India is fast progressing in the field of space research. It is emerging as a big name in this field. The country is now capable of launching its own spacecraft. In fact, it offers this service to many other countries. Now India has made landmark progress with the launch of Chandrayaan for its moon mission. India started its space programme with the launch of first space satellite "Aryabhatta" on April 19, 1975. This space satellite was named after the great Indian astronomer and mathematician of the 5th century, Aryabhatta. It was launched from a soviet cosmodrome with the help of a Soviet rocket. It marked India's giant leap and made her the eleventh country to join the space club. The second satellite "Bhaskara" was launched on June 7, 1979. It was also launched from a Soviet cosmodrome. It was named after two eminent personalities: Bhaskara I and Bhaskara II. It was followed by "Rohini." It was the first Indian satellite put into the space by SLV-III, an Indian rocket. It was launched from Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh on July 9, 1980. It was developed by the scientists of ISRO. It was the success of the mission of SLV-III which brought recognition to the space programme of India.
India's fourth satellite Rohini II was launched by the launch vehicle SLV-III from Sriharikota on May 31, 1981. It was designed to provide useful data for 300 days. It was weighted 38 kg. It was known as India's first development rocket flight. Unfortunately, it burnt in space on June 8, 1981, without completing its mission. Bhaskara II, India's fifth satellite in space, was launched on November 20, 1981 from Soviet cosmodrome Volgograd. It was the earth observation satellite. It was a milestone in the space journey of India as it brought to India the honour of being a space nation.
Apple, an experimental geostationary communication satellite, was launched on June 19, 1981. It was launched with French coordination. With this, India entered the domeEssays Related to India's Space Program
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Twenty first day of November, 1963 may be remembered as a red letter day in the history of India’s space programme. This was the day when first rocket from India was launched. It was also the day when Thumba Equatorial Launching station came into operation. The rocket was assembled in a nearby church which had been acquired for building the said station.
The first India made rocket lifted from Thumba in 1969. This 10 kg pencil rocket had propellants made in India and it was assembled in church building which is now a museum of space memorabilia. But it was the VSSC (Vikram Sarabhai Space Center) built SLV-3 which lifted India into the exclusive club of space faring nations on 18 th July, 1980 by putting into orbit the 35 kg Rohini satellite. United States of America, Russia, Great Britain, France, Japan and China were the other members. Since then there is no looking bad. India’s space research was born on the VSSC campus. It has groups of specialists doing research in every field of rocketry including aerospace, aerodynamics, propulsion, avionics, thermo control structures and propellants. The aerospace group plays a key role in building launch vehicles.
Formally Indian’s launch programme was launched in 1972 when Space Commission and department of space were set up. The main objective of the programme was to provide space based services in spheres of communication, metrology, resources survey and management, develop satellites and launch vehicles and associated ground system. Our space programme can be divided into two parts:
(i) The Satellite Programme, and (ii) The Launch Programme.
There are five space centers where these programmes are carried on (i) Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) is situated in Thumba near Tiruvanthpuram in Kerela on 1000 acre campus. It is the centre for launch vehicle development, rocket research and planning and execution of launch vehicle development projects of ISRO (Indian Space Research Organisation). Here rocket engineers freely discuss ISRO’s moon mission, the satellite that will be recovered from space, the GSLV mark III or the Indian version of space shuttle.
(ii) ISRO Internal Systems Unit (IISU) is located in Thiuvanthpuram (Kerela). Here the work of designing and development of inertial systems for both satellites and launch vehicles in carried on.
(iii) (iii) Space Application Centre (SAC) is located in Ahmedabad (Gujarat). It is the centre for research and development for conceiving, organizing and building systems for practical applications of space technology. The major fields of activity include satellite communications remote sensing and meteorology.
(iv) (iv) Liquid propulsion System Center (LPSC). This programme is carried on in Bangalore, Triuvanthpuram and Mahendregiri (Tamil Nadu).
(v) (v) SHAR center is situated at Shriharikota on the East coast of Andhra Pradesh and is the main Launch centre of ISRO. Large scale production of solid rocket popellent and ground testing of solid fueled rocket stages of launch vehicles is also carried over here.
