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Abortion ethics essay

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Ethics on Abortion Essay by

Ethics on Abortion

ETHICS ON ABORTION INTRODUCTION Abortion can be defined as interference of the fetus or unborn child when the child is still in the mother 's womb. This can be done through various ways by mothers who do not want to have their baby. Abortion has been discussed by people especially church leaders regarding on whether to legalize it or not but church leaders strongly oppose abortion. They claim that abortion is contrary to the will of God and it is ethically and morally wrong THEORIES OF ABORTION Egoism-refers to believe that it is rational to act

in once self interest and the perspective of that only ones self exist. Egoism holds that individuals are always supported by the self interest Conventional morality-is a behavior that shows the value of a social. It 's very difficult to measure the value of person or a society with regard to social context. It is in our understanding that moral behavior is more based in the past sayings Utilitarianism-is where a contribution of an action is solely determining the moral of that action. It means that the moral action is directly determined by the outcome of that action. It is a situation where the ends justify the means

THEORIES OF ABORTION Religious ethics-is a duty ethics that deals with wrong and right in the human behavior. The religious have an approach of the ethics in a secular manner. They study it as a branch in theology where they perceive the golden rule which states.

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Abortion essay example

Sample essay on abortion

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Abortion, in its most common usage, refers to the voluntary, or induced, termination of pregnancy, generally through the use of surgical procedures or drugs. As a result, birth does not take place. Medically, the term also refers to the early termination of a pregnancy by natural causes ("spontaneous abortion" or miscarriage), which ends one in five of all pregnancies, usually within the first thirteen weeks, or to the cessation of normal growth of a body part or organ. What follows is a discussion of the issues related to deliberately induced abortion.

Since 1972, the medical definition of pregnancy in the U.S. requires that implantation has already occurred so, technically, emergency contraceptives do not interfere with pregnancy. The controversy arises when one considers that conception occurs before implantation. Some believe the zygote is a human being with the same moral standing of an implanted embryo before pregnancy technically starts. It is for this reason some states in the USA consider abortion illegal because it contributes to the murder of an unborn person. This is one of the few most important reasons why some states prohibit abortion (Baird, 2003).

It is interested to point out that "Morning after" or "emergency" contraceptive drugs that are taken within 72 hours of sex interfere with the release of eggs from the ovary or with fertilization, and so are not generally considered to be forms of abortion. However, in some cases eggs will be released anyway; in these cases, if conceptions occurs the zygote will implant successfully regardless of emergency contraception use. There is no fetotoxic 'backup chemical' found in current formulations of emergency contraception: if ovulation occurs, conception will probably follow and the emergency contraceptive will have failed. Some studies suggest that emergency contraceptives can thicken the uterine mucus and thus interfere with implantation of a zygote, but, if true, this also happens with normal birth control pills taken regularly as well (Denious, 2003). Some institutions or individuals consider use of the morning after pill to be abortions (notably the Roman Catholic Church) because it prevents a fertilized egg from attaching in the uterus. Many states consider abortion as unethical because it has various effects on woman's health that will be illustrated further in the essay.

In order to better understand the effects of abortion on mothers please refer to them as expressed below:

The exact risk and type of complications depend on the abortion method as well as the clinical and hygienic conditions. Studies found that the risk of serious physical complications of an abortion is less than 1%. In countries where abortion is illegal and women are forced to go to back-street abortionists serious physical complications such as infections, bleeding, and even fatal injuries are much higher.

The Abortion-Breast Cancer (ABC) debate centers around the fact that during early pregnancy hormone levels increase significantly. This initiates cellular differentiation (growth) in the breast preparing for lactation. The ABC theory is if the pregnancy is aborted prior to full differentiation in the third trimester this could leave more "vulnerable" cells than prior to the pregnancy; resulting in an elevated risk of breast cancer. Regardless of the debate over the Abortion-Breast Cancer Link, as of November 2004, women seeking abortions in Mississippi must first sign a form indicating they've been told abortion can increase their risk of breast cancer. I will add here that In Texas, Louisiana, and Kansas, state law requires women receive a pamphlet that suggests a cancer link with abortion. Similar legislation requiring notification has also been introduced, and is pending, in 14 other states. It should be noted, that because abortion is considered as harmful to women's health, many states that as shown above gradually attempt to educate their females responsible parenthood and prohibit abortion altogether.

