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Published: 23, March 2015

The book of Business Research Methods gives me guidance for how to do business studies and how to carry out research project. In the first part of the book tells me the relationship between theory and research, in the detail it's a explain of how to combine the theory and research during the business studies process. (Page: 4)

1a. What is meant by epistemological considerations?

Epistemological concerns the study of knowledge and what constitutes acceptable knowledge in a field of study? Epistemology is a kind of using the same principles, procedures, and ethos as the natural sciences study to explore the nature of human knowledge, structure, the relationship of recognizing the objective reality, the premise and basis of knowledge. The position that affirms the importance of imitating the natural sciences is invariably associated with an epistemological position known as positivism. (Page: 15)

1b. Explain in concrete terms the differences between the so-called positivism and interpretivism?

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Positivism: (Page: 15-1.7)

Positivism is a kind way of epistemological position that claims to use the natural sciences methods to study and beyond of reality society. In the book, there are some principles of using positivism.

1. Only phenomena and hence knowledge confirmed by the senses can genuinely be warranted as knowledge (the principle of phenomenalism).

2. The purpose of theory is to generate hypotheses that can be tested and that will thereby allow explanations of laws to be assessed (the principle of phenomenalism).

3. Knowledge is arrived at through the gathering of facts that provide the basis for laws (the principle of phenomenalism).

4. Science must (and presumably can) be conducted in a way that is value free (that is, objective).

5. There is a clear distinction between scientific statements and normative statements and belief that the former are the true domain of scientist.

This last principle is implied by the first because the truth or otherwise of normative statements cannot confirmed by the senses.

Interpretivism: (Page: 16)

Interpretivism is a term given to a contrasting epistemology to positivism.

It is necessary for the research to understand differences between humans in our role as social actors.

There are differences between conducting research among people rather than physical objects.

To enter the social world of our research subjects, understand their world from their point of view.

Interpretivism arose as scientists felt that human beings were not puppets to react to stimuli in a prescribed manner. They were active and purposeful and can respond to stimuli in different ways depending upon their interpretation. Interpretivists describe human beings as having intent and the power to interpret;they say that human beings have the capability to construct their surroundings rather than being a mere spectators to what is happening around them. These scientists stressed the thinking, intentions and behaviors of human beings more than positivists thereby drawing conclusions that were more realistic and perhaps more valid also. Interpretivists talk about shared consciousness as the brain behind many of the concepts in a society.

2a. What is meant by ontological considerations?

Ontological considerations: (Page: 20)

Questions of social ontology are concerns with the view on nature of reality, the study of nature of existence.

The core question of this part is whether the social entity can and should be considered objective entities which have the truth external to social actors, or whether they can and should be considered social constructions built up from the perceptions and actions of social actors. (Bryman 2004: 16)

These positions are frequently referred to respectively as objectivism and constructionism.

2b. Explain in concrete terms the differences between objectivism and constructionism?

Objectivism: (Page: 21 1.13)

Objectivism is an ontological position that asserts that social phenomena and their meanings have an existence that is independent of social actors. It implies that social phenomena and the categories that we use in everyday discourse have an existence that is independent or separate from actors.

Constructionism: (Page: 22 1.14)

Constructionism is an ontological position (often also referred to as constructivism) which asserts that social phenomena and their meanings are continually being accomplished by social actors. It implies that social phenomena and categories are not only produced through social interaction but that they are in a constant state of revision.

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Objectivism and constructivism is diametrically opposite assumptions about reality, mind, thought, meaning and symbolism. The objective belief is that the world is real. The reality is the external awareness. Since it is sees the world as real it assumes that learners have the same understanding of this reality. The reality can be structured model to guide a learner. Constructivist perspective requires learners to create their own reality based on his experiences and views. The constructivist point that not a reality. Because the reality is a product of personal views and experiences are unique individuals many reality can exist. The objectivism think the role of the mind as a processor of abstract symbols thought of as symbols of the builders of the Constructivist perspectives. Objectivism sees the role of the mind as a processor of abstract symbols while constructivism views the mind as a builder of symbols.

