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1984 George Orwell Theme Essay Outline

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1984 george orwell essay

1984 george orwell essay

The complete works of george orwell, searchable format. Also contains a biography and quotes by George Orwell The complete works of george orwell, searchable format. Also contains a biography and quotes by George.

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Some of the most important symbols and motifs in 1984 include Winston’s paperweight, the St. Clement’s Church picture and the rhyme associated with it, the prole woman singing outside the window, and the phrase “the place where there is no darkness.” In addition to unifying the novel, these symbols and motifs represent Winston’s attempts to escape.

1984 is about life in a world where no personal freedoms exist. Winston the main character is a man of 39 whom is not extraordinary in either intelligence or character, but is disgusted with the world he lives in. He works in the Ministry of Truth, a place where history and the truth is rewritten to fit the party s beliefs. Winston is aware of the.

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Throughout history, many people have speculated on what the future will bring. George Orwell, author of 1984, was no different. Orwell believed that a totalitarian form of government was imminent if the American citizens were not aware of the dangers it holds. Throughout 1984, Orwell warns the readers of a dreary existence under a totalitarian.

Uploaded by punk_devil05 on May 11, 2005 Themes in Orwell’s 1984 Psychological control is a major theme occurring in 1984 and Orwell proves this theme is possible by giving examples of how a totalitarian government could gain psychological control using their power to control history and technology. George Orwell wrote 1984 as a warning to people.

1984 essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of 1984 by George Orwell. Join Now to View Premium Content GradeSaver provides access to 658 study guide PDFs and quizzes, 3543 literature essays, 1030 sample college application essays, 103 lesson plans, and ad-free surfing.

“1984” is a fiction novel about totalitarianism and the fate of a single man who tried to escape from an overwhelming political regime. The book was written by the British writer and journalist George Orwell in 1948 and had the Soviet Union as a prototype of the social structure described in it. Events in the book take place in London, a capital of.

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1984 Study Guide by LitCharts

1984 Study Guide Characters

Description and analysis of all of 1984 's important characters.

Brief Biography of George Orwell

Eric Blair was born and spent his youth in India. He was educated at Eton in England. From 1922-27 he served in the Indian Imperial Police in Burma. Through his autobiographical work about poverty in London ( Down and Out in Paris and London. 1933), his experiences in colonial Burma ( Burmese Days. 1934) and in the Spanish Civil War ( Homage to Catalonia. 1938), and the plight of unemployed coal miners in England ( The Road to Wigan Pier. 1937), Blair (who wrote under the name George Orwell) exposed and critiqued the human tendency to oppress others politically, economically, and physically. He is best known for his satires of totalitarian rule: Animal Farm (1945) and Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949). Both books were widely considered to be indictments of Communism under Joseph Stalin, but Orwell insisted that they were critiques of totalitarian ideas in general, and warned that the nightmarish conditions he depicted could take place anywhere. In 1947 a lung infection contracted in Burma worsened, and in 1950 Orwell succumbed to tuberculosis at the age of 46.

Historical Context of 1984

Orwell was a socialist, the direct result of his service as a militiaman on the Republican side against the Fascist general Francisco Franco in the Spanish Civil War. Upon his return to England he joined the British Independent Labour Party and began to write against Stalinism and the Nazi regime. Orwell was also influenced by anarchist critiques of Soviet communism and by the Marxist writings of Leon Trotsky, the exiled communist revolutionary and model for Emmanuel Goldstein in Nineteen Eighty-Four. In 1946 Orwell wrote, "Every line of serious work that I have written since 1936 has been written, directly or indirectly, against totalitarianism and for democratic socialism, as I understand it."

Other Books Related to 1984

In 1516, Sir Thomas More published a book called Utopia. It's title meant, in Greek, either "good place" or "no place," and the book described an ideal society that More used in order to criticize his own society. Utopia was not the first book to imagine a perfect society, Plato's Republic. for example, does the same thing. But Utopia did give the genre a name, and numerous writers over the years wrote their own Utopian novels. In addition, a number of writers wrote Dystopian novels, in which they imagined the worst possible society, and used it to criticize their current world. Nineteen Eighty-Four is a dystopian novel. The primary literary model for Nineteen Eighty-Four is considered to be H.G. Wells's anti-Utopian satire When the Sleeper Wakes (1899), but Orwell was also influenced by the writings of the 18th century satirist Jonathan Swift, author of Gulliver's Travels (1726). Prior to writing Nineteen Eighty-Four Orwell wrote and published essays on Aldous Huxley's Brave New World (1932), Jack London's The Iron Heel (1907) and Yevgeny Zamyatin's We (1924), dystopian novels set in an imaginary future, and James Burnham's nonfiction political tract The Managerial Revolution (1941).