Abortion has been associated with increased risk of depression. According to a study of 1,884 women conducted by the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, women who did not carry their first pregnancies to term are 65% more likely to be diagnosed with clinical depression around eight years later (De Puv, 2004). However, other studies did not support that depression may be caused by abortion. For example, a study of 2,525 women revealed that women who had an abortion were more likely to report depression or lower satisfaction with their lives. However, they also often reported rape, childhood physical and sexual abuse, and violent partners. After controlling for the history of abuse, partner characteristics, and background variables, abortion was not related to poorer mental health (Alcorn, 2003).

Throughout history abortion has long been a controversial subject due to its moral and ethical implications. It has been regularly banned and otherwise limited, though illegal abortions have continued to be commonplace in many areas regardless of the legal status. Almost 2/3 of the world's women currently reside in countries where abortion may be obtained on request or for a broad range of social, economic or personal reasons (Baird, 2003). Abortion laws vary widely by country, with some countries allowing nearly total liberalization, and others banning abortion under any circumstances. There are also countries that do not have any laws restricting abortion, such as Canada.

In the USA abortion has been a bitterly-fought battle in politics. Opponents of abortion are usually termed Pro-Life, while proponents of abortion rights are usually termed Pro-Choice. The United States Supreme Court is largely considered the gatekeeper of abortion rights in the United States, and as a result, the possibility of the balance of the Court shifting towards a more conservative body became an issue in the 2004 US Presidential Election.

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Abortion ethics - Essay by Furious_351

Abortion ethics Essay

Below is an essay on "Abortion ethics" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.

It is true that irreconcilable differences can exist on bioethical issues. In the case of abortion, this is due in part to our starting premise not always being the same. Should the rights and concerns of women or the rights and concerns of the foetus prevail? It would seem that the value of life itself put forward by the Pro-Life or Anti-Abortion lobby is at loggerheads with the value of autonomy- the rights granted to each person to determine what happens to their own bodies. In this paper I will examine various perspectives on the abortion dilemma and then purport an argument to support abortion but with certain limitations in relations to its implementation and legal procedures.

Abortion means the termination of a pregnancy but this paper will deal with situations where a conscious and wilful decision is made to terminate a pregnancy. It can be often be classified according to the time on the pregnancy at which it occurs.

Kerridge, Lowe and McPhee (2005) acknowledge that the abortion debate is often seen as a polarisation between the foetus’s right to life and the autonomy of the right of the women and that “our ability to resolve this conflict appear entirely hopeless. But each of these positions is over simplistic, and studies reveal that few people actually hold such one-sided views”.

Several viewpoints exist in relation to the abortion dilemma. In the conservative position the right to life of the foetus is the overriding factor and that it is intrinsically wrong to do away with it. This deontological approach tries to apply a universal rule to cover specific situations. Some moderate conservatives would argue that abortion is justified in the situation such as rape or when the mother’s life is in danger. Kerridge et al refers to this as the “double effect.” So even in these extreme cases the rights of the foetus are seen as differing from the rights of other humans.

The liberal viewpoint for abortion sees the woman’s right to choose as a.

Ethics On Abortion Essay

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The Ethics Of Abortion
The Ethics of Abortion Abortion is a very controversial subject that has been continually argued over for the past few years and probably many years to come.

Abortion from an ethical point of view “ ;Describe and evaluate any two contrasting theoretical approaches to the moral debate of abortion.” ;* * * It is widely accepted that the fact of abortion has been a subject of conversation and controversy for many decades. Since the proportion of people who accept abortion as a ‘normal’ ;procedure is equal to the proportion of those who think of abortion as a ‘crime’, through time a lot of measurements have been

The Ethics of Abortion
Abortion is a very controversial subject that has been continually argued over for the past few years and probably many years to come. The main controversy is.

taken against abortion but concerning it’s defense as well. Although the fact of abortion has been examined through it’s scientific and religious side, in this assignment we will try and examine abortion from an ethical point of view. The best way for someone to refer to abortion on an ethical basis would probably be through the description and evaluation of the subject based on two of the most known theoretical approaches: those of Kant’s and of Utilitarianism (Act and Rule).

The Ethics Of Abortion
Abortion is a very controversial subject that has been continually argued over for the past few years and probably many years to come. The main controversy is should abortion be.