Relationship of epistemology and ontology to business research (Page: 23)

Every science has its own ontology, epistemology and consequently its own methodologies. So when the business research

Ontology defines the fundamental categories of reality. Domain ontology as distinct from formal ontology is related to focus of study. Each research field has its own ontology. Epistemology defines how we can know and reason that reality. The methodologies of each of these two scientists have followed as different systems of investigative techniques within their focus of study. They use different scientific methods studying different domains with different epistemology and ontology.

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Compare and Contrast Criminological Theories - Criminological theories interpret the competing paradigms of Human Nature, Social Order, Definition of Crime, Extent and Distribution of Crime, Causes of Crime, and Policy, differently. Even though these theories have added to societies understanding of criminal behaviour, all have been unable to explain why punishment or treatment of offenders is unable to prevent deviancy, and thus are ineffective methods of control. The new penology is a contemporary response that favours the management of criminals by predicting future harm on society. [tags: Models of Criminology]
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How the Victorian Age Shifted the Focus of Hamlet - How the Victorian Age Shifted the Focus of Hamlet 19th century critic William Hazlitt praised Hamlet by saying that, "The whole play is an exact transcript of what might be supposed to have taken pace at the court of Denmark, at the remote period of the time fixed upon." (Hazlitt 164-169) Though it is clearly a testament to the realism of Shakespeare's tragedy, there is something strange and confusing in Hazlitt's analysis. To put it plainly, Hamlet is most definitely not a realistic play. [tags: Shakespeare Hamlet Essays]
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Defending Longino's Social Epistemology - Defending Longino's Social Epistemology (1) ABSTRACT: Though many agree that we need to account for the role that social factors play in inquiry, developing a viable social epistemology has proved to be a difficult task. According to Longino, it is the processes that make inquiry possible that are aptly described as social, for they require a number of people to sustain them. These processes not only facilitate inquiry, but also ensure that the results of inquiry are more than mere subjective opinions, and thus deserve to be called knowledge. [tags: Science Scientific Philosophical Papers]
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The Usefulness of Sociological Theories in Explaining Crime and the Control of Crime - The Usefulness of Sociological Theories in Explaining Crime and the Control of Crime This paper seeks to explore the usefulness of Sociological Theories in explaining crime and whether in doing so there arises implications for probation practice. I shall begin by providing a brief explanation for the historical development of criminological thinking, starting with Classicism and moving onto Positivism both which lay the foundations for the development of sociological theories in the 1960’s and 1970’s. [tags: Papers]

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Husserl, Carnap, Heidegger, and Wittgenstein - Husserl, Carnap, Heidegger, and Wittgenstein ABSTRACT: Phenomenology and logical positivism both subscribed to an empirical-verifiability criterion of mental or linguistic meaning. The acceptance of this criterion confronted them with the same problem: how to understand the Other as a subject with his own experience, if the existence and nature of the Other's experiences cannot be verified. Husserl tackled this problem in the Cartesian Meditations, but he could not reconcile the verifiability criterion with understanding the Other's feelings and sensations. [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]
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Research Philosophy - Research philosophy, refers to the development of knowledge adopted by the researchers in their research (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2009). In other words, it is the theory that used to direct the researcher for conducting the procedure of research design, research strategy, questionnaire design and sampling (Malhotra, 2009). It is very important to have a clear understanding of the research philosophy so that we could examine the assumptions about the way we view the world, which are contained in the research philosophy we choose, knowing that whether they are appropriate or not (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2009). [tags: Ontology, Epistemology]