Key Facts about 1984

Full Title: Nineteen Eighty-Four: A Novel

When Written: 1945-49; outline written 1943

Where Written: Jura, Scotland

When Published: June 1949

1984 george orwell essay

1984 george orwell essay

In every work of literature there is a main idea or theme that the writer wants to get across to their readers. In 1984 by George Orwell there are many important themes that Orwell tries to stress. These themes are primarily associated with the future of our government and its power over us, the citizens. This is because the novel takes place in a futuristic world where a totalitarian government is able to control its citizen’s thoughts and watch over them at all times. Two major themes in this book are the systematic dehumanization of humans and the weakness of the individual when confronted by the power of the state.

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    1984 Essay

    1984 Essay

    This essay has a total of 246 words and 2 pages.


    1984
    The lesson to be learned from George Orwell's 1984 is that an "ideal" of having a
    Utopian society will never really work. George Orwell may have written 1984, in order
    to show us that every society has it's ups and downs and that no matter how hard you
    work to keep the society perfect there will always be flaws. In the book 1984, the society
    in which the people lived was completely opposite to what most people would see as
    "utopia".

    As defined by the New Scholastic Dictionary the word "Utopia" means: a place
    where everything is perfect and everyone is happy. This is far from the life that the
    people lived in 1984. There was a lot of hate throughout the book, and with hate comes
    unhappiness an example of this would be: "The Hate had started. The Enemy of the
    people had flashed onto the screen. There were hisses among the audience" (Orwell, 13.)
    Then there were the three slogans from the Party: "War is Peace; Freedom is Slavery;
    Ignorance is Strength" (Orwell, 17) That doesn't really seem like a happy society.

    Throughout the book, Orwell pointed to reasons for this being the complete
    opposite of a Utopian Society. Winston, the main character, defied the odds and went
    against the rules, in order to show, that you can't follow any set of strict rules in a society,
    especially one where everyone is supposedly created equal. George Orwell tried to teach
    his readers a very important lesson, that a Utopian society will never work.

    Continues for 1 more page >>

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      1984 1984 is about life in a world where no personal freedoms exist. Winston the main character is a man of 39 whom is not extraordinary in either intelligence or character, but is disgusted with the world he lives in. He works in the Ministry of Truth, a place where history and the truth is rewritten to fit the party's beliefs. Winston is aware of the untruths, because he makes them true. This makes him very upset with the government of Oceania, where Big Brother, a larger than life figure, con
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    1984 by George Orwell

    Thesis Statement- This paper will examine how George Orwell wrote 1984 as a political statement against totalitarianism.

