Yakovlev Aleksandr Yur'evich
Russian State Classical University
Abstract. The author considers left terrorism evolution in India, studies the origins of left-radical movement in the country and Naxalism popularity, describes major terrorist groups, analyzes their strategies and tactics, mentions financial sources, tackles some problems of left political sources development in India and names the reasons of the country non-prohibited left political parties wide support absence among population.
Open the whole article in PDF format. Free PDF-files viewer can be downloaded here .References:
© 2006-2016 "Gramota" Publishers, LLC
Copying materials from the section "Archive of Scientific Articles" on the Internet is PROHIBITED.
Copying materials from other sections is allowed with active hyperlink www.gramota.net
site development and search engine optimization: krav.ru
The next general elections are going to be held in the coming months. There are innumerable issues confronting the country and the contesting political parties are highlighting them to seek public support.
The contentious issues which are being debated are widening of fiscal deficit, communal disharmony, corruption, mis-governance, stagnation, security issues, naxalism, terrorism etc.
First issue which is widely being debated is prevailing corruption in the country. The commonwealth games were beset with corruption. Other issues of corruption are; 2G scam, Adarsh scam, ISRO-DEVAS deal, Italian helicopter scam etc. As a result corruption is the hot topic because it is considered to be impediment to the development.
Second contentious issue is managing the economy. The government failed to respond in time where our currency rate was belittled against dollar in the international market as a result we lost much forex reserves for paying for import of oil. The government spending on various schemes and other projects have made revenue deficit and fiscal deficit to cross the prescribed limit. At this juncture the international rating agencies threatened to reduce our economic status; as a result investors are losing their confidence in our economy.
Third most pressing issue is security related such as naxalism, terrorism, communal tension, external security threat. The naxalism and terrorism issues are endangering the security of this country.
With the aid from neighbouring countries which are against us terrorists are fomenting trouble. The neighbouring countries are sheltering such forces to purport attacks on our soil.
The communal disharmony is another disturbing trend in our country where university in diversity persists. These fanatics are getting inspiration from ideologies that are available in our neighbouring counties.
The regional hatred is another problem facing the country where people from one region are opposing the people of other regions.
Women are being harassed in their work places and in public places. This trend of crime against women is on rise in the country.
There is no respite from inflation to the common man. People are feeling its heat either directly or indirectly. Based on inflation index, the central bank will review their policy rates which will effect on banking activities. This in turn will have impact on public lending, house loans, agriculture loans etc.
Next issue is related to the defence of our country. We are having border problem with China, Pakisthan, Nepal, Bangaldesh and Myanmar.
The china which is our neighbouring country with that we have boundary dispute. It poses a challenge to our country s it is encircling us through their "PEARLS OF STRING POLICY. " According to this policy China is aiding all our bordering countries financially and militarily.
The next issue is sharing of revenue between states and centre. Inter-state water problem, clearances for development projects, etc.
These are the some of the real issues confronting India in the run to general election 2014.
Naxalism and Maoist Insurgency
The idea of Naxalism is an idea based on communism. Naxalism in India which began in 1967 became the single largest internal threat to the nation as stated by the former Prime Minister of India Dr. Manmohan Singh. Communism is basically sharing everything among the rich and poor.
Naxalism is not same as Maoism. There are differences between these groups. First one should understand what exactly is Maoism, Naxalism and Terrorism. Even though both Naxalism and Terrorism has its origin rooted to the 1967 movement in Naxalbari; Naxalism is more towards the spirit of the basic movement. But on the other hand Maoism is basically an outcome of this movement. Maoists have a base agenda on which they work on. Usage of weapons and arms to achieve this agenda is also part of their movement. Naxalism on the other hand emphasizes more on mass movement. This is the reason why Naxalism is more spread within the country and Maoists attack Indian Army and police with arms more than Naxalites. The idea of Maoism originated from China from the political leader Mao Zedong. This idea was based communism as its core. There is always confusion whether Naxalites are terrorists. Naxalism and Terrorism are two different things. Terrorism involves use of violence for political agenda or aims. The current India is not facing terrorists but Naxalites who believes in Maoism and practices terrorism.