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Corporate Social Responsibility in Transition Economy of Romania - Overview of the research: “Corporate Social Responsibility in transition economy of Romania” August 2010 Abstract The paper will look very concisely at the historical evolution of the social theory in order to emphasize the complexity of contemporaneous concept and their importance in researching management issues. This paper will also enunciate the role of the theoretical framework in researching management topics identifying theoretical orientation or paradigm of the research, formulating hypothesis and clear defining the aim and expectations of the research. [tags: Social Responsibility Essays]
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Perceptions of the Work Environment in Stenden University Hotel and Their Effect on Job Attitudes? - In society there’s little room to escape working for a living. You need a job to survive, to succeed and be wealthy and ultimately happy. It could be in a multimillion dollar organization, a franchise, a family, or your own entrepreneurial company, whatever type of job it is, it is work. And because work is such an essential part of adult’s lives, its effect on our well being and happiness is logically large. Therefore it is pivotal not to perceive work as cumbersome and unsatisfactory but a place you have a positive attitude towards in order for its affect to be positive on whatever aspect of our lives that it affects. [tags: Psychology ]

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Origins of Behaviorism - Origins of Behaviorism Behaviourism originated with the work of John B. Watson from 1913. Behaviourism is based on the following sets of claims: (1) Psychology is the study of behaviour. [tags: Papers]

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Freud's Psychology of Religion - Sigmund Freud, born in 1856, was originally an Austrian medical doctor who would eventually continue on to become the Father of Psychoanalysis. Freud remains an analogous symbol with psychology, not only because of his psychological school, but also because of the controversy surrounding many of his theories. While Freud’s proposed stages of psychosexual development are some of his most criticized concepts, his view of religion also proved to be controversial. Freud was raised Jewish, but his ideals changed by psychoanalyzing himself. [tags: Psychology]
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Thomas Hardy's Philosophy Influences His Writing - Thomas Hardy's Philosophy Influences His Writing In a letter written in 1920, Thomas Hardy comments, "it is my misfortune that people will treat my mood-dictated writing as a single scientific theory" (Hicks 111). Hardy did not write under the pretenses of a single belief system, but was "so often misunderstood that he had to try and give some clear and precise statement of his beliefs" (Hicks, 110). Although he did not fulfill the role of philosopher, often these statements were read as Hardy's "philosophy." According to Jacobson, the task of a philosopher is to "develop articulate, settled systems of thought about the nature of the world, about the moral constitution of mankind, and abou. [tags: Biography Biographies Essays]
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The Differences Between Popular Science Disciplines - Positivism was the ideology that initially underpinned all disciplines of early sciences and describes a belief that the complete objective truth can be reached. Natural scientists today hold the universal belief that a truth can repeatedly be exampled until it is falsified by way of methodical research, indicating a positivist approach which incorporates an objective reality. However as time and advancements has progressed, social scientists have embraced the ideology of probabilism. This is the notion that where the subject matter incorporates numerous anomalies and contingencies, the appropriate action is to downsize the explanations to accurately fit the probabilities of the work (Duus-O. [tags: Natural Sciences, Social Sciences]
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Frederick Taylor’s Principles of Scientific Management and the Multiple Frames for Viewing Work Organizations - Frederick Taylor’s Principles of Scientific Management and the Multiple Frames for Viewing Work Organizations (graphics not included) Dr. Frederick Winslow Taylor in a speech called "The Principles of Scientific Management" delivered on March 3, 1915 to the Cleveland Advertising Club exhorts his audience to take on a new, revolutionary view of the way work should get done. To combat the time-ingrained attitude of workmen throughout the world that "it is in their best interest to go slow instead of fast," Taylor proposes four principles of the scientific management of work. [tags: Organizations Management]

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Assessing the View that Religious Language is Meaningless - Assessing the View that Religious Language is Meaningless In recent times one of the most compelling and interesting arguments against God and religion has come from linguistic philosophy. In very basic terms the argument points out the fact that religion must necessarily use language in order to express abstract ideas such as God, love and so on, and in doing so commits a fallacy because as soon as such ideas are put into words they become meaningless. However, this is a rather large generalisation; the specific arguments go into a lot more detail and most vary in some way from this basic idea. [tags: Papers]