Space craft engineers busy in building satellites which will make India self sufficient in space technology. The ISAC built INSA-3 E has already been airlifted to French Guiana where an Ariane-5 vehicle is going to put it into orbit. Commissioned in 1983 INSAT’s comprising of six space craft’s from the largest communication satellite systems in Asia-pacific region. Indigenization began with INSAT-2 series. INSAT 2-A was intended to be simply a test space craft but it worked so well that it was made into an operational satellite. ISRO’s approach was mission-oriented which was born out of the total vision of Vikram Sarabhai to apply space technology for the benefit of common man. ISRO is now implementing a space programme to raise the standard of living of the people through new and novice applications such as tele-medicine, tele-education and e-government. It is a holistic approach. Central to this approach are ISRO’s satellite and launch vehicles. In building satellites India has achieved world leadership. The Indian Remote Sensing satellites are among the best in the world on par with the French SPOT and USA’s LANDSAT.
ISSRO is on the verge of possessing RISAT (Rader Imaging Satellite) with its micro-wave imaging capability which can see through rain and clouds day and night and can provide imagery and information on soil moisture, water availability even during the monsoon season. Mapping of land mass shall become more precise when CARTOSTAT-1 with its high resolution cameras is launched by the year 2004. It is a unique mission in the world.
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Thirty seven India satellites have till now been deployed. The Tenth Plan period began with a positive note for India Space Technology. In September 2002 PSLV sent into orbit a meteorological satellite KALPANA-1 and in May 2003 the GSLV deployed the communication satellite GSAT. A PSLV carrying RESOURCESAT is expected to blast off in October 2003. 15 launches are expected during plan period with an average of three per year and a good number of these is expected to soar from the second launch pad by April 2004.
The second launch pad has been erected at the Satish Dhawan Space Center at Shriharikota. It looks like an up-scale multistoreyed apartment with elegant windows on different flowers, beautifully pained doors and spectacular walls. The centre piece of the launch pad is “Universal” launch pad. It has the flexibility to accommodate any type of vehicle after minor modification and without entailing major investment. A rocket weighing 1000 tones can be assembled in it. The launch tower is 76 meter high. It is made of steel and is painted in grey color. It is hardly one kilometer from the VAB (Vehicle Assemble Building).
The VAB (Vehicle Assemble Building) is 82 meter high, (27 stories) with 40 meters length and 32 meter width. It has two overhead cranes, one of which can lift weight up to 200 tones and the capacity of the other is 10 tones, it look for years to complete this VAB. It has six sets of foldable platforms to assemble the launch tower. The platforms can move from a height of 10 to 76 meters.
Antrix Corporation Limited, the commercial wing of the Department of Space is scouring the world market for users for its PSLV’s, IRS’s and GSAT’s. On May 26, 1999 they put into orbit two small satellites TUBSAT of Germany and KITSAT-3 of the Republic of Korea. It launched two more- BIRD of Germany and PROBA of Belgium on October 22, 2001. Antrix has also an agreement with Singapore to deploy a 100 kg. Remote sensing satellite in 2005-6. Antrix is also seeking to exploit the GSLV to launch 2000 kg. Satellite in the geo-synchronous transfer orbit (GTO). There is a demand to launch two or three satellites of this weight every year and this demand may continue for another for 8 years to come. Efforts are on to have a share in this market. With six straight successes the PSLV’s reliability and versality has drawn attention of customers.
ISRO is planning a lunar mission in 2007-08. Around the same time it expects to send up the technology demonstrator of a reusable launch vehicle which will blast off from Shriharikota and return to land in an Indian Air Force base. The operational RLV will become a reality in about twenty years. Its booster will splash down in the sea and shall be recovered while the arbiter will put the satellite into orbit and return to a regular landing.
Application of Indian space programme for Defense has become note-worthy. It is believed that indigenous remote sensing satellite, launched by an Indian Launch Vehicle, clears the way for a military satellite for future. An independent double purpose satellite will give India a cutting edge in the intelligence based warfare-a warfare which requires sophisticated reconnaissance and surveillance capability. Defense analysts fell that 21 st century war would require a dedicated surveillance capability. The revolution in Military Affaires being adopted by top armed forces all over the world requires a network of information which can be gathered with the help of satellite between field commanders in war theatre. Military satellites can be used during peace times as well to implement confidence building measures between two countries. The development of Technology Experiment Satellites (TES) which offers one meter resolution Images has helped in monitoring the movements of Pakistan’s forces. After U.S.A. India is the only country in the world to possess a satellite like TES. It has a life of three years by which time it will be replaced by more sophisticated satellites.
