How To Cite An Encyclopedia Article In A Research Paper - Homework for you

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How To Cite An Encyclopedia Article In A Research Paper

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How to Cite a Website in a Research Paper

How to Cite a Website in a Research Paper

Carrying out research for a paper or for some other purpose used to be a very cumbersome and painstaking process before the advent of the Internet. But the dawn of the world wide web and the presence of millions of websites displaying information has made this task so simple and easy, that the time it takes for research has become almost minimal now. Knowing the right way of citing a website is very important though, as failure to do so can bring a lot of trouble in the form of copyright infringements.

The material and data that is present over the Internet is widely accessible to anyone with a net connection. In a matter of minutes you can have information regarding any subject at your fingertips. All this matter and data is intellectual property, and the possibilities of plagiarism have never been higher. When a student is preparing a research paper this concept takes up even more importance.

At the end of every research paper a bibliography must be included that accurately states the sources where the information has been gathered from. This is a rule that complies to all forms of research papers and projects in every field of study.

Citing a Website APA Style
The American Psychological Association (APA) style is a popular style of documentation that is used in many fields of social sciences. This is a general set of rules and guidelines that govern the format of any form of documentation, and set down the rules for presenting the data and for accurately stating the sources of such data. The following is a brief description of the right way to cite a website properly in APA style.
  • The name of the author must be mentioned first, starting from the left margin. The author's first name must be shown after his last name.
  • Leaving a space in between, the year of the articles publication must be mentioned in parentheses.
  • Next comes the title of the article, with no quotation marks, or italics text.
  • Next will come the name of the website, written in italics text.
  • Now comes the date that you visited the website on. This date must be in mm/dd/yy format.
  • Lastly, the URL of the webpage must be added.
Upon completion, the entire citation will look something like this―Thadani, Rahul (2010) How to Cite a Website in a Research Paper www.buzzle.com 01/06/10 "http://www.buzzle.com/articles/how-to-cite-a-website-in-a-research-paper.html". Citing a Website MLA Style
The MLA style is another academic style of writing research papers and showing documentation that is widely used in North America. The Modern Language Association of America came up with this style in 1985. Given below are the prescribed guidelines about citing a website within a paper using MLA style.
  • First comes the name of the author, right next to the left margin. The last name of the author should mandatorily precede the first name.
  • Leaving a space after the author's name, the title of the webpage must be mentioned in double quotations. Do not confuse this with the name of the website.
  • Next comes the title of the website, either in double quotations, or in italics. Alternately, the title can also be placed under the author's name.
  • Immediately after the title, the published date of the information must be mentioned.
  • If the data has been gathered from an academic website, there will be a publisher's name that you also need to mention. This name will come after the date of publishing.
  • After the name of the publisher you need to mention the date on which you visited the website. Keeping a space between each subsequent citation is crucial.
  • Lastly, the URL of the webpage must also be placed to complete the citation.
Once the entire citation is complete it must look something like this―Thadani, Rahul "How to Cite a Website in a Research Paper" "www.buzzle.com" 6 January 2010 "http://www.buzzle.com/articles/how-to-cite-a-website-in-a-research-paper.html".

Note that both these styles come into play only when the name of the author is clearly mentioned in the article. Some pages do not contain the name of the author, and this makes the task in APA style or MLA style fairly difficult. In such cases, simply putting the title of the article, the website, the date of visiting, and the URL of the page will be sufficient.

This should not be ignored or taken lightly under any circumstances. First of all it increases the credibility of the researcher and the student, and secondly, it protects the student from violating any copyright laws or any other laws protecting intellectual property.