Beginning with the approach of Utilitarianism, we must say that Utilitarianism, is concerned basically with pleasure and with pain. Therefore someone should be concerned with the amounts of pleasure and pain in situations where abortion is permitted as contrasted with the amounts of pleasure and pain where abortion is forbidden. It might be suggested that the main consideration would be the interests of the fetus: not only can its future life be expectedly happy (or at least having a balance

The Ethics Of Abortion
Abortion is a very controversial subject that has been continually argued over for the past few years and probably many years to come. The main controversy is should abortion be.

of happiness over suffering) it might also be the case that the abortion itself is painful, particularly if it occurs later in the pregnancy. However this focus on the fetus is unwarranted since any suffering involved in the abortion itself can be avoided by simply aborting the pregnancy sooner (before the fetus has even developed the capability of suffering), or with painless techniques. The direct suffering of the fetus can therefore be no argument against abortion generally, only the bad

Ethics On Abortion
Abortion from an ethical point of view “ ;Describe and evaluate any two contrasting theoretical approaches to the moral debate of abortion.” ;* * * It is widely accepted.

practice of it. A more significant consideration exists if we hypothesize that the future life of the fetus involves a probable balance of happiness over suffering for the fetus. This would seem to be a definite point against abortion, though not, a dominant one. The second party that we should consider are the parents and other family, and guardians if the alternative to abortion is adoption. According to some studies, having a baby appears to decrease the happiness in a

Abortion Ethics
On the question of abortion being moral, the answer is clearly that terminating a fetus' life under certain circumstances is not only moral, but it is also our responsibility to.

relationship - even in those cases where the pregnancy is desired. But again, this need not be considered too much, it is not a dominant consideration. As is the case with many issues in a utilitarian system, the rightness or wrongness of the act in question turns mainly not on the effects of the act on the agent, nor on the beings directly affected by the act, but on the less direct effects on the community at large. That means

Ethics and ABortion
Nicole Brockway Philosophy Professor Shibles Dec 1999 Ethics and Abortion Since the beginning of time, women have faced oppression in every area of our lives.

that the issue of abortion actually becomes one of the desirability of increasing or decreasing the population. Given that there must be some population size that can be regarded as the “perfect” ;size, if we are allowed to place it this way for a society, it is clear that Utility will ban new births above this amount while below this population size Utility will prescribe reproduction. So the utilitarian, who suggests that the future happiness of the child, combined with

Ethics Of ABortion
Ethics of Abortion The fundamental question that most philosophers agree on when discussing abortion is, “How do you determine the humanity of a being (Noonan, p. 117)?” Or, in other.

the estimated value of the effects on others, is such that Utility opposes abortion, must admit that this would imply that Utility prescribes an increase in population and that this would apply to anyone capable of producing a child. So Utility is generally against abortion only when it is generally for raising the population. In terms of utility, the actual act of abortion is not a particularly significant one. A brief mention must be made of why it is that

Ethics Of Abortion
Ethics of Abortion The fundamental question that most philosophers agree on when discussing abortion is, “How do you determine the humanity of a being (Noonan, p. 117)?” Or, in other.

the relative effects on the community at large are dominant in this issue, and why the other considerations are not. It must be remembered that the raising of a child in a modern developed country has a very large cost in financial terms, which is highly significant. It is well known that the amount required to raise one child in a developed country could probably raise many more in a poorer part of the world. So if increasing the human

Ethics Of Abortion Abortion
The Ethics Of Abortion Abortion is a very controversial subject that has been continually argued over for the past few years and probably many years to come. The main controversy.

population is the aim, this can be achieved more effectively elsewhere. However in these days of increasing environmental pressure and terrible inequality, increasing the human population is not what we should be aiming for. Of course at this point someone could ask him/herself “If everybody became a utilitarian, would the human race become extinct?” ;The answer would be in this case no, because, if everybody were utilitarian, these problems would not exist to the same degree. In utilitarian terms, a

Abortion - The Ethics Of Abortion
Abortion is a very controversial subject that has been continually argued over for the past few years and probably many years to come. The main controversy is should abortion be.

general prescription either for or against reproduction is very hard to justify because each case would have its own relevant and specific features. However, we come to the assumption that reproduction is the cheapest method of recruiting moral agents, even granting that it has a high cost in time and effort and of course this would require empirical support. Someone should not of course forget to refer to the distinctions within the Utilitarian approach in Act and Rule Utilitarianism. Rule

Abortion From An Ethical Point Of View
“ ;Describe and evaluate any two contrasting theoretical approaches to the moral debate of abortion.” ;* * * It is widely accepted that the fact of abortion has been a.

utilitarianism is a formulation utilitarianism, which maintains that a behavioural code or rule is morally right if the consequences of adopting that rule are more favourable than unfavourable to everyone. The above is contrasted with act utilitarianism, which maintains that the morality of each action is to be determined in relation to the favourable or unfavourable consequences that emerge from that action. The principle of rule-utilitarianism is a test only for the morality of moral rules, such as "stealing is