The current situation in India
The Naxal and Maoists affected areas is called the Red Corridor of India. The area comprises of Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and Odisha. According to the Naxalites they are trying to resurrect the Dandakaranya which is a forest of punishment given in the book of Ramayana. Most important hotbed of Maoists and Naxalites is the district of Bastar. There are signs of Naxalism spreading towards the north part of Kerala towards Karnataka. Spreading of the movement to Nepal is also a.
Naxal movement was started from Naxalbadi in West Bengal in the sixties and seventies of twentieth century. Naxal movement was started as a revolt of peasants and farmers against powerful and rich land owners. Basically it was a movement of poor and land less farmers and labors. Naxalism was also against the state demanding land reform. Inception of the group was done in 1967.
The movement was started from Naxalbadi, hence it is called Naxal movement and the members of this movement are called Naxalites. It was a social movement which soon became violent. The group took the name like a political party, Communist Party of India (Maoist Leninist) or CPI (ML). They were inspired and motivated by Chinese communist party and declared Chairman Mao of China as their Chairman. This was an Anti American movement too. America, the US was eyed as imperialist by the Naxalites.
Charu Mazumdar was one of the main founders and first head of this party or group. Harekrishna Kongar and Kanu Sanyal were other two main leaders. Naxalites started terrorist activities in different parts of West Bengal.
Initially they worked in Robin hood style. They looted landlords, private bankers and merchants and distributed wealth to the poor farmers and labors. Businesses, trades and industries were afraid of Naxalites. They also robbed guns and other weapons from the Zemindars and other powerful persons in West Bengal. Gradually they became powerful and started robbing police stations for arms and ammunition.
West Bengal faced deadly face of violent Naxalite movement and their terrorist activities in the seventies. The Central government of India had to come out with their help to save the state. Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) were sent to West Bengal state to protect the state from Maoist activities.
I was born and brought up in West Bengal and witnessed Naxal activities in my childhood and adolescence. There was an environment of terror. Common population of Bengal were afraid of both Naxal and CRPF activities at that time.
However, terrorist activities of Naxalites soon made them unpopular in the society and the Central forces crashed that movement. There were no significant or visible Naxal movement in west Bengal in the eighties.Sabyasachi Panda
Naxal leader Sabyasachi Panda (L to R) in his youth, in his 30th Just and after arrestResurgence of Naxal movement and terrorist activities of Naxalites
Most of the Naxal leaders were either killed in police encounters or arrested. Large numbers of Naxalites returned to the mainstream of society or joined mainstream political parties in the late seventies.
Naxalites again rose their heads in the nineties. It was not in West Bengal that time but in Bihar and Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh. Jahanabad in Bihar witnessed deadly face of terrorism against powerful landlords. Anantpur became the center of terrorist activities of the Naxalites in Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh. The Naxal movements in Bihar and Andhra Pradesh was the movement of landless and poor farmers and labors against powerful land lords, bankers and merchants like it was in West Bengal. Kerala. coastal state of south India is another center of Naxalism.
Soon Naxal movements and terrorist activities of Naxalites spread to tribal belts of Orissa and newly built state of Chhattisgarh (Chhattisgarh was separated from its older state Madhya Pradesh andRaipur was declared its capital) and Jharkhand (Jharkhand was separated from its older state Bihar and Ranchi was declared its capital). It was also spread to some parts of Maharashtra and other states in the beginning of twenty first century. Some activities of Naxalism is also seen in the south of Gujrat state.
Naxalite activities are now again spread in to West Bengal especially in the Midnapore district of Sunderban forest area. Sunderban is renowned for Royal Bengal tigers situated in the coastal area of bay of Bengal. Lalgarh is presently the center of Naxal movements in this region.Abhijeet Mazumdar
Abhijeet Majumdar is son of Charu Majumdar, the founder member of Naxal movement in India.Naxalite activities: Biggest terrorist threat to India
Activities of Naxal militants are the biggest terrorist threat to Indian state according to the Central government of India. Violent movements of the Naxals are spreading from area to area and from state to state. It has covered large area of the Indian territory.