Last Updated: September 23, 2011

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Chicago Documentation Style

Bibliography The bibliography, placed at the end of your paper, is an alphabetized list of books, articles, and other sources used in writing the paper. The word bibliography has many meanings, and if often used to describe all the works written on a particular subject. When you title this section of your paper, use one of these:
  • Selected Bibliography (if you list all of the sources you consulted in writing your paper)
  • Works Cited or References (if you list only the items you actually cited in your paper).
Contents of this page Formatting your bibliography While notes and bibliographies contain much of the same information, bibliographic form differs from note form in these ways:
  • Notes are numbered; bibliographies are alphabetized. The author's last name appears first (Smith, Betty) in a bibliography.
  • Notes use commas and parentheses to separate items; a bibliography uses periods. (Put one space—not two—after each period in a bibliographic entry.)
  • Notes indicate specific pages from which you took information; a bibliography lists entire books or a complete chapter or article to which you referred.
  • The first line of each note is indented 5 spaces and subsequent lines return to the left margin. The first line of a bibliographic entry begins at the left margin and all the other lines are indented 5 spaces.

In either note or bibliographic form, if the author's name or the title (or other item) is missing, simply go on to the next item as it should appear. When alphabetizing, use the author's last name for your entry; if it is not given, simply go on to the next item in order (the title of the book or article, for example) and use that to alphabetize the entry.

Sample bibliography

A sample bibliography follows. Notice the form and order of the entries as well as the punctuation and arrangement within the entries. (Don't use boxes around each entry, however.) The entries are the same as those used in the notes.

Boyer, Paul S. Purity in Print: Book Censorship in America from the Gilded Age to the Computer Age. 2nd ed. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2002.

"Charles R. Van Hise." In Wikipedia. Last modified May 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_R._Van_Hise.

Child, Julia, Louisette Bertholle, and Simone Beck. Mastering the Art of French Cooking. New York: Knopf, 1961.

CIA World Factbook. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2009.

Congressional Record. 71st Cong. 2d sess. 1930, vol. 72 pt. 10.

Davidson, Richard. Interview by author. Madison, WI, 20 April 2012.

Dunlavy, Colleen. "Why Did American Businesses Get So Big?" In Major Problems in American Business History. edited by Regina Blaszczyk and Philip Scranton. New York: Houghton-Mifflin, 2006. 257-263.

Morris-Jones, John. "Wales." In Encyclopedia Britannica. 11th ed. New York: Encyclopedia Britannica Company, 1911. 258-270.

Gates, Henry Louis, and Nellie Y. McKay, eds. The Norton Anthology of African American Literature. New York: Norton, 1997.

Geller, Anne Ellen, Michele Eodice, Frankie Condon, Meg Carroll, and Elizabeth H. Boquet. The Everyday Writing Center. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 2007.

Johnson, Kirk. "Health Care Is Spread Thin on Alaskan Frontier." New York Times. May 28, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/29/us/health-care-in-vast-alaska-frontier-is-spread-thin.html?hpw&_r=0.

Lindberg, Sara M. "Gender-Role Identity Development During Adolescence: Individual, Familial, and Social Contextual Predictors of Gender Intensification." Ph.D. diss. University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2008.

Marshall, Nancy Rose. Review of Joseph Crawhill, 1861-1913, One of the Glasgow Boys. Victorian Studies 42 (1999/2000): 358-60.

Marwell, Gerald, and Pamela Oliver. The Critical Mass in Collective Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Marshall, Tyler. "200th Birthday of Grimms Celebrated." Los Angeles Times. 15 March 1985, sec. 1A, p. 3.

Neville, Leonora. Authority in Byzantine Provincial Society, 950-1100. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Reprint, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Nadler, Steven. A Book Forged in Hell: Spinoza's Scandalous Treatise and the Birth of the Secular Age. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011.

Sánchez, Raúl. "Outside the Text: Retheorizing Empiricism and Identity," College English 74 (2012): 234-246.

Shakespeare, William. Othello. Milwaukee Repertory Theater, Milwaukee, April 2012.

Soderbergh, Steven, director. Che. DVD. New York: Criterion Collection, 2008.

United Nations. "Human Rights." Accessed May 29, 2013. http://www.un.org/en/globalissues/humanrights/.