    II Summary of 1984

    III Roles of major Charters

    A. Ministry of Truth

    B. Ministry of Love

    V Orwell's thoughts on Totalitarianism

    A. From life experiences

    B. From a writers point of view

    Introduction "Orwell observed that every line of serious work that I have written since 1936 has been written directly or indirectly, against totalitarianism and for democratic socialism, as I understand it" ("George Orwell"). George Orwell has been a major contributor to anticommunist literature around the World War II period. Orwell lived in England during World War II, a time when the totalitarianism state, Nazi Germany, was at war with England and destroyed the city of London. " I know that building' said Winston finally. Its a ruin now. It's in the middle of the street outside the Palace of Justice.' That's right. Outside the Law Courts. It was bombed in-oh many years ago'" (Orwell 83). This reflects Orwell's own life experiences as a citizen in war torn England and how he uses this in 1984. George Orwell is famous for two major novels which attack totalitarianism. The first is Animal Farm a satire describing the leaders of the Soviet Union as animals on an animal farm. The second novel is 1984 a story of dictators who are in complete control of a large part of the world after the Allies lost in World War II. The government in this novel gives no freedoms to its citizens. They live in fear because they are afraid of having bad thoughts about the government of Oceania, a crime punishable by death. This is the gem in Orwell's collection of novels against totalitarianism. This paper will show how George Orwell wrote 1984 as a political statement against totalitarianism. 1984 is about life in a world where no personal freedoms exist. Winston the main character, is a man of 39 who is not extraordinary in either intelligence or character, but is disgusted with the world he lives in. He works in the Ministry of Truth, a place where history and the truth is rewritten to fit the party's beliefs. Winston is aware of the untruths, because he makes them true. This makes him very upset with the government of Oceania, where Big Brother, a larger than life figure, controls the people. His dissatisfaction increases to a point where he rebels against the government in small ways. Winston's first act of rebellion is buying and writing in a diary. This act is known as a thought crime and is punishable by death. A thought crime is any bad thought against the government of Oceania. Winston commits many thought crimes and becomes paranoid about being caught, which he knows is inevitable (Greenblast 113). He becomes paranoid because he is followed by a young woman who is actively involved in many community groups. Winston is obsessed with the past, a time before Oceania was under strict dictatorship. He goes into an antique shop and buys a shell covered in glass which is another crime punishable by death. He sees the same woman following him. Many thoughts race through his mind "I wanted to rape you and then murder you afterwards. Two weeks ago I thought seriously of smashing your head in with a cobblestone. If you really want to know, I imagined that you had something to do with the Thought Police" (Orwell 101). The girl who was following him slipped him a note while at work. The note said "I love you"(90). They make plans to meet each other and carry on an illegal love affair. This love affair is another rebellion against the government. It goes on for some time. Winston rents a room where he and Julia can be secluded from the outside world. They meet a man named O'Brien who indicates that he is another revolutionary. Winston and Julia go to his house to meet with him. O'Brien gives than a seditious book to read. Soon after that, they are caught by the Thought Police and never see each other again. O'Brien, becomes Winston's rehabilitator and torturer for the next 9 months. O'Brien tortures Winston in stages. The first two stages are to force the party's beliefs on him then learn and understand what is expected of him. In the third stage, Winston is made to face what he secretly fears most, rats eating his face. After being completely rehabilitated by O'Brien, Winston now loves the establishment and the government. He is set free. Big Brother is the figurehead of a government that has total control. The Big Brother regime uses propaganda and puts fear in its citizens to keep the general population in line. "Big Brother is watching you"(Orwell 5) is just one example of many party slogans that puts fear in its citizens. Big Brother uses various ways to catch people guilty of bad thoughts "In the world of 1984 the tyrant Big Brother does employ a vast army of informers called thought police, who watch every citizen at all times for the least signs of criminal deviation which may consist simply of unorthodox thoughts"(112). Winston Smith represents Orwell's view on totalitarianism. Winston rebels against the government of Oceania by starting a diary and constantly having bad thoughts against the government. "Winston knows that he is doomed from the moment he has his first heretical thought. The tensions of the novel concerns how long he can stay alive and whether it is possible for Winston to die without mentally betraying his rebellion" (Greenblast 115). Winston starts writing in a diary for two reasons. The first is that he wants to be able to remember the daily occurrences in the world. In 1984, the memory of individuals, is effectively manipulated, programmed, and controlled from the outside by the party (Kolakowski 127). People don't know what they are consciously remembering and what is told to them. "The party had invented airplanes" (Orwell 127) is just one example of the party's propaganda and false statements that change every day. The other reason