Naxal movements have been taking hundreds of lives of civilians as well as security forces. Terrorist activities of Naxalites are also causing damage of public properties such as railway lines, Government offices, roads etc. Land mines are the most favorite weapon for the Naxals. Several troops of security forces were blown in land mine blasts. Some times civilians also become victims of land mine blasts. They blow railway tracks and other public utility properties. They also take part in mass killings. Naxalites have killed large numbers of villagers at a time several times. Some times they have put villages into fire. All these activities have big threat to peaceful living.
Both central and State governments of India are active and alert to stop violent movements and terrorist activities of the Naxalites. They have been trying to stop and cease these activities. They have been deploying security forces and special task forces in the areas affected. On the other hand, Governments call them for conversations. several packages are declared for the Naxal affected areas and for the Naxalites.
Governments want them to come in to mainstream. Governments are trying to rehabilitate them if leaving the terrorist activities. Political and economic packages are offered to them. These measures have started working and large numbers of Naxalites have returned to mainstream.
However, not enough is done. It needs vigorous efforts to control this movement. Large area are still under Naxal threat. The central and State governments have to work much more to get rid of this.
Indian people have dethroned Congress led UPA government from the center and Dr. Manmohan Singh is no more Prime minister of India. Narendra Modi has taken charge as Indian Premiere leading NDA government. He has declared solution to Naxal problem as his priority.
Rajnath Singh, the new union minister of home affairs have also declared measures to stop violent activities of naxalite movement. He has been consulting state governments to determine his major steps. He has extended his hands for all supports to naxal affected state governments from the central. We can hope for better days.
(Updated on August 11, 2014)Naxalite movement in Jharkhand Politics and social issues links
Asit Guin 4 years ago
In 1967, in Naxalbari, a false movement started. Some people promised to the tea garden workers of that area, that if you can kill local landlords, then their land will be distributed to you. So it was a movement to convert labors into farmers. It was a wrong and irrational demand. Increasing pressure on land and increasing number of farmers cannot be a progressive demand. It is not practical also. When Naxal leaders fought election in 1977, they lost their deposit in Naxalbari. This is totally different scene from the vote of Telengana area after Telengana movement of ‘46-47’ period. NAXALBARI MOVEMENT IS A FALSE MOVEMENT FROM THE BEGGINNING.
shaktilove 4 years ago from nearby You - just behind 2 screens
Good hub, indeed.
As Rohit said, here is a deep and serious causes of violence. Desperate and hopeless individuals are easy to focus on similar ideologies. We can see it around whole earth
harekrishna konger 5 years ago
Recently Mr. Chidambaram allotted 528crores to curb the Naxal menace. The thing is why does the Govt. wakes up only when the menace come out in the loop.If that amount would have been allotted earlier, for the development of marginalized and poor, things would have been different. We sitting in the comfort of our home can freely make comments and criticism, but the gravity of the problem is such that u can curb it, but can never erode it. U need to change the mindset of the people thriving on Naxalism and for that much more than anything we need a strong will power, and I find that lacking on all.
very well written
JYOTI KOTHARI 6 years ago from Jaipur Author
Thanks for your comment and compliment.
C.V.Rajan 6 years ago from Kerala, India
Elaborate and informative.
giovanni gervasoni 6 years ago
As for many other things,India is such a big country,and full of contrasts,that it can be understood why Naxalism exist,first of all.BUt their means,violent, are not appropriate,and civilians involved,r destroying of properties not acceptable. hnks x the article Mr Khotari.
JYOTI KOTHARI 6 years ago from Jaipur Author
Hi thevoice, AARON99,NGRIA Bassett and H P Roychoudhury,
Thanks for your comments on this hub.
I appreciate your support.
H P Roychoudhury 6 years ago from Guwahati, India
Law and order is the foremost priority of a state for development and welfare of a state. In the name of development how any one or a group of people can take the arms in their hands to kill people. If people are with you, you can proceed with the process of democracy and not by the threat of arms. A civilized and ideal government should wipe out such kind of Nasal Movement. It is a nice hub – a reminder of law abiding citizen.
NGRIA Bassett 6 years ago from Bermuda
excellent hub Jyoti. Thanks for hubpages and your contributions, some of us have no idea what is going on in other parts of the world.