To conclude, according to Dr. Satyabrete Mukherjee, Union Minister of State. India’s space programme is mainly directed towards the development and application of space technology in a self reliant manner for the benefit of the masses. During the last 30 years our space systems have become an important part of our national development infra-structure-the INSAT system for communication, television broadcasting, meteorological services and disaster warning and the India’s Remote-sensing Satellite (IRS) system for resources monitoring and management. We have achieved self reliance in designing and building state of the art INSAT and IRS satellites. The IRS satellites are now launched using our own launch vehicle. The PSLV and the commissioners of GSLV in May 2003 after its second successful test flight have made us self reliant to launch 2-Tome class communication satellites. INSAT 3-E was successfully launched on September 28 by an Ariane-5 rocket from Kourou French Guyana. The satellite has a 12 year life span. It will be used exclusively for communication and broadcasting purposes.
Among the Asian countries India is only the third country to have capability to design and develop satellites and launch vehicles. More important, we have established leadership in satellites and state of the art communication satellites. Today the data from our remote sensing satellites are received world over on commercial basis and the capacity of our INSAT’s has been leased to international customers. With the commissioning of the GSLV we are the sixth nation to acquire geo-synchronous launch capability.
Having had a strong foundation we will, in the coming years constantly upgrade our space systems both in terms of capacity and technological capability. The forth-coming INSAT satellites, INSAT-4 series will have more transponders with better output power. Emphasis will be upon specific applications such as an exclusive satellite for education will be launched by GSLV in the year 2004. In the remote sensing area a satellite was scheduled for the year 2003. Further CARTOSAT-1, an exclusive satellite for mapping is planned for the year 2004. These are to be followed by RISAT which will have day and night observation capability even under cloudy conditions. Space science will get an impulse through ASTROLAT and planetary mission, which are proposed to be included with an unmanned space craft to the moon. Satellite imaginary has been put to use in economic and development activities, thus realizing Vikram Sarabhai’s dream of applying advanced technology to the real problems of society. We have completely tuned our space programme to suit the development needs of the nation.
Free sample essay on India’s Space Programme. India is fast progressing in the field of space research. It is emerging as a big name in this field. The country is now capable of launching its own spacecraft. In fact, it offers this service to many other countries. Now India has made landmark progress with the launch of Chandrayan for its moon mission.
India started its space programme with the launch of first space satellite ‘Aryabhatta’ on April 19, 1975. This space satellite was named after the great Indian astronomer and mathematician of the 5th century, Aryabhatta. It was launched from a soviet cosmodrome with the help of a Soviet rocket. It marked India’s giant leap and made her the eleventh country to join the space club.
The second satellite ‘Bhaskara’ was launched on June 7, 1979. It was also launched from a Soviet cosmodrome. It was named after two eminent personalities—Bhaskara I and Bhaskara II. It was followed by ‘Rohini’. It was the first Indian satellite put into the space by SLV-III, an Indian rocket. It was launched from Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh on July 9, 1980. It was developed by the scientists of ISRO. It was the success of the mission of SLV-III which brought recognition to the space programme of India.
India’s fourth satellite Rohini II was launched by the launch vehicle SLV-III from Sriharikota on May 31, 1981. It was designed to provide useful data for 300 days. It was weighted 38 kg. It was known as India’s first development rocket flight. Unfortunately, it burnt in space on June 8, 1981, without completing its mission. Bhaskara II, India’s fifth satellite in space, was launched on November 20, 1981 from Soviet cosmodrome Volgograd. It was the earth observation satellite. It was a milestone in the space journey of India as it brought to India the honour of being a space nation.
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Apple, an experimental geostationary communication satellite, was launched on June 19, 1981. It was launched with French coordination. With this, India entered the domestic satellite communication era. India launched INSAT-1A on April 10, 1982. India joined the select group of technically advanced countries. But this mission failed on September 6, 1982.
In April 1983, India successfully launched Rohini satellite (RS-D-2). It marked the opening of new horizons for India. India’s ninth satellite INSAT-1B became fully operational in October 1983. It was the world’s first geo-stationary satellite combining services like telecommunication, mass communication and meteorological. It was launched in August 1983 from US Space Shuttle Challenger.
India’s space programme is primarily driven by the vision of great scientist Dr. Vikram Sarabhai. He is considered as the Father of Indian Space Programme. The main objective of India’s space programme has been to promote the development of application of Space Science and technology for socio-economic benefits of the country.