Abortion And Ethics
Abortion Question What would happen if I were to walk into a crowded restaurant and opened fire on the people inside, killing one? Well, more than likely I would be.

wrong" and not a test for particular

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Essay on Abortion

Essay/Term paper: Ethics of abortion abortion

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The Ethics Of Abortion Abortion is a very controversial subject that has been continually argued over for the past few years and probably many years to come. The main controversy is should abortion be legalized? First before we get into the many sides of abortion we must first define abortion. Abortion is the destruction of the fetus or unborn child while the child is still in the mothers womb. This can be done by almost anyone from the mother herself to back alley abortions and even to abortions by clinics set up especially for this purpose. There are two sides to this abortion topic the PRO-LIFE which is those who are against abortion altogether and the PRO- CHOICE or those who believe it is the womans right to choose if she wants to have an abortion. These two groups offer different solutions to problem. The pro-life solution is to have the child and basically live with it. They believe abortion is not an answer. The pro-choice solution is abortion because of reasons they feel are appropriate. Although abortion is morally and ethically wrong should it be legal for victims of rape or incest who have no other alternative? There is no real answer to this controversy, there are two sides to it though which have been arguing for many years over the subject. The first is the pro-life group. This group does not believe in the abortion factor. To understand where the pro-life stands we must first understand its beliefs and reasons for its beliefs. Then we can discuss what their solution to the abortion topic is. Pro-life believes that rape and incest are very emotional topics. "They often elicit throughout the population feelings of revulsion; people draw back from the issue of rape and incest. People don't know how to handle a person who is in that much pain. There is no quick fix. That is why it is difficult for even pro-life people to come to grips with the argument over abortion in cases of rape and incest." Some of those who are pro-life will allow abortion in these cases because they don't know what else they can do for the victim and except it as a rare case. But it is known that allowing abortion in these cases usually does not help the victim, instead it only worsens the problem because the victims needs are not being met. But what the facts suggest is that only a minority of rape and incest victims actually choose abortion. This is where pro-life has its biggest problem. Pro-life states that "Abortion is not usually chosen as the immediate solution for rape and incest victims but that is the prevailing belief of the general population. A woman has been raped and made pregnant: "Oh, she's got to have an abortion." No one has studied the rape and incest victims needs; abortion is presumed to fill her needs." Various studies and research indicate that rape and incest victims fall into a high-risk category of abortion. But what happens after a victim has an abortion? Jackie Baker a victim states: "I soon discovered that the aftermath of my abortion continued a long time after the memory of my rape had faded. I felt empty and horrible. Nobody told me about the emptiness and pain I would feel deep within causing nightmares and deep depressions. They all told me that after the abortion I could continue with my life as if nothing ever happened." (Reardon 21- 22) This is the story we hear from a lot of aborted women. Today in our society it is believed by most people that it is the womans fault just as much as the mans fault, if not more. many people think women are responsible for contributing to the rape itself. Then the rape victims feel self-blame and guilt. And even then a rape or incest victims family members or close friends may reinforce these negative feelings. Or they drop the problem because they don't know how to talk about it. We even see the same thing in the abortion experience. When a person becomes pregnant because of rape or incest there is a permanent symbol of the rape, at least until it is aborted. Women who have had abortions fear being rejected by God and loved ones. It is a very traumatic experience which takes time. The fact is that you are really telling your loved ones of a death in the family. Opinion polls have shown for years that women are more against abortion than men are. The women led the opposition of abortion. "In 1983 a Los Angelos Times poll found that only 47% of women (compared with 51% of men) favored the general availability of abortion." (Pro Life Feminism: Pro-Woman, Pro-Life 6) So what is this telling us? The facts are very clear men prefer abortion over women by a large percent. And most women do not agree with abortion. So why does it still exist today? What pro-life feels is really happening is that in our society today abortion is becoming the solution to carelessness. Abortion does nothing to help the victims rape, and that is the problem they are trying to address in the first place. Instead abortion encourages the victim to vent their anger out on others. Pro-life also believes that child birth on the other hand can be a victory. For those victims who chose childbirth over abortion it can be a triumph. It can state that the victim is not going to let rape destroy her life. When the needs of pregnant victims is closely examined it can be shown that abortion is not the answer and is in fact only worsening the problem. (Reardon 21-22) But the worst strain abortion has on the victim is mental strain. Many victims become confused and overwhelmed by feelings they thought they would never have, and don't know what to do. After having an abortion victims thought they had solved the problem but in fact they had really just started a whole new one. Many victims began thinking there was something wrong with them and began to doubt themselves in situations that they would normally be sure of themselves. Others plunge into deep depressions