AARON99 6 years ago
A well written hub with great research. Keep writing. All the very best.
Below is an essay on "Naxalism" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.
Root causes of Naxalism(
How a person becomes a naxalite ?
Naxalism is the most significant political movement since independence. It has been the most long-lasting though it has had its ups and downs. Despite its fragmented nature a continuing thread with some variations can be seen in the ideological thrust, strategy and tactics of mobilization of different groups within its fold. It is the only movement which having started in one police station of a single district in West Bengal in 1967 has expanded its activities covering over 460 police stations in 160 districts across 14 states despite the police force and infrastructure having grown manifold during this period. The movement’s capacity to challenge the state has also enormously increased considering the incidents of violence and casualties resulting from them. The movement is viewed with greater anxiety in the government because it is most intense precisely in areas which are rich in natural resources and, therefore, targeted for fast-track industrial development. These are also the areas which have a history of mass protests by the peasantry against colonial policies. The movement is also unique in that it tends to mobilize the most subdued and socially marginalized sections and lays bare, as probably no other movement has done, the sharp fissures in the society, politics and economy. Unlike the political mass movements with violent underpinnings featuring in the border areas, naxalites do not seek to secede from the Indian union to establish a sovereign independent state of their own but only to capture political power through armed struggle to restructure society.
A movement with such clarity of goals and sharply carved out strategies is usually spearheaded by a well knit organization. Though the naxlite movement continues to be fragmented in separate small groups, after 1977 three organized political formations – CPI (ML)- Liberation, CPI (Maoist) and CPI (ML) have emerged with.
Naxalites in the Dantewada district of Chhattisgarh. Has this always been the objective of Naxalism? Let us find it out by going through its origin and history. The.Save Paper
* Violence against women: An analysis * October (2) * The Naxal Imbroglio * Whos who in the Maharastra Assembly Polls 2009.
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.0 Background The word bank was derived from the Latin word bancus, Italian word banco or banca and French word banque meaning bench on.Save Paper
'Centre to Introduce Plan to Deal With Naxalism Soon': Rajnath Singh
India News | Press Trust of India | Wednesday September 3, 2014
Union Home Minister Rajnath Singh on Wednesday indicated that the Centre would introduce a comprehensive plan to deal with the issues of Naxalism, terrorism and insurgency.
In how to tackle Naxals, sign of new battle between Centre and states
India News | Reported by Sudhi Ranjan Sen; edited by Mala Das | Monday June 10, 2013
The Prime Minister is meeting representatives of all political parties in an attempt to engineer an agreement on how to tackle Naxalism.
Internal security situation improving: Prime Minister Manmohan Singh
India News | Press Trust of India | Wednesday May 23, 2012
The government today said the country's internal security situation was improving even as Prime Minister Manmohan Singh termed Naxalism as a "major problem" and sought the cooperation of states concerned to tackle the scourge.
Centre has no will to tackle terrorism, Naxalism: Modi
India News | Press Trust of India | Sunday August 15, 2010
Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi on Sunday lashed out at the Central government saying that it had failed to curb terrorism and Naxalism and lacked the will to do it."The government at the Centre has no will to tackle terrorism," said Modi after unfurling the tricolour at the Rajkot Municipal Corporation cricket ground here."It's a demand of ti.
Win tribal hearts to tackle Naxalism: PM
India News | NDTV Correspondent | Wednesday November 4, 2009
The Prime Minister inaugurated a two-day long conference of chief ministers and state tribal affairs ministers in Delhi on Wednesday. He said the criminal justice system has become a source of harassment for the tribals. He also hit out at their sympathizers, saying those who speak for tribals have not offered any alternative. "Our administratio.
India News | Nitin Gokhale | Tuesday August 4, 2009
In an effort to tackle the threat of Naxalism the government is working on a new policy which offers financial assistance to those who surrender.
Explore all your favorite topics in the SlideShare app Get the SlideShare app to Save for Later — even offline
Continue to the mobile site »
Double tap to zoom outTerrorism vs Naxalism
Guru Nanak Institute of Management
Share this SlideShare
LinkedIn Corporation © 2016