for the diary is so that people in the future will be able to read what went on during Winston's time and to tell them about his daily reflections on his feelings about the party. These are the same reasons why Orwell wrote 1984. He wanted to expose a communist country (the Soviet Union). The specific political purpose that had aro used Orwell's sense of urgency was his desire to explode the myth of the Soviet Union as the paradigm of the socialist state. He also wanted to expose the dangers of totalitarianism, which the devaluation of objective truth, and the systematic manipulation of the common people through propaganda ("George Orwell"). O'Brien is an informant to Big Brother. He is not who he seems to be. He appears to Winston as a fellow conspirator, but actually becomes Winston's torturer and rehabilitator. O'Brien and the party can't tolerate Winston's betrayal of the government. O'Brien tells his victim. You are a flaw in the pattern, Winston. You are a stain that must be wiped out. It is intolerable that an erroneous thought should exist anywhere in the world, however secret and powerless it may be. ("George Orwell"). In fact, the party can't comprehend his disbelief and must change his thoughts through torture and brainwash. "You will be hollow. We shall squeeze you empty and then we shall fill you with ourselves" (Orwell 200). O'Brien represents the core of communist or totalitarian rule, making the victims suffer by using brainwashing to control them. O'Brien also tells Winston what he should feel about Big Brother when Winston is at his lowest point mentally and physically. O'Brien's speeches to the broken Winsto n Smith in the Thought Polices' torture chamber represents for Orwell the core of our century's political hideousness. Although O'Brien says that power seeks power and needs no ideological excuse. he does in fact explain to his victim what this power is ("George Orwell"). Julia is considered a sexual deviant in the oppressed world of 1984. In a normal world sex is free, in 1984 it's a forbidden act only allowed for reproduction purposes to keep the party's numbers constant. Julia has been sexually active since her teenage years. "She had had her first love affair when she was sixteen, with a party member of sixty" (Orwell 109). Love and sex is not allowed in this totalitarian state so Julia has to look as pure as possible so that she does not show any guilt. "You thought I was a good party member, pure in word and deed. Banners, processions, slogans, games, community hikes all that stuff. And you [Winston] thought that if I had a quarter of a chance I'd denounce you as a thought criminal and get you killed off " (101). The owner of the antique shop is another example of someone appearing to be what he is not. Orwell uses the shop owner to illustrate a point. Orwell shows that no one can be trusted in a totalitarian country. Someone who appears to be your friend will actually turn you in and have you killed. The shop owner appears to be an old widower who enjoys having conversations with Winston Smith. Throughout the book it can be seen that looks can be deceiving. He is actually a member of the Thought Police and gets a good laugh when Winston and Julia getting caught. Now all he can do is wait for his next victim to enter his store. The Ministry of Truth is a place where history and facts--significant and insignificant are rewritten to reflect the party's utopian beliefs. They thoroughly destroy the records of the past; they print up new, up to-date editions of old newspapers and books; and they know corrected versions will be replaced by another, re-corrected one. Their goal is to make people forget everything- facts, words, dead people, the names of places. How far they succeed in obliterating the past is not fully established in Orwell's description; clearly they try hard and they score impressive results. The ideal of complete oblivion may not have been reached, yet further progress is to be expressed (Kolakowski 126). Winston and Julia are workers at the Ministry of Truth. Winston gets more mentally involved in his work than Julia. "Winston Smith and his fellows at the Ministry of Truth spend their days rewriting the past: Most of the material you were dealing with had no connection with anything in the real world, not even the kind of connection that is contained in a direct lie'" ("George Orwell"). Winston is not as strong mentally as Julia. His work affects him more. The Ministry of Truth is like a totalitarian country, because it has ways to scare its citizens. People guilty of crimes are erased from having ever existed. "Your name was removed from the registers, every record of your existence was denied and then forgotten" (Orwell 19). Again people were taken away without any rights. ". there was no trial no report of arrest" (19). The actual purpose of the Ministry of Truth is to spread lies and to have control over its citizens using memory erasing techniques. ". the distinction between true and false in their usual meaning has disappea red. This is the great cognitive triumph of totalitarianism: it cannot be accused of lying any longer since it has succeeded in abrogating the very idea of truth (Kolakowski 127). These same control techniques are used by totalitarian nations that seek control over there citizens. The Ministry of Truth is a complete contradiction of itself. A Ministry of Truth should not change past occurrences or say people never existed. It should exemplify the truth and not erase records of the existence of people. The Ministry of Love is where all criminals are tortured, rehabilitated, then set free or killed. As soon as Winston is captured he knows he is going to the Ministry of Love. The Ministry of Love was the really frightening one. There were no windows in it at all. Winston had never been inside