which they don't come out of for weeks at end. This is one of the worst side effects of having an abortion and most women don't realize it will happen to them because they are too busy trying to correct the immediate problem. Pro-life persons don't have any reason to be ashamed to defend pro-life view in the case of rape and incest. They feel the ones who should be ashamed are the pro-abortionists who have been exploiting the problems of the victims. Pro-choice has a different view to this whole abortion controversy. Pro-choice believes that it is the persons right to have an abortion if they want to and that no one should interfere with that right. Pro-choice has many reasons for feeling this way. First lets talk about who has abortions and why they have abortions. There are 1.6 million abortions in the United States every year, there is no real special class of people who have abortions. Why does pro-choice feel that abortion is all right? Well pro-choice believes that the answer is what the woman believes. The most common reason for abortions is when contraception fails. What is a person suppose to do when the birth control method fails? "The fact is that contraceptive failure led to 1.6 to 2 million of the 3.3 million unwanted pregnancies in the United States in 1987. These pregnancies account for about half of the 1.5 million abortions performed every year." Besides these reasons for abortion women also give researchers other reasons for getting an abortion. In 1987 a survey of 1,900 women at 30 abortion facilities were asked, why do women have abortions? The women could give as many reasons as they wanted, and most of the women responded with one or more of these top six reasons: 1. Concerned about how having a baby could change her life, 92 percent. 2. Not mature enough or too young to have a child, 81 percent. 3. Can't afford baby now, 73 percent. 4. Doesn't want others to know she had sex or is pregnant, 42 percent. 5. Has relationship problems and doesn't want to be a single parent, 37 percent. 6. Unready for responsibility, 33 percent. There have been many studies done on smaller groups that expressed the exact same reasons for having an abortion. Older women were more likely to say that their families were complete while younger women said that a baby would interfere with education, career, and personal freedom. At any age women say they have too many responsibilities and not enough money to take care of a baby. The reasons for which the public is approving of abortions is not always the reason of the person who wants to have an abortion. Women do not have abortions because of rape, incest, deformed fetuses, or because their physical life is in danger. But these are the best reasons accepted by the public. Being poor, too young, unmarried, and not wanting a baby are the most unpopular reasons for having an abortion and are looked down upon by the public. Pro-choice feels the main reason for abortions is because contraception failed and they didn't want to have a baby at the time. What are some of the benefits to having an abortion. Well the most obvious one is the abortion itself. First of all pro-choice wants to make it clear where they stand. They believe in first time abortions. This is usually because of contraceptive reasons or maturity, but where they draw the line is at third or fourth time abortions. This is because although they think abortion should be legal they believe that is a little extreme and may be a solution to a bad habit. "But the big benefits of having an abortion can be seen right away is relief. The feeling most women have after having an abortion is relief. A 44-year-old psychologist with three children had an illegal abortion at 18 and a legal abortion at 28. Both times she primarily felt relieved for herself and all the family members for whom she was responsible." "Another example is a newly married 27-year-old elementary school teacher had two abortions at age 18 and 21. She felt the same relief as the psychologist." There have been many studies that researched what the primary reaction to having an abortion was. One study done by Kaiser Permanent in northern California asked women subscribers how they felt about their abortions. The most common answer was relief. Abortion also leads to safer contraception. After a person has to go through an abortion because of a failure in contraception it is found that from then on the couple is much more cautious about safe-sex. It is found that almost all of the 742 low-income women who received abortions in 1970-1971 at the State University Hospital in Syracuse, New York, intended to use contraception in the future, an attitude that was even stronger after their abortions. Perhaps the abortion is actually a lesson in life. Another positive impact is maturity. How might a person mature because of their abortion experience. Well the most obvious example of maturity is after an abortion the aborted person usually changes their bad habits. This could be anything from safe-sex to everyday things like listening to others. This may not have been the case before the abortion. When people were asked how they felt about themselves after the abortion many of them responded by saying they felt more mature. It caused them to reevaluate their behavior, their lives and their future. Others felt they were freer and stronger. "Two benefactors to having an abortion is increased self-image, self-esteem, and increased psychological health." It is said that an abortion usually changes a womans uncertain self-image into a good self-image. The average woman gets back the self before she got pregnant and sometimes a little more. It is also said that it can increase your psychological health. Can this really be? "Pro-choice states that a woman is damaged by abortion, but pro- choice women state that is not so and it actually benefited them." Pro-Choice also believes that it is the moral right for a person to be able to control their own body whether it is having a baby or destroying it. They feel it is the womans right to be able to do what she wants with herself and what she has created. Pro-Choice also argues that at the stage where abortion is done the fetus is not really a human being therefore