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Leo Strauss and Reinhold Niebuhr - Leo Strauss and Reinhold Niebuhr represent two giants of twentieth century political philosophy. The Jewish classicist and Christian theologian contemporaries articulated profound thoughts on political philosophy and earned recognition for their work on the subject of international relations. Indeed, their prominence within the field of international relations continues into modern times and contemporary debates. The Bush administration’s Straussian policy and President Obama’s favoring of Niebuhrian ideals emphasize the radical differences between Strauss’ invocation of natural right and Niebuhr’s cautious and engaged approach to international relations. [tags: Political Philosophy, US Foreign Policy]
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A Philosophical Examination of Language - A Philosophical Examination of Language "Philosophy is language idling." —Ludwig Wittgenstein Language and philosophy have an intimate connection to one another; without a philosophical examination of the meanings and structure of language, we cannot easily ascertain the objective truth of the statements we make, nor can we usefully discuss abstract concepts. The philosophy of language seeks to understand the concepts expressed by language and to find a system by which it can effectively and accurately do so. [tags: Phylosophy]
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Cinema and Anthropology Description - Visual anthropology plausibly carries on from the idea that culture is noticeable through perceptible characters entrenched in ceremonies, gestures, artifacts and rituals positioned in artificial and natural settings. Culture is visualized of as bringing out itself in scripts with intrigues connecting actors and actresses with props, lines, settings and costumes. The cultural nature is the computation of the state of affairs in which individuals take part (Ruby, 2000). If an individual can observe culture, then researchers ought to have the ability to make use of audiovisual technologies to document it as data open to presentation and analysis. [tags: cultural nature, filmmaking, photo history]
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The Colonies of Culture:The Postcolonial Self in Latin America and Africa - The Colonies of Culture:The Postcolonial Self in Latin America and Africa The colony is not only a possibility in the geographical; it is a mental dominance that can imperialize the entire self. Entire continents have be domineered, resources completely dried, and at colonialism’s usual worst, the mental devastation of the indigenous culture has left a people hollow. Indigenous culture is no longer that. In the globalized world, no culture is autonomous; culture cannot breathe without new ideas and new perspectives, perspectives that have traditionally come from the people who have lived within the culture. [tags: essays papers]

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East Geman border guard: Let him go. - My fellow justices of the court, we find ourselves at a crossroads, advised to convict of murder a man whose prior government would have lauded, not punished, him for his actions. We must weigh the unjust loss of a human life against the injustice of convicting a man under an ex post facto law. Hans’ death is a terrible tragedy, but we must rule with respect to our system’s principles and reverse the lower court’s decision. This man’s former superiors, both his commanding officers and his government, emphasized that, whatever happened, it was better to kill a man than let him escape across the border. [tags: Law]

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The Marxist Crime Perspective of Conflict Theory - Introduction Countless studies from respected sociologists, criminologists, and psychologists have suggested several theories as to why juvenile delinquency exists. The theory this paper uses to explain for juvenile delinquency is the Marxist perspective of the Conflict Theory. What this paper seeks to achieve is to show how this theory is conceptualized, how it causes juvenile delinquency particularly for African Americans, statistics on African American juveniles, and why it could lead to a life of crime as juveniles transition into adulthood. [tags: Juvenile Delinquents, Lower Class Families]
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Linking Body Type and Criminal Behavior - Many researchers have tried to address the issue of crime, and more specifically criminal behavior. One factor, which causes much debate, is whether body type directly affects criminal behavior. Is it possible to determine who will be a criminal simply by examination of a person’s body type. Researchers like William Sheldon, Sean Maddan, Jeffrey T. Wlaker, and J. Mitchell Miller believe that there is a link between criminality and body type. Others like Chris L. Gibson and Kevin M. Beaver believe otherwise. [tags: Criminology]
. 4 Works Cited