the Ministry of Love, nor within half a kilometer of it. It was a place impossible to enter except on offical business, and then only by penetrating throu gh a maze of barbed-wire entanglements, steel doors, and hidden machine-gun nests. Even the streets leading up to its outer barriers were roamed by gorilla-faced guards in black uniforms, armed with jointed truncheons (Orwell 8). In a totalitarian state something resembling a Ministry of Love is common place. It's a place where the government can inflict pain on its subjects for crimes big and small. That is how totalitarian nations keep, power over their citizens-- by fear of pain. The name Ministry of Love is a contradiction of itself. Its name shows a feeling of love and warmth, but in actuality it's the complete opposite. It's a place of hate and pain and is cold and dark. A better name for it would be the Ministry of Hate. George Orwell lived during a time when Europe was in a period of rebuilding after World War II. During that time Soviets gained six nations as satellites. England was helpless and had to worry about their own problems and had to watch the Soviet Union take control of half of Germany. The leader of the Soviet Union, Stalin, closely resembles Big Brother. They were both larger than life figures in there respective countries. In the Soviet Union you could easily have found large posters with Stalin's face on them. The same holds true in 1984; Big Brother's face is everywhere. A famous quote from 1984 is "Big Brother is watching you" (Orwell 5). Meaning if his Thought Police don't catch you, his telescreens and hidden microphones would. In the Soviet Union, Stalin's K.G.B. sought criminals who plotted against the government. In Stalin's regime over 10 million people were killed. In 1984 hundreds of criminals were killed daily. Another aspect of the 1940's were the new broadcast T.V.'s and mainframe computers. The new technologies could be used for means of control. Orwell saw communist countries using these technologies for control ("George Orwell"). This is where Orwell's idea of telescreens and hidden microphones came from. Before World War II, Orwell had his worst encounter with communists. While Orwell was in the Spanish Civil War, he was running away from Soviet communists who were trying to kill him. After that experience he got out of the army and became a writer full time. "Another shock to Orwell was when the Nazi-Soviet pact signaled the breakdown and the beginning of the mental and emotional state out of which grew Animal Farm and 1984"(Greenblast 105). Orwell may of have extracted what he saw in his world while writing but it was done to get people's attention of problems in the existing world. "Orwell's primary purpose is to distort disturbing conditions tendencies and habits of thought that he saw existing in the world"("George Orwell"). Orwell saw, the whole world steadily moving toward a vast ruthless tyranny. He felt nothing could stop it's monstrous progress. 1984, in spite of its setting in the future, is not primarily a utopian fantasy prophesying what the world will be like in thirty or forty years but a novel about what the world is like now (Greenblast 112). Orwell always relates characters in his books to points of view and real people. In Animal Farm every farm animal represents a person in the Soviet Union. In 1984, Orwell represents his point of view in Winston. He shows a totalitarian leader, in O'Brien and Big Brother, while Julia is the desire and lust in every human being. George Orwell had deep resentment against totalitarianism and what it stood for. He saw the problem of totalitarianism in his existing world. He also understood how the problem could fester and become larger due to instability in Europe's economy after World War II. He purposely makes the story, 1984, unrealistic and blown out of proportion to capture people's attention and make them think maybe it wouldn't be unrealistic in the near future. With his deep resentment toward totalitarianism it became the focal point of his novels. George Orwell's, novels were directed toward against totalitarianism and for Socialism and what it stood for. 1984, Bibliography Andrews, Paul. "1984 Plus 10." The Seattle Times 6 March 1994: A1+. Black, David. "Wider Still and Wider" European 25 October 1991: 8-9. Daley, Alan L. George Orwell, Writer and Critic of Modern Society. Charlottesville: Samhar Press, 1974. Deutscher, Isaac. "1984-The Mysticsm of Cruelty." George Orwell, A Collection of Critical Essays. Ed. Raymond Williams. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1974. 119- 132. "George Orwell" Discovering Authors. 1993 ed. Gale Research Inc. 1993. Greenblast, Stephen J. "Orwell as Satirist." George Orwell, ACollection Of Critical Essays. Ed. Raymond Williams. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1974. 103-118. Huber, Peter. "Bye -Bye, Big Brother." National Review 15 August 1994: 48-50. Kolakowski, Leszek. "Totalitarianism and the virtue of the Lie." 1984 Revisited, Totalitarianism In Our Century. Ed. Irving Howe. New York: Harper and Row, 1983. 122-136. Leyden, Peter. "On the Digital Age: Dawn of a Second Renaissance" Star Tribune 25 June 1995: 1t+. Orwell, George. 1984. New York: The New American Library Inc. 1983. Reilly, Patrick. Nineteen Eighty-Four, Past, Present, and Future. Boston G.K. Hall and Co. 1989. Stansky, Peter and William Abrahams. Orwell: The Transformation. London: Gramala Publishing Limited, 1981. Tucker, Robert C. "Does Big Brother Really Exist?" 1984 Revisited, Totalitarianism In Your Century. Ed. Irving Howe, New York: Harper and Row, 1983. 89-103. Verity, John W. "Why Big Brother Isn't Watching You." Business Week 9 January, 1995: 15- 16. Weight, Richard. "Return To Albion, Intellectuals in Wartime Britain." History Today. December 1994: 37-43. Outline

