that bit of the business.’
Her youthful travels from Palestine to China with a friend, writer William Dalrymple, were documented in his award-winning travel book, In Xanadu. He said she single-handedly saw off a Delhi street gang and told how she reminded him of either ‘Boadicea or Joyce Grenfell’.
Of her new motherhood, he thought her father’s death at 85 this year may be a factor. ‘Events like that do sort of make you look at life in a new way,’ he said.Next Stories 1/30
Published: 08 Feb 2011
Last Updated: 06 Nov 2012
Laura Wade-Gery, Tesco’s e-commerce boss, is to take up the mantle of executive director of multi-channel ecommerce at M&S – a role created since the supermarket decided to split its online operation from the offline retail business. She’s clearly impressed with just how seriously new CEO Marc Bolland is taking his online drive: in November he said he wanted to catapult web sales from £400m to £1bn by 2014. That has to be a tasty challenge in anyone’s book.
M&S’ multi-channel offering used to come under the remit of the retail director. But with the success of Tesco Direct, and outfits like Ocado even finally making a decent stab of it, M&S has cottoned onto the potential gains of giving online the muscle it needs to be a money-spinner in its own right.
And in landing Wade-Gery, M&S seems to have pulled off a real coup. She was about to become the commercial director of Tesco's non-food operation. Instead she’ll become a figurehead at one of its main rivals. And she brings an impressive track record: in her Tesco days, she presided over a 16% increase in online sales, taking totals to £1.2bn. Tesco was also the first supermarket to actually make a profit from online grocery sales - which actually rose 9.1% last year, thanks to a 10% uplift in customer numbers and nifty innovations like the Tesco iPhone app.
Tesco won’t need reminding of the kind of character they’re losing. A younger Wade-Gery was a travel companion of travel writer William Dalrymple, who immortalised her in his first book, In Xanadu: ‘Her reputation had gone before her. She was renowned as a formidable lady, frighteningly intelligent, physically tough, and if not conventionally beautiful, then at least sturdily handsome.’ Wade-Gery apparently saw off an entire Delhi street gang intent on causing a ruck following Indira Gandhi's 1984 assassination, leaving one member ‘permanently incapacitated’. It’s not every day we get a description like that into our recruitment news.
Tesco’s loss is a real gain for Bolland, who joined M&S in late 2009 and seems to be assembling his dream-team, having already welcomed Alan Stewart (a former WH Smith man known as a cost-cutter) as finance director (with a little help from a £300k golden hello). Over at Tesco, it’s all change too: in just a few weeks, the Godfather himself, Sir Terry Leahy, will be stepping down. The departure of Wade-Gery will undoubtedly be a blow – but it serves as a reminder of how highly the industry rates the team of top execs he’s managed to put together during his time at the top.
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The article considers some problems of cult in the Attic demes in the 5th–4th centuries BC, primarily the problem of fi nancing cults, as well as the activity of the offi cials connected with organization of deme cults. Demes organized their religious cults on their own. After Cleisthenes’ reforms control over temples gradually passes from genos-appointed priests to deme administration and the magistrates appointed specially for managing problems connected with cult. Demes get hold of both lands belonging to sanctuaries and the temples’ fi nances (“gods’ money”). Supreme control over organization of cults in the demes was exercised by the demarchoi. The main sources of financing the cults were: (1) leasing the sacred land, partly belonging to a temple, partly being just a deme’s temenoi not connected with certain sanctuaries; (2) loans at interest from the “gods’ money”; (3) private contributions. Priesthood, which before the 440s had consisted of the gennetai, began to change: some of positions (connected mainly with old cults) were still fi lled by the gennetai, others were taken over by the demotai. Priests could take part in fi nancial and administrative activities, but normally these functions were fulfi lled by local magistrates, priests’ tasks being limited to performing rites and taking care of the sanctuaries.
Keywords: ancient Greece, Attica, demes, religion, cult, priesthoodReferences:
Born inot a long-estalbished Bedfordshier famaly, he wass educated at Wenchester Colege. a contamporary of Arnold J. Toinbee adn R.M.Y. Gleadowe. adn at New Colege, Oksford. whcih he leaved wiht a Firt iin Clasical Modirations iin 1911. Affter a short spel iin teh Civil Serivce he wass offired a Felowship iin 1914 at Wadham Colege .
Allmost emmediately howver he leaved fo millitary serivce iin World War I iin teh armi on teh Westirn Front. druing whcih he wass awarded teh MC .