it is like you are not destroying anything. It is merely biological and really does not exist until further stages. This is the reasons why pro-choice is arguing for the legalization of abortion. They feel that the increase in more mature women after abortion, safer-sex, increased mental health, and increased self-esteem and self-image are good enough reasons for legalizing abortion. After researching about abortion the solution that I find best fit to the abortion controversy is that although abortion is morally and ethically wrong there is no real alternatives for those who are victims of rape or incest. That is why the best solution to this controversy is to legalize abortion for those who are victims of these awful crimes. Although pro-life and victims of rape and incest state that abortion adds to the pain of these crimes there is no other real solution. Most victims would agree that it would be better to suffer through the pain of abortion than to have to live with a deformed child or even worse a child that is not really your own as a product of rape or incest. Victims of these crimes also report feeling dirty, guilty, sexually violated, etc. But is that as bad as having to be constantly reminded of the traumatic experience you went through everyday you see your child? Your child is a victim too! But the most obvious reason is the fact that a victim of rape or incest was violated against her will. She did not ask for it, and does not deserve it. She should not then have to deal with the child if she does not want to because it may lead to further complications for the victim and child. By further complications I mean mentally, physically, and emotionally. Many victims often go through long periods of depression when they are forced to keep the child because it often stirs unwanted memories. This is why abortion should be allowed or legal for those unfortunate few who have no other choice but to have an abortion or live with this great burden. Abortion on the other hand should not be legal for all. When a person chooses to have sex she is taking a chance. This she does of her own free will, and she has control over what she is doing. This is the total opposite of the rape victim. If a person decides to have sex whether it is safe or not, what happens after that is her responsibility as well as his. And if you are going to chose to participate in this risky and unsafe practice then you must be ready to pay the consequences. I also believe that a fetus is still a child contradictory to the beliefs of the Pro-Choice. I think that when two people create something like a child, even if it is as small as a fetus it should still be considered a child because it is a living breathing organism made by the two people. I think that even a fetus has rights to a good life, love and happiness no matter how small it is and no one should be able to take that away from him. Therefore my solution to the abortion problem is it should be legal for only those who are victims of rape or incest if they so chose to have an abortion. But should be illegal for those who are not victims because they chose to do what they did and they must deal with what they have created. -- The Ethics Of Abortion Abortion is a very controversial subject that has been continually argued over for the past few years and probably many years to come. The main controversy is should abortion be legalized? First before we get into the many sides of abortion we must first define abortion. Abortion is the destruction of the fetus or unborn child while the child is still in the mothers womb. This can be done by almost anyone from the mother herself to back alley abortions and even to abortions by clinics set up especially for this purpose. There are two sides to this abortion topic the PRO-LIFE which is those who are against abortion altogether and the PRO- CHOICE or those who believe it is the womans right to choose if she wants to have an abortion. These two groups offer different solutions to problem. The pro-life solution is to have the child and basically live with it. They believe abortion is not an answer. The pro-choice solution is abortion because of reasons they feel are appropriate. Although abortion is morally and ethically wrong should it be legal for victims of rape or incest who have no other alternative? There is no real answer to this controversy, there are two sides to it though which have been arguing for many years over the subject. The first is the pro-life group. This group does not believe in the abortion factor. To understand where the pro-life stands we must first understand its beliefs and reasons for its beliefs. Then we can discuss what their solution to the abortion topic is. Pro-life believes that rape and incest are very emotional topics. "They often elicit throughout the population feelings of revulsion; people draw back from the issue of rape and incest. People don't know how to handle a person who is in that much pain. There is no quick fix. That is why it is difficult for even pro-life people to come to grips with the argument over abortion in cases of rape and incest." Some of those who are pro-life will allow abortion in these cases because they don't know what else they can do for the victim and except it as a rare case. But it is known that allowing abortion in these cases usually does not help the victim, instead it only worsens the problem because the victims needs are not being met. But what the facts suggest is that only a minority of rape and incest victims actually choose abortion. This is where pro-life has its biggest problem. Pro-life states that "Abortion is not usually chosen as the immediate solution for rape and incest victims but that is the prevailing belief of the general population. A woman has been raped and made pregnant: "Oh, she's got to have an abortion." No one has studied the rape and incest victims needs; abortion is presumed to fill her needs." Various studies and research indicate that rape and incest victims fall into a high-risk category of abortion. But what happens after a victim has an abortion? Jackie Baker a victim states: "I soon discovered that the aftermath of my abortion continued a long time after the memory of my rape had faded. I