    Thesis Statement- This paper will examine how George Orwell wrote

    1984 as a political statement against totalitarianism.

    II Summary of 1984

    III Roles of major Charters

    A. Ministry of Truth

    B. Ministry of Love

    V Orwell's thoughts on Totalitarianism

    A. From life experiences

    B. From a writers point of view

    Introduction "Orwell observed that every line of serious work that I have written since 1936 has been written directly or indirectly, against totalitarianism and for democratic socialism, as I understand it" ("George Orwell"). George Orwell has been a major contributor to anticommunist literature around the World War II period. Orwell lived in England during World War II, a time when the totalitarianism state, Nazi Germany, was at war with England and destroyed the city of London. " I know that building' said Winston finally. Its a ruin now. It's in the middle of the street outside the Palace of Justice.' That's right. Outside the Law Courts. It was bombed in-oh many years ago'" (Orwell 83). This reflects Orwell's own life experiences as a citizen in war torn England and how he uses this in 1984. George Orwell is famous for two major novels which attack totalitarianism. The first is Animal Farm a satire describing the leaders of the Soviet Union as animals on an animal farm. The second novel is 1984 a story of dictators who are in complete control of a large part of the world after the Allies lost in World War II. The government in this novel gives no freedoms to its citizens. They live in fear because they are afraid of having bad thoughts about the government of Oceania, a crime punishable by death. This is the gem in Orwell's collection of novels against totalitarianism. This paper will show how George Orwell wrote 1984 as a political statement against totalitarianism. 1984 is about life in a world where no personal freedoms exist. Winston the main character, is a man of 39 who is not extraordinary in either intelligence or character, but is disgusted with the world he lives in. He works in the Ministry of Truth, a place where history and the truth is rewritten to fit the party's beliefs. Winston is aware of the untruths, because he makes them true. This makes him very upset with the government of Oceania, where Big Brother, a larger than life figure, controls the people. His dissatisfaction increases to a point where he rebels against the government in small ways. Winston's first act of rebellion is buying and writing in a diary. This act is known as a thought crime and is punishable by death. A thought crime is any bad thought against the government of Oceania. Winston commits many thought crimes and becomes paranoid about being caught, which he knows is inevitable (Greenblast 113). He becomes paranoid because he is followed by a young woman who is actively involved in many community groups. Winston is obsessed with the past, a time before Oceania was under strict dictatorship. He goes into an antique shop and buys a shell covered in glass which is another crime punishable by death. He sees the same woman following him. Many thoughts race through his mind "I wanted to rape you and then murder you afterwards. Two weeks ago I thought seriously of smashing your head in with a cobblestone. If you really want to know, I imagined that you had something to do with the Thought Police" (Orwell 101). The girl who was following him slipped him a note while at work. The note said "I love you"(90). They make plans to meet each other and carry on an illegal love affair. This love affair is another rebellion against the government. It goes on for some time. Winston rents a room where he and Julia can be secluded from the outside world. They meet a man named O'Brien who indicates that he is another revolutionary. Winston and Julia go to his house to meet with him. O'Brien gives than a seditious book to read. Soon after that, they are caught by the Thought Police and never see each other again. O'Brien, becomes Winston's rehabilitator and torturer for the next 9 months. O'Brien tortures Winston in stages. The first two stages are to force the party's beliefs on him then learn and understand what is expected of him. In the third stage, Winston is made to face what he secretly fears most, rats eating his face. After being completely rehabilitated by O'Brien, Winston now loves the establishment and the government. He is set free. Big Brother is the figurehead of a government that has total control. The Big Brother regime uses propaganda and puts fear in its citizens to keep the general population in line. "Big Brother is watching you"(Orwell 5) is just one example of many party slogans that puts fear in its citizens. Big Brother uses various ways to catch people guilty of bad thoughts "In the world of 1984 the tyrant Big Brother does employ a vast army of informers called thought police, who watch every citizen at all times for the least signs of criminal deviation which may consist simply of unorthodox thoughts"(112). Winston Smith represents Orwell's view on totalitarianism. Winston rebels against the government of Oceania by starting a diary and constantly having bad thoughts against the government. "Winston knows that he is doomed from the moment he has his first heretical thought. The tensions of the novel concerns how long he can stay alive and whether it is possible for Winston to die without mentally betraying his rebellion" (Greenblast 115). Winston starts writing in a diary for two reasons. The first is that he wants to be able to remember the daily occurrences in the world. In 1984, the memory of individuals, is effectively manipulated, programmed, and controlled from the outside by the party (Kolakowski 127). People don't know what they are consciously remembering and what is told to them. "The party had invented airplanes" (Orwell 127) is just one example of the party's