Wandel, Lee Palmer. "Setting the Lutheran Eucharist." Journal of Early Modern History 17 (1998): 124-55. doi: 10.1163/157006598X00135.

Zukofsky, Louis. "Sincerity and Objectification." Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269. Quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981), 78.

[If you cite Costello elsewhere (other than as the secondary source of Zukofsky), you should also include Costello in your list of works cited.]

Bibliography entry: Book 1 author, first edition

Nadler, Steven. A Book Forged in Hell: Spinoza's Scandalous Treatise and the Birth of the Secular Age. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011.

1 author, later edition

Boyer, Paul S. Purity in Print: Book Censorship in America from the Gilded Age to the Computer Age. 2nd ed. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2002.

1 author, reprinted book

Neville, Leonora. Authority in Byzantine Provincial Society, 950-1100. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Reprint, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

2 authors

Marwell, Gerald, and Pamela Oliver. The Critical Mass in Collective Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

3 authors

Child, Julia, Louisette Bertholle, and Simone Beck. Mastering the Art of French Cooking. New York: Knopf, 1961.

More than 3 authors

Geller, Anne Ellen, Michele Eodice, Frankie Condon, Meg Carroll, and Elizabeth H. Boquet. The Everyday Writing Center. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 2007.

No author

CIA World Factbook. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2009.

Anthology with editors in place of authors

Gates, Henry Louis, and Nellie Y. McKay, eds. The Norton Anthology of African American Literature. New York: Norton, 1997.

Chapter in an edited collection

Dunlavy, Colleen. "Why Did American Businesses Get So Big?" In Major Problems in American Business History. edited by Regina Blaszczyk and Philip Scranton. New York: Houghton-Mifflin, 2006. 257-263.

Article Article in a journal

Sánchez, Raúl. "Outside the Text: Retheorizing Empiricism and Identity." College English 74 (2012): 234-246.

Book review

Marshall, Nancy Rose. Review of Joseph Crawhill, 1861-1913, One of the Glasgow Boys. Victorian Studies 42 (1999/2000): 358-60.

Newspaper article

Marshall, Tyler. "200th Birthday of Grimms Celebrated." Los Angeles Times. 15 March 1985, sec. 1A, p. 3.

Encyclopedia

The Chicago Manual of Style suggests that well-known encyclopedias should be cited in notes rather than in bibliographies. These examples demonstrate how to compose a bibliographic reference for encylopedia entries that are known to be written by a specific author and for entries by no known author.

Morris-Jones, John. "Wales." In Encyclopedia Britannica. 11th ed. New York: Encyclopedia Britannica Company, 1911. 258-270.

"Charles R. Van Hise." In Wikipedia. Last modified May 9, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_R._Van_Hise.

Interview by writer of research paper

Davidson, Richard. Interview by author. Madison, WI, April 20, 2012.

Secondary source

Zukofsky, Louis. "Sincerity and Objectification." Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269. Quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981), 78.

[If you cite Costello elsewhere (other than as the secondary source of Zukofsky), you should also include Costello in your list of works cited.]

Performance or DVD Live performance

Shakespeare, William. Othello. Milwaukee Repertory Theater, Milwaukee, April 2012.

DVD

Soderbergh, Steven, director. Che. DVD. New York: Criterion Collection, 2008.

Dissertation

Lindberg, Sara M. "Gender-Role Identity Development During Adolescence: Individual, Familial, and Social Contextual Predictors of Gender Intensification." PhD diss. University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2008.

Lecture

Young, Morris. "What Is Asian American? What is Asian American Literature?" Lecture for Survey of Asian American Literature, University of Wisconsin-Madison, January 22, 2013.

Conference presentation

Roberts, Mary Louise. "The Public Practice of History in and for a Digital Age." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Historical Association, New Orleans, January 3, 2013.

Government document

Congressional Record. 71st Cong. 2d sess. 1930, vol. 72 pt. 10.