felt empty and horrible. Nobody told me about the emptiness and pain I would feel deep within causing nightmares and deep depressions. They all told me that after the abortion I could continue with my life as if nothing ever happened." (Reardon 21- 22) This is the story we hear from a lot of aborted women. Today in our society it is believed by most people that it is the womans fault just as much as the mans fault, if not more. many people think women are responsible for contributing to the rape itself. Then the rape victims feel self-blame and guilt. And even then a rape or incest victims family members or close friends may reinforce these negative feelings. Or they drop the problem because they don't know how to talk about it. We even see the same thing in the abortion experience. When a person becomes pregnant because of rape or incest there is a permanent symbol of the rape, at least until it is aborted. Women who have had abortions fear being rejected by God and loved ones. It is a very traumatic experience which takes time. The fact is that you are really telling your loved ones of a death in the family. Opinion polls have shown for years that women are more against abortion than men are. The women led the opposition of abortion. "In 1983 a Los Angelos Times poll found that only 47% of women (compared with 51% of men) favored the general availability of abortion." (Pro Life Feminism: Pro-Woman, Pro-Life 6) So what is this telling us? The facts are very clear men prefer abortion over women by a large percent. And most women do not agree with abortion. So why does it still exist today? What pro-life feels is really happening is that in our society today abortion is becoming the solution to carelessness. Abortion does nothing to help the victims rape, and that is the problem they are trying to address in the first place. Instead abortion encourages the victim to vent their anger out on others. Pro-life also believes that child birth on the other hand can be a victory. For those victims who chose childbirth over abortion it can be a triumph. It can state that the victim is not going to let rape destroy her life. When the needs of pregnant victims is closely examined it can be shown that abortion is not the answer and is in fact only worsening the problem. (Reardon 21-22) But the worst strain abortion has on the victim is mental strain. Many victims become confused and overwhelmed by feelings they thought they would never have, and don't know what to do. After having an abortion victims thought they had solved the problem but in fact they had really just started a whole new one. Many victims began thinking there was something wrong with them and began to doubt themselves in situations that they would normally be sure of themselves. Others plunge into deep depressions which they don't come out of for weeks at end. This is one of the worst side effects of having an abortion and most women don't realize it will happen to them because they are too busy trying to correct the immediate problem. Pro-life persons don't have any reason to be ashamed to defend pro-life view in the case of rape and incest. They feel the ones who should be ashamed are the pro-abortionists who have been exploiting the problems of the victims. Pro-choice has a different view to this whole abortion controversy. Pro-choice believes that it is the persons right to have an abortion if they want to and that no one should interfere with that right. Pro-choice has many reasons for feeling this way. First lets talk about who has abortions and why they have abortions. There are 1.6 million abortions in the United States every year, there is no real special class of people who have abortions. Why does pro-choice feel that abortion is all right? Well pro-choice believes that the answer is what the woman believes. The most common reason for abortions is when contraception fails. What is a person suppose to do when the birth control method fails? "The fact is that contraceptive failure led to 1.6 to 2 million of the 3.3 million unwanted pregnancies in the United States in 1987. These pregnancies account for about half of the 1.5 million abortions performed every year." Besides these reasons for abortion women also give researchers other reasons for getting an abortion. In 1987 a survey of 1,900 women at 30 abortion facilities were asked, why do women have abortions? The women could give as many reasons as they wanted, and most of the women responded with one or more of these top six reasons: 1. Concerned about how having a baby could change her life, 92 percent. 2. Not mature enough or too young to have a child, 81 percent. 3. Can't afford baby now, 73 percent. 4. Doesn't want others to know she had sex or is pregnant, 42 percent. 5. Has relationship problems and doesn't want to be a single parent, 37 percent. 6. Unready for responsibility, 33 percent. There have been many studies done on smaller groups that expressed the exact same reasons for having an abortion. Older women were more likely to say that their families were complete while younger women said that a baby would interfere with education, career, and personal freedom. At any age women say they have too many responsibilities and not enough money to take care of a baby. The reasons for which the public is approving of abortions is not always the reason of the person who wants to have an abortion. Women do not have abortions because of rape, incest, deformed fetuses, or because their physical life is in danger. But these are the best reasons accepted by the public. Being poor, too young, unmarried, and not wanting a baby are the most unpopular reasons for having an abortion and are looked down upon by the public. Pro-choice feels the main reason for abortions is because contraception failed and they didn't want to have a baby at the time. What are some of the benefits to having an abortion. Well the most obvious one is the abortion itself. First of all pro-choice wants to make it clear where they stand. They believe in first time abortions. This is usually because of contraceptive reasons or maturity, but where they draw the line is at third or fourth time abortions. This is because although they think abortion should be legal they believe