The launching of Chandrayan I in 2008 marked a milestone in the history of space technology of India. Chandrayan will orbit around the earth for two years. During the period, it will send data to scientists. The scientists with the help of the data will study various aspects of moon, and will prepare a map of the moon. The map will further help in the study of moon.
Then onward India made successive progress in the field of space research. It launched INSAT series satellite which made India’s position stronger in the comity of nation. India has now become self-reliant in terms of launching vehicles and telecommunications. Now India offers telecommunication services to other countries. The launching of satellites like IRS’s, ASLV’s, PSLV’s have placed India in the exclusive club of four nations—USA, Russia, France and Israel. Captain Rakesh Sharma was the first astronaut of India. Now the country enjoys a respectful position in the countries of the world.
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The Indian space programme is geared to the utilisation of space technology for the socioeconomic development of the country.
The Indian space programme has its genesis in the Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) that was formed under the chairmanship of Dr Vikram Sarabhai by the Department of Atomic Energy in 1962.
The space programme was formalised with the constitution of the Space Commission and the Department of Space (DOS) in 1972 to formulate and implement space policies in the country. The Space Commission is the nodal agency for coordinating R&D activities in space science and technology.
The executive wing of the Commission is the Department of Space (DOS) which operates through the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), Bangalore, National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA), the Physical Research Laboratory (PRL), Ahmedabad, National Mesosphere- Stratosphere-Troposphere Radar Facility (NMRF), North Eastern-Space Applications Centre (NE-SAC), besides sponsoring research projects in other institutions. The Antrix Corporation, a wholly Government owned company, which was established in 1992, is engaged in commercial marketing of space products and services.
The establishment of space systems and their utilisation are coordinated by national level committees, namely, the INSAT Coordination Committee (ICC), Planning Committee of National Natural Resources Management System (PCNNRMS) and Advisory Committee on Space Sciences (ADCOS). Five Regional Remote Sensing Service Centres (RRSSC) help in undertaking remote sensing application projects relevant to the region.
The Secretariat of DOS and the Headquarters of ISRO are located at Antariksh Bhavan in Bangalore.
The Department of Space (DOS) is committed to carrying out research and development in satellite and launch vehicle technology with a goal to achieve self-reliance. It also has the goals of providing national space infrastructure for telecommunication and broadcasting needs of the country; satellite services required for weather forecasting, monitoring, etc.; satellite imagery required for the natural resources survey and security needs of the country; satellite imagery and specific products and services required for the application of space science and technology for developmental purposes to the Central government, state governments, quasi governmental organisations, NGOs and the private sectors. It also undertakes proof of concept demonstration of space applications, and promotes research and development in space sciences and development of applications programme.
While implementing the above objectives, DOS is to provide required satellite transponders and facilities to meet the communication, television broadcasting and security requirement of our country; adequate earth observation capability in multiple spectral, spatial and temporal resolutions; launch services to meet national requirements and commercial needs; and its products and services in a prompt and efficient manner to all the users/clients.
The Department of Space has the primary responsibility of promoting development of space science, technology and applications towards achieving self-reliance and assisting in all round development of the nation.
With this end in view, the Department of Space has evolved the following programmes:
i. Indian National Satellite (INSAT) programme for telecommunications, broadcasting, meteorology, developmental education, etc.
ii. Remote sensing programme for application of satellite imagery for various developmental purposes.
iii. Indigenous capability for design and development of spacecraft and associated technologies for communications, resource survey and space sciences.
iv. Design and development of launch vehicles with indigenous technology for access to space and orbiting INSAT, IRS spacecraft and space science missions.
v. Research and development in space sciences and technologies as well as application programme for national development.
The Indian National Satellite (INSAT) system is a multi-agency, multipurpose operational satellite system for domestic telecommunications, meteorological observations and data relay, nationwide direct satellite television broadcasting and nationwide radio and television programme distribution.
INSAT system is the largest domestic communication satellite system in the Asia-Pacific region. It had eleven satellites in operation-INSAT- 2E,INSAT-3A,INSAT-3B,INSAT-3C,INSAT-3E, KALPANA-1, GSAT-2, EDUSAT (GSAT-3), INSAT- 4A, INSAT-4B and INSAT-4CR by end 2007. The overall coordination and management of INSAT system rests with INSAT Coordination Committee.