Online Source Online source that is identical to a print source

Wandel, Lee Palmer. "Setting the Lutheran Eucharist." Journal of Early Modern History 17 (1998): 124-55. doi: 10.1163/157006598X00135.

Online newspaper

Johnson, Kirk. "Health Care Is Spread Thin on Alaskan Frontier." New York Times. May 28, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/29/us/health-care-in-vast-alaska-frontier-is-spread-thin.html?hpw&_r=0.

Website

United Nations. "Human Rights." Accessed May 29, 2013. http://www.un.org/en/globalissues/humanrights/.

Citing Styles - MLA Documentation

MLA Documentation

Try our animated tutorial that explains the why and how of MLA documentation in a visual way.

Note: This has the MLA rules from the 7th edition of the MLA Handbook, 2009.

When you use the words or original ideas of another person in your writing, you need to document, or give credit to, the sources of those words or ideas. These are called citations.

If exact words from the original are used, quotation marks are necessary. If you paraphrase, or restate the idea in your own words, quotation marks are not required, but a citation of the source is still required. There are several different formats for documentation. This page explains the MLA format (named for the Modern Language Association, which developed it). In this format, you briefly identify your sources in the text of your paper, then give the full information in the "works cited" list at the end of the paper. This handout is based on MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York: MLA, 2009. Print.

How to document quotations and paraphrasing is explained first, then how to do the "works cited " list is explained.

Parenthetical Documentation

In the MLA format, "parenthetical documentation" is used to briefly identify the sources of information you have borrowed in writing your paper. Parenthetical documentation should be integrated smoothly into the text of your paper, rather than listed separately.

  • The general rule is to cite the source right in the text of your paper. If the reader wants to get more information, they go to the Works Cited list at the end of your paper.

If the author's name is mentioned in your writing (this is called a "signal phrase"), you only need to put the page number in parentheses at the end of the sentence. The reader can then consult the list of Works Cited (explained below) at the end of the paper to get the complete citation.

NOTE: Some sources, especially those on the Web, do not give page numbers. The general rule is to use a section number if it is given; otherwise just use the author name or, if no author is given, the first words of the title.
Ross Parke notes that "natural fathers aren't the only ones raising children on their own. As more families split up, social workers note that stepfathers increasingly are being called on to bring up other people's kids" (52).

According to Bernard Farber in Encyclopedia Americana. there is a trend toward waiting to marry and toward postponing the birth of the first child (6).

According to the web site Our Fathers. "Almost 20 percent of fathers ask for child custody after divorce."
  • You may decide not to highlight the source of some of your derived information. In such cases, at the end of the sentence enclose in parantheses both the author's last name and the page referred to. The reader can then consult the list of Works Cited at the end of the paper to get the complete citation.
    At the turn of the century many men worked long hours, which "entailed their absence from the family for most of the day: that was not a rejection of fatherhood but a necessary element of it" (McKee and O'Brien 54). Child support payments can be withheld from wages in 45 states (Schorr 33).
  • For publications with no author given, you should include the first 2-3 key words from the title and the page number in parentheses.
    "Fathers today no longer know who they are or what their wives and children expect from them" ("Fathers Confused" 5), and this increases the likelihood they will abandon their families.
  • If possible, you should quote or paraphrase material from the original source. but if you do use material that is within someone else's work, include the abbreviation qtd. in ("quoted in") and then refer to the source where you got the information. Use qtd. in even if it's a paraphrase and not a quote.
    Dr. Ann Rudolph contends that fathers who bond with their infant children are more likely to maintain lifelong contact (qtd. in Parke 112).

  • DO I HAVE TO CITE EVERYTHING?

    One of the hardest parts of documentation is deciding how far to go in citing sources. If you mention that Los Angeles suffered an earthquake in January 1994, do you have to show where that information came from? No. This is considered "common knowledge," even if you didn't know on your own. This can get tricky. When in doubt it is probably a good idea to include the a citation. Ask a librarian or your instructor for advice on specific situations.