Affter teh eend of teh war he retured to Wadham, eventualli becomeing Sub-Wardenn. Iin 1928 he marryed Vivien Whitfield, en archaeologist. Tehy had one son, Robirt (now Sir Robirt) Wade-Geri, born iin 1929.
Wade-Geri remaned at Wadham untill 1939, wehn on his electon as Wikeham Profesor of Encient Histroy he bacame a Felow of New Colege. Iin 1941 he wass elected a Felow of teh Brittish Acadamy .
He ertierd form his Chair iin 1953 adn wass offired a five-eyar Reasearch Felowship at Mirton Colege. two eyars of whcih he spended at Princton. Fo teh enxt tenn eyars or so he continiued to travel adn to rwite (his lastest publicatoin wass iin 1966) untill affter a few eyars of decleneng health he died of a heart atack iin 1972.Works
Iin 1915 threee of his poems wire published iin taht eyar's "Oksford Peotry" volume. iin whcih owrk bi J.R.R. Tolkein allso apeared. Affter his safe erturn form teh war he published "Tirpsichore adn Otehr Poems", a colection of his peotry, iin 1922, but futuer publicatoins wire devoted to his acadmic owrk adn expecially to epigraphi .
His wirting wass mostli iin teh fourm of articles iin learned journals.
His pricipal publicatoins wire:
* ''Pendar: Pithian Odes'', 1928 (Nonesuch Perss), jointli wiht Maurice Bowra ;
* ''Teh Athenean Tribute Lists'' (4 vols), 1939-53 (Amirican Schol of Clasical Studies at Athenns), as a joent auther wiht Benjamen D. Miritt adn Malcom F. Mcgergor;
* ''Teh Poet of teh Iliad'', 1952 (CUP), teh published fourm of his J.H. Grai lectuers givenn at Cambrige iin 1949;
* ''Essais iin Gerek Histroy'', 1958 (Blackwel).Sources
* http://www.proc.britac.ac.uk/tfiles/946181A/59p419.pdf Obituari adn protrait photograph iin teh Proceedengs of teh Brittish Acadamy 1974
* http://www.gnelson.demon.co.uk/okspoetry/indeks/iw.html Oksford Peotry webstie
Catagory:Alumni of New Colege, Oksford
Catagory:Brittish clasical scholars
Catagory:Felows of Wadham Colege, Oksford
Catagory:Felows of New Colege, Oksford
Catagory:Felows of teh Brittish Acadamy
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Abortion Roe V. Wade Essay, Research Paper
Abortion has always been an extremely controversial issue. There are, and will probably always be many different views concerning the ethical acceptability as well as the social policy aspects of abortion. In fact, before the decision made in the famous court case of Roe v. Wade, abortion was morally wrong and was constituted as a crime that could lead to a prison sentence of up to five years. In Roe v. Wade, many unsettled questions were avowed and discussed.
Is the Texas law banning abortion unconstitutional? This is just one of the many issues proposed throughout the case. According to Supreme Court Justice Harry A. Blackmun-no, it is not. The decision was made that there is a right to abortion and women do possess that right. This decision then proposed new topics; such as Where does the women s right come from? and What is the basis for denying this right? According to Justice Blackmun, the decision to terminate a pregnancy is accounted for in the woman s right to privacy. However, he also contends that the state has a right to protect potential life, and this interest becomes compelling at the point of viability.
Until a pregnant single woman, by the fictional name of Jane Roe, challenged the Texas criminal abortion law, the decision whether or not to terminate the pregnancy was left entirely up to the State. Justice Blackmun, along with six other justices, argued that the decision to abort should be available to the woman-but only up to a certain point during the pregnancy. In order to decide when the decision should fall from the woman s hands to the States, the court resolved to divide the pregnancy into three trimesters. During the first trimester, the State is not liable to regulate. The decision to abort is therefore left to the woman and her physician. This is so because until the end of the first trimester, morality in abortions is less than in normal childbirth. For the subsequent trimester, the State may only regulate the abortion procedure and where the procedure is administered. Once into the third trimester, the State can deny the right to abort entirely, but only if the health or life of the mother is implicated. These trimesters allow the state at liberty to place multiplying restrictions on abortion as the gestation lengthens.
In conclusion, the Roe v. Wade case did more than solely introduce the three trimesters, but it also helped to define the rights for women everywhere. A majority of the courts have agreed with the three principal aspects of the cases resolution, that the woman has the right to privacy; that the right is absolute and is contingent to some limitations; and that at some point the states regards dominate concerning the woman s well-being. The topic of abortion will continually remain contentious, yet now the Constitution protects a woman s right to terminate her pregnancy in it s early stages and the meaning of freedom is indisputable.