The INSAT-1 series, custom-built to Indian specifications by the American company, Ford Aerospace, only partially served the country’s needs. INSAT-1A and INSAT-1C were failures. INSAT-IB completed its designated life of seven years in August 1990. INSAT-1D has been the mainstay of the INSAT-1 series.
INSAT-2A was the first in the series of five satellites to be built in the country by ISRO to replace the ageing INSAT-1D. It was programmed to provide more telecom lines, television/radio broadcasting facilities, weather service and experimental satellite-aided search and rescue service. INSAT-2B enabled Doordarshan to expand its network. The extended C-band transponders were at the disposal of DOT and business subscribers for establishing data networks. For the IMD, INSAT-2B mainly served as an in-orbit back-up for collection and dissemination of meteorological data via the data relay transponder.
INSAT-2E, the last of the second generation INSAT series, was launched by the European launch vehicle, Ariane, from the Kourou space station in French Guyana on April 3, 1999. It has 17 transponders, of which 12 are in the normal C- band and five in the lower extended C-band, a VHRR similar to that of INSAT-2A and INSAT- 2B but with an additional water vapour channel, and a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera operating in visible, near infrared, and shortwave infrared bands with 1 km resolution.
The VHRR and CCD on INSAT-2E are expected to considerably improve weather prediction and modelling. The International Telecommunications Satellite Organisation (INTELSAT))—an international inter-governmental space consortium, created in association with 133 countries—has leased eleven 36 MHz equivalent units of C-band capacity on INSAT-2E.
Of the five satellites, INSAT-3A through INSAT- 3E, planned under INSAT-3 series, four satellites— INSAT-3A, INSAT-3B, INSAT-3C and INSAT-3E— have already been launched and are providing satisfactory service.
Under INSAT-3 series—the third generation communication satellites—INSAT-3B, meant solely for communication purposes, was the first in the INSAT-3 series to be launched on March 22, 2000. INSAT-3B is co-located with INSAT-2E at 83 degrees east longitude.
INSAT-3B, intended for business communication, developmental communication and mobile communication, carries 12 extended C-band transponders, 3 Ku-band channels and mobile satellite service transponders. It is expected to boost VSAT services for banking and financial institutions, stock markets, fast moving consumer goods sector and medium to heavy engineering companies.
It is also expected to usher telemedicine in the country and help in remote diagnostics and extension of super-speciality hospital treatment to rural people. It will provide enhanced capacity for education and literacy programmes relevant to rural areas.
INSAT-3C was launched on January 24, 2002. It is positioned at 74 degree East longitude.
INSAT-3C with a designed 12-year mission life, replaced ageing satellites such as INSAT-2C to give an impetus to India’s telecommunications, broadcasting, business communications and mobile services, particularly very small aperture terminal (VSAT) operations.
The multipurpose INSAT-3A, launched in 2003, has been designed for a life of 12 years. The satellite is for providing telecommunication, television broadcasting, meteorology and satellite- aided search and rescue services. It carries 12 C- band, six upper extended C-band, six Ku-band and one search and rescue transponders. The meteorological instruments include a Very High Resolution Radiometer (VHRR), a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera and a data relay transponder.
INSAT-3A is providing Geostationary Orbit Satellite Aided Search and Rescue services (GEOSAR) in this part of the world, covering Europe to Australia in the Indian Ocean and the Australian regions. Two American satellites, GOES (W) and GOES(E) provide these services on the western hemisphere.
A Data Relay Transponder (DRT) having global receive coverage with a 400 MHz uplink and 4500 MHz downlink for relay of meteorological, hydrological and oceanographic data from unattended land and ocean-based automatic data collection-cum-transmission platforms. A Satellite Aided Search and Rescue (SAS&R) payload having global receive coverage with 406 MHz uplink and 4500 MHz downlink with India coverage, for relay of signals from distress beacons in sea, air or land.
Insat-3E, the exclusive communication satellite of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), was launched on September 28, 2003.
INSAT-3E, the penultimate spacecraft in the INSAT-3 series, carries 24 C-band transponders and 12 extended C-band transponders. With the launching of INSAT-3E, the INSAT system had 128 transponders available for communications and broadcasting, making India one of the largest domestic communication satellite systems in the Asia-Pacific region.
The INSAT-4A satellite took off from Kourou in French Guyana aboard the European Ariane-5G rocket on December 22, 2005.