    A list of works cited has all the sources that contributed ideas and information to your paper. (It is the same as a "bibliography.") It is arranged in alphabetical order by the authors' last names or, if the source doesn't list an author, by the first word of the title (ignore "A," "An," and "The"). The following sample works cited list is in correct order.

    If you have a type of source not covered in the examples below, ask the librarian to show you the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th edition, or go to the MLA's web site (although not many details are given there).


    SAMPLE - All sources are integrated into one list, arrange alphabetically.
    Typing should be double-spaced, with the second line of an entry indented 5 spaces.

    Box, Scott. "One Father's Unique Perspective." Newsweek 5 Mar. 2009: 38. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 12
    Feb. 2013.
    "Parent." Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2015. Web. 13 Mar. 2015.
    Parke, Ross. Fathers. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000. Print.
    Schorr, Burt, Jr. "States Cracking Down on Fathers Dodging Child-Support Payments." Wall Street Journal
    26 Jan. 2015, eastern ed. 33. Print.
    Sheppard, Lisa. "Father Involvement Shows Positive Outcomes." Urban Programs Resource Network .
    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Apr. 2014. Web. 29 May 2015.

    How to format the works cited page

    Two ways to do "hanging indent" for entries in Microsoft Word:

    When the ruler is visible, select the text you want indented, then drag lower margin marker to right a half inch. OR.

    In the "Paragraph" menu, select "Hanging indent."


    Top of page and sides have 1" margins

    The most BASIC RULES for works cited entries are:

    BOOKS

    Last name, First name of author. Title of book. City where published: Name of Publisher, year published. Print.

    PRINT MAGAZINES

    Last name, First name of author (if given). "Title of Article." Name of Magazine Date of issue: page numbers. Print.

    MAGAZINE ARTICLE FROM LIBRARY ONLINE DATABASE

    Last name, First name of author (if given). "Title of Article." Name of Magazine Date of issue: page numbers. Name of Database.

    Web. Date of Access.

    WEB PAGES

    These have several factors that can affect the citations; see section below for examples.

    Other Rules For other than "public" web pages. when required information is not given: In the spot where the information should be, put the following abbreviations:
    • No date of publication - n.d.
    • No place of publication or no publisher - n.p.
    • No page number - n.pag.
    A second work by the same author: Instead of repeating the author's name in the works cited list for the second entry, put 3 hyphens and a period (---.) and alphabetize as if the name were spelled out.


    There are many variations for Works Cited entries. Look at the examples for print, video, and web sources below.

    Remember, the following examples are not in the order you will list sources.
    Your list will be one alphabetical list.

    The Work Cited List Examples

    A works cited list has all the sources mentioned in your paper, arranged in alphabetical order by the authors' last names or, if a source doesn't list an author, by the first word of the title (ignore a, an, and the ). If you have a type of source not covered in the examples below, ask the librarian to show you the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers . 7th ed. New York: MLA, 2009.

    Reference List Examples by Type of Source
    • When two dates are listed in a citation for an online source, the first one is the publication date; the second is when you accessed it.
    ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLES

    Website (Give the specific page's title in quotation marks, then general title of web site in italics. Give publisher after that.)

    Sheppard, Lisa. "Father Involvement Shows Positive Outcomes."
    Urban Programs Resource Network. University of Illinois
    at Urbana-Champaign, Apr. 2014. Web. 29 May 2015.

    Website with "missing" information (Often all the information asked for in the above example isn't there. Here there was no author or overall web site name or publisher or publication date.)

    Why Fathers Are Getting Child Custody More. N.p. n.d. Web. 30
    June 2014.

    United States. Dept. of Education. Choices for Parents. 9 Oct. 2008.
    Web. 11 Nov. 2011.

    Twitter (Use real name followed by Twitter name in parentheses. Next, place the tweet in its entirety in quotations, inserting a period (a question mark in this example) after the tweet within the quotations. Include the date and time of posting, using the reader's time zone).