propaganda and false statements that change every day. The other reason for the diary is so that people in the future will be able to read what went on during Winston's time and to tell them about his daily reflections on his feelings about the party. These are the same reasons why Orwell wrote 1984. He wanted to expose a communist country (the Soviet Union). The specific political purpose that had aro used Orwell's sense of urgency was his desire to explode the myth of the Soviet Union as the paradigm of the socialist state. He also wanted to expose the dangers of totalitarianism, which the devaluation of objective truth, and the systematic manipulation of the common people through propaganda ("George Orwell"). O'Brien is an informant to Big Brother. He is not who he seems to be. He appears to Winston as a fellow conspirator, but actually becomes Winston's torturer and rehabilitator. O'Brien and the party can't tolerate Winston's betrayal of the government. O'Brien tells his victim. You are a flaw in the pattern, Winston. You are a stain that must be wiped out. It is intolerable that an erroneous thought should exist anywhere in the world, however secret and powerless it may be. ("George Orwell"). In fact, the party can't comprehend his disbelief and must change his thoughts through torture and brainwash. "You will be hollow. We shall squeeze you empty and then we shall fill you with ourselves" (Orwell 200). O'Brien represents the core of communist or totalitarian rule, making the victims suffer by using brainwashing to control them. O'Brien also tells Winston what he should feel about Big Brother when Winston is at his lowest point mentally and physically. O'Brien's speeches to the broken Winsto n Smith in the Thought Polices' torture chamber represents for Orwell the core of our century's political hideousness. Although O'Brien says that power seeks power and needs no ideological excuse. he does in fact explain to his victim what this power is ("George Orwell"). Julia is considered a sexual deviant in the oppressed world of 1984. In a normal world sex is free, in 1984 it's a forbidden act only allowed for reproduction purposes to keep the party's numbers constant. Julia has been sexually active since her teenage years. "She had had her first love affair when she was sixteen, with a party member of sixty" (Orwell 109). Love and sex is not allowed in this totalitarian state so Julia has to look as pure as possible so that she does not show any guilt. "You thought I was a good party member, pure in word and deed. Banners, processions, slogans, games, community hikes all that stuff. And you [Winston] thought that if I had a quarter of a chance I'd denounce you as a thought criminal and get you killed off " (101). The owner of the antique shop is another example of someone appearing to be what he is not. Orwell uses the shop owner to illustrate a point. Orwell shows that no one can be trusted in a totalitarian country. Someone who appears to be your friend will actually turn you in and have you killed. The shop owner appears to be an old widower who enjoys having conversations with Winston Smith. Throughout the book it can be seen that looks can be deceiving. He is actually a member of the Thought Police and gets a good laugh when Winston and Julia getting caught. Now all he can do is wait for his next victim to enter his store. The Ministry of Truth is a place where history and facts--significant and insignificant are rewritten to reflect the party's utopian beliefs. They thoroughly destroy the records of the past; they print up new, up to-date editions of old newspapers and books; and they know corrected versions will be replaced by another, re-corrected one. Their goal is to make people forget everything- facts, words, dead people, the names of places. How far they succeed in obliterating the past is not fully established in Orwell's description; clearly they try hard and they score impressive results. The ideal of complete oblivion may not have been reached, yet further progress is to be expressed (Kolakowski 126). Winston and Julia are workers at the Ministry of Truth. Winston gets more mentally involved in his work than Julia. "Winston Smith and his fellows at the Ministry of Truth spend their days rewriting the past: Most of the material you were dealing with had no connection with anything in the real world, not even the kind of connection that is contained in a direct lie'" ("George Orwell"). Winston is not as strong mentally as Julia. His work affects him more. The Ministry of Truth is like a totalitarian country, because it has ways to scare its citizens. People guilty of crimes are erased from having ever existed. "Your name was removed from the registers, every record of your existence was denied and then forgotten" (Orwell 19). Again people were taken away without any rights. ". there was no trial no report of arrest" (19). The actual purpose of the Ministry of Truth is to spread lies and to have control over its citizens using memory erasing techniques. ". the distinction between true and false in their usual meaning has disappea red. This is the great cognitive triumph of totalitarianism: it cannot be accused of lying any longer since it has succeeded in abrogating the very idea of truth (Kolakowski 127). These same control techniques are used by totalitarian nations that seek control over there citizens. The Ministry of Truth is a complete contradiction of itself. A Ministry of Truth should not change past occurrences or say people never existed. It should exemplify the truth and not erase records of the existence of people. The Ministry of Love is where all criminals are tortured, rehabilitated, then set free or killed. As soon as Winston is captured he knows he is going to the Ministry of Love. The Ministry of Love was the really frightening one. There were no windows in it at all. Winston had never