With 12 high-power Ku-band transponders INSAT-4A is the first to meet the needs of direct- to-home (DTH) television services, apart from carrying 12 C-band transponders to augment the INSAT capacity for communication and TV services. It is also the heaviest launched so far by ISRO.
It is positioned at 83 degree East longitude along with INSAT-2E and INSAT-3B.
INSAT-4B was successfully launched early on March 12, 2007 by Arianespace’s Ariane-5 vehicle from the Kourou island in French Guiana.
One of the heaviest Indian satellites (3,025 kg), the INSAT-4B was placed in geostationary circular orbit at a height of 36,000 km above the equator. The satellite has 24 high-power transponders which will mainly boost the direct- to-home (DTH) television programmes besides other communication systems.
INSAT-4B is carrying as payload 12 Ku-band 36 MHz and 27 MHz usable bandwidth transponders (nine and three, respectively). Alongside are 12 C-band 36 MHz bandwidth transponders with expanded coverage encompassing the Indian geographical boundary.
INSAT-4CR was launched on September 2, 2007 on GSLV launch vehicle from Sriharikota. INSAT-4CR is identical to INSAT-4C with 12 Ku- band transponders with an EIRP of 51.5 dBW. It has been positioned at 74 degree E longitude co- located with INSAT-3C, KALPANA-1 and EDUSAT. INSAT-4CR is the third satellite in INSAT-4 series. It carries 12 high-power Ku-band transponders designed to provide Direct- To-Home (DTH) television services, Video Picture Transmission (VPT) and Digital Satellite News Gathering (DSNG).
The payloads on the satellite comprise four C- band transponders, two Ku-band transponders and a Mobile Satellite Service Payload besides four scientific experimental payloads—Total Radiation Dose Monitor, Surface Charge Monitor, Solar X-ray Spectrometer and Coherent Radio Beacon Experiment.
The Indian Earth Observations (EO) System, well- known for its application-driven approach, is carried out under the unique institutional framework of the National Natural Resources Management System (NNRMS) under the aegis of the Planning Commission. With a host of payloads in the thematic series of Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Satellites and INSAT systems, the Indian EO system has been providing operational services to the user community in the country.
Nine high-power Standing Committees constituted under NNRMS address specific issues pertaining to applications of remote sensing in different thematic areas. They are: (i) Agriculture and Soils, (ii) Bio-Resources, (iii) Geology and Mineral Resources, (iv) Water Resources, (v) Ocean and Meteorology, (vi) Cartography and Mapping, (vii) Urban Management, (viii) Rural Development, and (ix) Training and Technology.
The Indian Remote Sensing satellite system is one of the largest constellations of remote sensing satellites in operation in the world today.
CARTOSAT-2 launched by PSLV-C7 on January 10, 2007, is an advanced remote sensing satellite carrying a panchromatic camera capable of providing scene specific spot imageries for cartographic and other applications. The satellite has high agility with capability of steering along and across the track up to + 45 deg.
It was placed in a sun synchronous polar orbit of a nominal altitude of 635 km. The panchromatic camera is designed to provide imageries with around one meter spatial resolution and a swath of 10 km. The satellite is configured to provide multi-scene imaging capability during a pass. CARTOSAT-2 has been functioning well providing operational services to the user community.
CARTOSAT-1 was launched into a 617-km polar sun-synchronous orbit on May 5, 2005 by PSLV-C6. The satellite carries two panchromatic cameras – PAN (fore) and PAN (aft) – with 2.5 meter resolution providing a swath of around 30 km.
The cameras are mounted with a tilt of +26 deg and -5 deg along the track with respect to nadir so as to provide along track stereo images that can be used to generate Digital Terrain Model (DTM)/Digital Elevation Models (DEM). The data from CARTOSAT-1 are used for cartography, cadastral mapping updation, land use and GIS applications. An onboard solid state recorder provides global data storage of areas not in the’ ground station visibility.
CARTOSAT-2A is 13th Indian remote sensing satellite. It weighs 690 kg and has a capacity of 64 GB. The satellite carries an advanced panchromatic camera that can take pictures with a spatial resolution of about one metre and can cover a land strip of 9.6 km.
Placed at a height of over 600 kilometres, it can identify objects as small as a car. It’s steerable along as well as across the direction of its movement to facilitate imaging of any area more frequently. High- resolution data from this satellite will be invaluable in urban and rural development applications calling for large-scale mapping.