    Kim, Sally (WorkingMom). "Why are men who help take care of kids
    called special but for women it's expected?" 22 Jan. 2012,
    3:06 a.m. Tweet.

    INTERVIEWS AND IMAGES

    Vargas, Carmen. Personal interview. 8 Nov. 2014.
    Jensen, Alfred. Interview by Jiyai Shin. Nightline. ABC. KVUE, Austin, TX.
    24 May 2013. Television.

    Online Image (Prado Museum listed once as the location and again as the publisher.)

    Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. 1800. Museo Nacional del Prado,
    Madrid. Museo National del Prado. Web. 22 May 2015.

    Format Of The Research Paper

    This sample research paper shows the MLA rules on how a paper should look:
    Title, page numbers, works cited list, etc.

    Get Help from a Human

    You can get help from a librarian by e-mailing redwass@austincc.edu or by calling, during weekday business hours, 512 223-3074. Or get help from any ACC librarian .

    Last update 2-8-16 rw

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    Student - s Guide to Citation Styles for Research Papers

    Home » Resources for Students and Professionals » Student’s Guide to Citation Styles for Research Papers

    Student’s Guide to Citation Styles for Research Papers

    Whenever conducting research to write a paper, it is important to document all sources. Citations give credibility and authority by showing proof of your research. References help readers understand how you came to your conclusions and they support your ideas.

    Citing resources will also avoid plagiarism, by crediting to those who provided the research used to create a paper.

    When to Cite a Source

    Include a citation whenever you can. If you are not sure whether or not to cite a source, cite it. You should reference and cite whenever you:

    • Quote directly from a source.
    • Summarize or paraphrase another writer’s ideas, concepts or opinions.
    • Anywhere you find data, facts and information used in your paper.
    • Images, visuals, graphs and charts you use in your work.
    When Not to Cite a Source

    You do not have to cite your source if the information you use is common knowledge. For example, the first African American President of the U.S. is Barack Obama; however, if you aren’t sure if it is common knowledge or not, go ahead and cite it, just to be safe.

    The Main Types of Sources

    There are three main types of sources: primary, secondary and peer-reviewed.

    Primary sources may be in their original form or digitized, or reprinted or reproduced in some form. They are first-hand accounts of an event or period in history, or original documents. Primary sources include:

    • Texts – Novels, letters, diaries, government reports, newspaper articles and autobiographies. Images – Paintings, photographs and advertisements.
    • Artifacts – Sculptures, buildings and clothing.
    • Audio-Visual – Oral history like interviews, songs, films and photos.
    1. Secondary

    Secondary sources are written about primary sources and are one or more steps away from the original source. They include discussions, comments and interpretations regarding the primary source or original material. Examples of secondary source materials are as follows:

    • Articles from magazines, journals and newspapers.
    • Textbooks, histories and encyclopedias.
    • Book, play, concert and movie reviews, criticisms and commentaries.
    • Articles from scholarly journals that assess or discuss the original research of others.
    1. Peer Reviewed

    Usually published as an article in a medical or professional publication, such as a journal, a peer-reviewed source undergoes multiple critiques by top scholars in a particular field. Peer-reviewed articles offer authoritative information of the highest quality that scholarly disciplines can provide. Peer-reviewed and scholarly articles have these characteristics:

    • List the journal of publication and author credentials.
    • Are an abstract from a larger publication.
    • Include a large amount of in-text citations, references, endnotes, footnotes and cited works, as well as a bibliography and appendix.
    • Contain sections like methodology, conclusion and results.
    • Have numerous in-text tables, charts and graphs.
    • Use complex wording specific to the field.
    How to Cite

    Cite your sources both in-text and at the end of your paper. For in-text citation, the easiest method is to parenthetically give the author’s last name and the year of publication, e.g. (Clarke 2001), but the exact way you cite will depend on the specific type of style guide you follow.