been inside the Ministry of Love, nor within half a kilometer of it. It was a place impossible to enter except on offical business, and then only by penetrating throu gh a maze of barbed-wire entanglements, steel doors, and hidden machine-gun nests. Even the streets leading up to its outer barriers were roamed by gorilla-faced guards in black uniforms, armed with jointed truncheons (Orwell 8). In a totalitarian state something resembling a Ministry of Love is common place. It's a place where the government can inflict pain on its subjects for crimes big and small. That is how totalitarian nations keep, power over their citizens-- by fear of pain. The name Ministry of Love is a contradiction of itself. Its name shows a feeling of love and warmth, but in actuality it's the complete opposite. It's a place of hate and pain and is cold and dark. A better name for it would be the Ministry of Hate. George Orwell lived during a time when Europe was in a period of rebuilding after World War II. During that time Soviets gained six nations as satellites. England was helpless and had to worry about their own problems and had to watch the Soviet Union take control of half of Germany. The leader of the Soviet Union, Stalin, closely resembles Big Brother. They were both larger than life figures in there respective countries. In the Soviet Union you could easily have found large posters with Stalin's face on them. The same holds true in 1984; Big Brother's face is everywhere. A famous quote from 1984 is "Big Brother is watching you" (Orwell 5). Meaning if his Thought Police don't catch you, his telescreens and hidden microphones would. In the Soviet Union, Stalin's K.G.B. sought criminals who plotted against the government. In Stalin's regime over 10 million people were killed. In 1984 hundreds of criminals were killed daily. Another aspect of the 1940's were the new broadcast T.V.'s and mainframe computers. The new technologies could be used for means of control. Orwell saw communist countries using these technologies for control ("George Orwell"). This is where Orwell's idea of telescreens and hidden microphones came from. Before World War II, Orwell had his worst encounter with communists. While Orwell was in the Spanish Civil War, he was running away from Soviet communists who were trying to kill him. After that experience he got out of the army and became a writer full time. "Another shock to Orwell was when the Nazi-Soviet pact signaled the breakdown and the beginning of the mental and emotional state out of which grew Animal Farm and 1984"(Greenblast 105). Orwell may of have extracted what he saw in his world while writing but it was done to get people's attention of problems in the existing world. "Orwell's primary purpose is to distort disturbing conditions tendencies and habits of thought that he saw existing in the world"("George Orwell"). Orwell saw, the whole world steadily moving toward a vast ruthless tyranny. He felt nothing could stop it's monstrous progress. 1984, in spite of its setting in the future, is not primarily a utopian fantasy prophesying what the world will be like in thirty or forty years but a novel about what the world is like now (Greenblast 112). Orwell always relates characters in his books to points of view and real people. In Animal Farm every farm animal represents a person in the Soviet Union. In 1984, Orwell represents his point of view in Winston. He shows a totalitarian leader, in O'Brien and Big Brother, while Julia is the desire and lust in every human being. George Orwell had deep resentment against totalitarianism and what it stood for. He saw the problem of totalitarianism in his existing world. He also understood how the problem could fester and become larger due to instability in Europe's economy after World War II. He purposely makes the story, 1984, unrealistic and blown out of proportion to capture people's attention and make them think maybe it wouldn't be unrealistic in the near future. With his deep resentment toward totalitarianism it became the focal point of his novels. George Orwell's, novels were directed toward against totalitarianism and for Socialism and what it stood for. 1984, Bibliography Andrews, Paul. "1984 Plus 10." The Seattle Times 6 March 1994: A1+. Black, David. "Wider Still and Wider" European 25 October 1991: 8-9. Daley, Alan L. George Orwell, Writer and Critic of Modern Society. Charlottesville: Samhar Press, 1974. Deutscher, Isaac. "1984-The Mysticsm of Cruelty." George Orwell, A Collection of Critical Essays. Ed. Raymond Williams. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1974. 119- 132. "George Orwell" Discovering Authors. 1993 ed. Gale Research Inc. 1993. Greenblast, Stephen J. "Orwell as Satirist." George Orwell, ACollection Of Critical Essays. Ed. Raymond Williams. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1974. 103-118. Huber, Peter. "Bye -Bye, Big Brother." National Review 15 August 1994: 48-50. Kolakowski, Leszek. "Totalitarianism and the virtue of the Lie." 1984 Revisited, Totalitarianism In Our Century. Ed. Irving Howe. New York: Harper and Row, 1983. 122-136. Leyden, Peter. "On the Digital Age: Dawn of a Second Renaissance" Star Tribune 25 June 1995: 1t+. Orwell, George. 1984. New York: The New American Library Inc. 1983. Reilly, Patrick. Nineteen Eighty-Four, Past, Present, and Future. Boston G.K. Hall and Co. 1989. Stansky, Peter and William Abrahams. Orwell: The Transformation. London: Gramala Publishing Limited, 1981. Tucker, Robert C. "Does Big Brother Really Exist?" 1984 Revisited, Totalitarianism In Your Century. Ed. Irving Howe, New York: Harper and Row, 1983. 89-103. Verity, John W. "Why Big Brother Isn't Watching You." Business Week 9 January, 1995: 15- 16. Weight, Richard. "Return To Albion, Intellectuals in Wartime Britain." History Today. December 1994: 37-43.

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