Indian space programme is recognised for its leading role in utilising the space systems for a variety of applications. The two main space systems, INSAT and the Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites, continue to be used for a number of applications relevant to national development.
EDUSAT, launched by Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV-F01) in September 2004, is India’s first thematic satellite dedicated exclusively for educational services. The satellite is specially configured to relay through audiovisual medium, employing multi-media multi-centric system, to create interactive classrooms.
EDUSAT has multiple regional beams covering different parts of India—five Ku-band transponders with spot beams covering northern, north-eastern, eastern, southern and western regions of the country, a Ku-band transponder with its footprint covering the Indian mainland region and six C-band transponders with their footprints covering the entire country. EDUSAT is being implemented in three phases, pilot, semi- operational and operational phases. While pilot phase has continued, semi-operational and operational phase have been put into implementation during the year.
EDUSAT is already providing a wide range of educational delivery modes like one-way TV broadcast, interactive TV, video conferencing, computer conferencing, web-based instructions, etc.
One of the innovative networks on EDUSAT is the network for ‘Blind schools’. Blind People’s Association, Ahmedabad is a leading organisation promoting education, training, employment and rehabilitation for blind persons. Considering the specific needs of the blind people, an altogether different kind of broadcast network configuration delivering live audio and data which is read by blind person through its printed impression (Braille) was set up.
Another special network in Ext C-band connecting 50 engineering institutes across the country has been established to impart teaching by_ distinguished professors/faculty from top 21 universities in USA who would visit India to conduct eight-week courses in various subjects in engineering.
INSAT is being used to provide Educational TV (ETV) service for primary school children in Tamil, Marathi, Oriya, Telugu and Hindi. A general enrichment programme on higher education (college sector) is telecast on the national network. These programmes, provided by the University Grants Commission (UGC), are a part of its countrywide classroom programme. The Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) broadcasts half an hour curriculum based lectures daily via the national network for the students.
GRAMSAT programme is an initiative to provide communication networks at the state level connecting the state capital to districts and blocks. The networks provide computer connectivity, data broadcasting, TV broadcasting facilities having applications like e-governance, National Resource Information System (NRIS), development information, tele-conferencing, disaster management, telemedicine and distance education. GPP/TDCC networks are operational in Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Rajasthan.
In Orissa, the network is upgraded for TV broadcasting to Kalahandi, Bolangir and Koraput region. With the convergence of technology and networks, the Gramsat and TDCC networks are merged and operationalised in Karnataka, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan.
Telemedicine is one of the unique applications of Space Technology for societal benefit. DOS Telemedicine programme, which started in 2001 has been connecting remote/rural/medical college hospitals and Mobile Units through INSAT and EDUSAT to major speciality hospitals in cities and towns. The Telemedicine connectivity covers the areas of Jammu & Kashmir, Ladakh, Andaman and Lakshdweep Islands, North Eastern States, mainland states including tribal districts of mainland states like Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Chhattisgarh, Punjab, West Bengal, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Jharkhand, Rajasthan, etc.
INSAT has been a major catalyst for the expansion of television coverage in Induj. Satellite television now covers over 65 per cent of the Indian land mass and over 90 per cent of the population.
At present, DTH service is operational through INSAT-4 series.
TATA-SKY operates DTH service through INSAT-4A at 83 degree East with total number of 148 video channels. Doordarshan (DD-DIRECT) operates DTH service through INSAT-4B at 93.5 degree East with total number of 40 channels which are free to air.
Satellite News Gathering using INSAT system enables on the spot real-time news coverage. Prasar Bharati has twelve Digital Outdoor-Broadcast DSNG terminals operating through INSAT network in C-band to cover important events in different locations for transmission to a central station at Delhi or to state capitals for rebroadcast over DD channels.
Radio Networking (RN) through INSAT provides a reliable high-fidelity programme channels for national as well as regional networking.
Over 450 telecommunication terminals of various sizes and capabilities (excluding NICNET, RABMN and VSAT micro terminals) are operating in INSAT telecommunications network providing 6645 two-way speech circuits. These include 90 BSNL, 157 for government users and 204 Closed User Group(CUG)/VSAT operators earth stations and 205 BSNL VSATs [114 multi-channel per carrier (MCPC) VSATs, 44 High speed VSAT Network (HVNET)] terminals and 47 VSATs operating under the Remote Area Business Management Network. A total of 75919 CUG VSATs are operating through INSAT.