    When you cite data from another author’s work, explain all related aspects of the work clearly and concisely using your own words. Always provide a reference to the work directly following the information you have provided.

    Most colleges and organizations use a variety of citation styles. The citation style often depends on the professor, so always check before beginning a paper. No matter what the style you use for citing your paper, the process is always the same:

    • Consult the appropriate style guide for examples of how to produce in-text citations, reference lists and bibliographies.
    • Some style guides are available via citation software that helps track sources for the use in creating bibliographies, in-text citations and reference lists.
    • Use one standard style in a consistent manner throughout the entire paper.

    Researchers and writers should understand some of the following styles:

    The American Psychology Association – Use this style for education, psychology, sociology and other social sciences.

    • Example of APA style for a book with one author:

    Doe, J. (1999). Causes of the Civil War. Ohio: Smith Books.

    Modern Language Association – Use this style for arts, literature and the humanities.

    • Example of MLA style for a book with one author:

    Doe, John: “Causes of the Civil War.” Smith.

    • MLA 2009 Formatting and Style Guide. Available online from The Owl at Purdue, with many examples for producing works cited entries and in-text footnotes.
    • MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. Available online from The Owl at Purdue, contains examples.

    American Medical Association or the National Library of Medicine for health, medicine and biological sciences.

    • Example of AMA for a book with one author:

    Doe JD. Causes of the Civil War. Columbus, OH: Smith Books; 1999.

    • Example of NLM for a book with one author:

    Doe, JD. Causes of the Civil War. Columbus (OH): Smith Books; 1999.

    Students and researchers commonly use the Chicago Manual of Style guide, or Turabian, for most real-world subjects in magazines, books, newspapers and many other non-scholarly publications.

    • Example of Chicago style for a book with one author:

    Doe, John. 1999. Causes of the Civil War. Columbus, Ohio:

    There are a variety of scientific style guides depending on the particular field, whether it be biology, chemistry, engineering.

    • Example of Scientific Style for a book with one author:

    John D. Doe. Causes of the Civil War. Columbus (OH): Smith Press: 1999.

    • ACS. American Chemical Society
      • ACS Style Guidelines. Available online from UW-Madison Libraries, providing examples for citing references in the text and the bibliography of a research paper.
    • IEEE. Institute of Electronics and Electrical Engineers
      • IEEE Editorial Style Manual. An online PDF that provides editorial guidelines for IEEE letters, journals and transactions, with citation examples.
    • The Writer’s Handbook – CSE Citation

    More Citation Examples

    The following resources provide more examples for formatting citations:

    • Citing References Wiki – Maintained by LexisNexis, this guide includes examples from APA, MLA, Chicago and Turabian.
    • Research and Documentation Online – Compiled by Diana Hacker, this guide includes APA, CMS, CSE and MLA styles
    Programs for Creating Citations

    The following resources provide programs to help researchers create citations:

    When using a citation program, always check for errors before inserting them into your reference or works cited page.

    The Annotated Bibliography or Reference Section

    The reference page is also called the annotated bibliography. and it should go at the end of the research paper. The purpose of annotated bibliographies is to link each source to one another in an orderly fashion.

    Here are six key factors for writing an annotation:

    • Clearly state the qualifications and authority of the author early in the annotation. Example:
    • Explain the main purpose and scope of the text in a few brief sentences.This is not like an abstract, which is a synopsis of the entire piece; rather, it is the main theme or concept. Example:
    • Note the relation of the paper to other works in the field. Example:
    • Clarify the author’s main opinion or conclusion in relation to the overall theme. Example:
    • Indicate your target audience and the level of reading difficulty. Example:
    • End with a summary comment. Example:

    For more guidelines on creating an annotated bibliography, see the Purdue OWL: Annotated Bibliographies site, which includes additional sample annotations .

    Adding citations may seem difficult at first; however, the more you practice, the easier it will become for you. By using a style guide and checking examples, citing all your sources is simple and complete.