that is a little extreme and may be a solution to a bad habit. "But the big benefits of having an abortion can be seen right away is relief. The feeling most women have after having an abortion is relief. A 44-year-old psychologist with three children had an illegal abortion at 18 and a legal abortion at 28. Both times she primarily felt relieved for herself and all the family members for whom she was responsible." "Another example is a newly married 27-year-old elementary school teacher had two abortions at age 18 and 21. She felt the same relief as the psychologist." There have been many studies that researched what the primary reaction to having an abortion was. One study done by Kaiser Permanent in northern California asked women subscribers how they felt about their abortions. The most common answer was relief. Abortion also leads to safer contraception. After a person has to go through an abortion because of a failure in contraception it is found that from then on the couple is much more cautious about safe-sex. It is found that almost all of the 742 low-income women who received abortions in 1970-1971 at the State University Hospital in Syracuse, New York, intended to use contraception in the future, an attitude that was even stronger after their abortions. Perhaps the abortion is actually a lesson in life. Another positive impact is maturity. How might a person mature because of their abortion experience. Well the most obvious example of maturity is after an abortion the aborted person usually changes their bad habits. This could be anything from safe-sex to everyday things like listening to others. This may not have been the case before the abortion. When people were asked how they felt about themselves after the abortion many of them responded by saying they felt more mature. It caused them to reevaluate their behavior, their lives and their future. Others felt they were freer and stronger. "Two benefactors to having an abortion is increased self-image, self-esteem, and increased psychological health." It is said that an abortion usually changes a womans uncertain self-image into a good self-image. The average woman gets back the self before she got pregnant and sometimes a little more. It is also said that it can increase your psychological health. Can this really be? "Pro-choice states that a woman is damaged by abortion, but pro- choice women state that is not so and it actually benefited them." Pro-Choice also believes that it is the moral right for a person to be able to control their own body whether it is having a baby or destroying it. They feel it is the womans right to be able to do what she wants with herself and what she has created. Pro-Choice also argues that at the stage where abortion is done the fetus is not really a human being therefore it is like you are not destroying anything. It is merely biological and really does not exist until further stages. This is the reasons why pro-choice is arguing for the legalization of abortion. They feel that the increase in more mature women after abortion, safer-sex, increased mental health, and increased self-esteem and self-image are good enough reasons for legalizing abortion. After researching about abortion the solution that I find best fit to the abortion controversy is that although abortion is morally and ethically wrong there is no real alternatives for those who are victims of rape or incest. That is why the best solution to this controversy is to legalize abortion for those who are victims of these awful crimes. Although pro-life and victims of rape and incest state that abortion adds to the pain of these crimes there is no other real solution. Most victims would agree that it would be better to suffer through the pain of abortion than to have to live with a deformed child or even worse a child that is not really your own as a product of rape or incest. Victims of these crimes also report feeling dirty, guilty, sexually violated, etc. But is that as bad as having to be constantly reminded of the traumatic experience you went through everyday you see your child? Your child is a victim too! But the most obvious reason is the fact that a victim of rape or incest was violated against her will. She did not ask for it, and does not deserve it. She should not then have to deal with the child if she does not want to because it may lead to further complications for the victim and child. By further complications I mean mentally, physically, and emotionally. Many victims often go through long periods of depression when they are forced to keep the child because it often stirs unwanted memories. This is why abortion should be allowed or legal for those unfortunate few who have no other choice but to have an abortion or live with this great burden. Abortion on the other hand should not be legal for all. When a person chooses to have sex she is taking a chance. This she does of her own free will, and she has control over what she is doing. This is the total opposite of the rape victim. If a person decides to have sex whether it is safe or not, what happens after that is her responsibility as well as his. And if you are going to chose to participate in this risky and unsafe practice then you must be ready to pay the consequences. I also believe that a fetus is still a child contradictory to the beliefs of the Pro-Choice. I think that when two people create something like a child, even if it is as small as a fetus it should still be considered a child because it is a living breathing organism made by the two people. I think that even a fetus has rights to a good life, love and happiness no matter how small it is and no one should be able to take that away from him. Therefore my solution to the abortion problem is it should be legal for only those who are victims of rape or incest if they so chose to have an abortion. But should be illegal for those who are not victims because they chose to do what they did and they must deal with what they have created. --

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Ethnocentrism #1a.> The difference between the way that the Thais deal with traffic accidents is very different from our own in the manner that when an accident occurs they compare the damage done.