Captive satellite-based networks for National Thermal Power Corporation, Gas Authority of India Ltd, Nuclear Power Corporation, Indian Telephone Industries, Oil and Natural Gas Commission, National Fertilisers Limited and Coal India Limited are operational. Department of Telecommunications has licensed a few private operators to provide value-added services to the public using the extended C-band.
A S-band Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) was added to INSAT system with the launch of INSAT- 3C in 2002 and GSAT-2 in 2003.
The meteorological data of INSAT system is processed and disseminated by INSAT Meteorological Data Processing System (IMDPS) of India Meteorological Department (IMD). Upper winds, sea surface temperature and precipitation index data are regularly obtained. The products derived from the image data include cloud motion vectors, sea surface temperature, outgoing long wave radiation and quantitative precipitation index. The products are used for weather forecasting, both synoptic and numerical weather prediction.
INSAT-VHRR imageries are used by Doordarshan during news coverage and by newspapers as part of weather reporting.
For quick dissemination of warnings against impending disaster from approaching cyclones, specially designed receivers have been installed at the vulnerable coastal areas in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, West Bengal and Gujarat for direct transmission of warnings to the officials and public in general using broadcast capability of INSAT.
India is a member of the international COSPAS- SARSAT programme for providing distress alert and position location service through LEOSAR (Low Earth Orbit Search And Rescue) satellite system. Under this programme, India has established two Local User Terminals (LUTs), one at Lucknow and the other at Bangalore. The Indian Mission Control Centre (INMCC), is located at ISTRAC, Bangalore.
The remote sensing application projects at national, regional and local levels are carried out through NRSA, Hyderabad, SAC, Ahmedabad, five Regional Remote Sensing Service Centres (RRSSC) located at Bangalore, Dehradun, Jodhpur, Kharagpur, and Nagpur and North-Eastern Space Application Centre (NE-SAC), Shillong. State and central government departments, state remote sensing centres and others are also associating in execution of the projects. Some of the major application projects carried out during the year are highlighted in the following paragraphs.
Under Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission, funded by the Department of Drinking Water Supply of the Ministry of Rural Development, ground water prospects mapping on 1:50,000 scale and generation of digital data base pertaining to ground water prospecting such as lithology, geomorphology, geological structures and hydrology taken up in phases.
Forecasting Agricultural output using Space, Agro-meteorology and Land based observations (FASAL) is a countrywide project funded by the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperation and executed by DOS along with various State Remote Sensing Applications Centres, State Departments of Agriculture and Agricultural Universities.
Initiated by DOS jointly with the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), the biodiversity characterisation at landscape level, covers four main biodiversity rich regions of the country— North-East region, Western Himalayas, Western Ghats and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
The snow cover in Sutlej basin has been monitored from October 2006 using NOAA/AVHRR satellite data.
Glacial retreat of Bhaga, Chandra, Parbati, Baspa and Alaknanda basin is estimated and field verifications carried out in Baspa and Alaknanda basins.
At the behest of Department of Land Resources (DoLR) of Ministry of Rural Development, identification and inventorying of wastelands using satellite data on 1:50,000 scale was initiated in 1986 and completed in 2000 under five different phases. In 2006-07, monitoring of the wasteland areas was taken up to enable identification of areas of rapid changes, evaluation of the efficacy of implementation of various wasteland development schemes, etc.
The Natural Resources (NR) census taken up as part of the Natural Resources Repository (NRR) is aimed to provide a snapshot of the status of natural resources of the country. The project uses IRS data to prepare systematic spatial database of natural resources information such as land use/ land cover, soil, geomorphology, vegetation, snow/ glacier, land degradation, wetlands at 1:50,000 scale and land use/land cover both at 1:50,000 and 1:250,000 scale for periodic monitoring of natural resources.
The objective of the CartoDEM project is to prepare seamless elevation model for Indian landmass and generate corresponding ortho-image using Cartosat-1 data. The indigenously developed Augmented Stereo-Strip Triangulation (ASST) software is the backbone software for generating CartoDEM deliverables.
A major project on Assessment and Monitoring salinity and waterlogged areas in major and medium commands in the country has been taken up on behalf of Central Water Commission (CWC), New Delhi. It involves assessment of waterlogged areas due to surface inundation and rise in ground water table, saline/ alkaline affected areas using multi-temporal satellite data.