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Community Power and Participatory Decision-Making - Critical theory appears unpopular probably because of its ideological bias as claimed by Pease, Form and Rytina (1970). Liebert and Imershein (1977) similarly assert that a common theoretical tendency in community research is a distinctly “political theme that tends to find the greatest efficacy and power, and indeed the most universal structure of power, to lie in a certain organized diversity, a pluralist state of subsystems within an integrated system of elites” (pp. 191-192). The primary aim of critical theory, as James Bohman (2005) notes, is to thwart oppression. [tags: Karl Marx, Social Constructionism]

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Validity: External, Internal, and Construct - Validity In research paradigm, validity and reliability are the most basic characteristic issues used in qualitative and quantitative analysis. Validity as a psychometric standard is embedded in a positivist approach, which is relevant in reflecting on the qualitative point of view ascribed to the establishment of the truth. In view of this, definition of positivism ascribe to a theory systematic to validity. Additionally, other empirical conceptions culminating from resided validity include truth, deduction, universal laws, evidence, reason, and actuality among others. [tags: Business Management ]
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Essay on Justice - Essay on Justice ‘Justice is such an elusive concept that it hardly seems worthwhile for a legal system to strive to achieve it’. Justice is something that we all want from a Law and believe should be an integral part in any legal system. However, the meaning of Justice is very difficult to define. There are many aspects of justice that we may question about; i.e. is a particular law just. Is the legal system just. Much of the issue of justice is very controversial and raises questions such as whether the combination of Law and system produce a just result. [tags: Papers]

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The Verification Principle - The Verification Principle I would like to start this essay by explaining the background to Logical Positivism and the Verification Principle. The Verification Principle is a philosophical doctrine fundamental to Logical Positivism. Logical Positivists argue that a statement is meaningful only if it is either empirically verifiable or else tautological (You can get to its truth by the meanings of its terms). They believe that if you can give evidence to back up what you said then that evidence was what your statement was all about, e.g. [tags: Papers]

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Durkheim's Interpretations - Durkheim's Interpretations Later studies have tended to confirm Durkheims original interpretations. Halbachs (1930) argues that many of Durkheims correlations, religious and domestic, may be more effectively explained in terms of rural and urban life. Gibbs and Martin (1964) have argued that the belief of status integration provides a more quantifiable perception of integration. Later studies adopt a positivist approach. [tags: Papers]

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Nishida Kitarô's Studies of the Good and the Debate Concerning Universal Truth in Early Twentieth-C - Nishida Kitarô's Studies of the Good and the Debate Concerning Universal Truth in Early Twentieth-Century Japan ABSTRACT: When Nishida Kitarô wrote Studies of the Good, he was a high school teacher in Kanazawa far from Tokyo, the center of Japanese scholarship. While he was praised for his intellectual effort, there was no substantive agreement about the content of his ideas. Critics disagreed with the way he conceived of reality and of truth as contained in reality. Taken together, I believe that the responses to Nishida's early work give us a window on the state of Japanese philosophy in the early twentieth century. [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]

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The Relevance of Behavioral Psychology to Instructional Technology - The Relevance of Behavioral Psychology to Instructional Technology Behavioral Psychology Defined John Watson wrote a paper in the Psychological Review in 1913 and defined behavioral psychology or behaviorism as …a purely objective experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior. Introspection forms no essential part of its methods, nor is the scientific value of its data dependent upon the readiness with which they lend themselves to interpretation in terms of consciousness. [tags: Psychology Psychological Papers]
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Reasons for the Migration to Canudos, the Vale of Tears - In order to describe the reasons of the migration to Canudos it is important to understand what Canudos was and was not. The population of Canudos was not a group of religious fanatics that came together to throw off their oppressors. Instead it was a group of people seeking a viable and dignified existence in a time of economic and spiritual alienation. The people of Canudos were not a homogenous group of barbaric savages, but a cross section of the sertanejo population (Levine p.158). While Canudos did threaten the labor supply of the oligarchy and supported the monarchy, it was not violent in nature. [tags: World History]

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Social Research - AISHA GITTENS-HIPPOLYTE Taking Two Of The Theoretical Approaches To Social Research Discussed In The Module, Demonstrate The Connections Between Their Ontological, Epistemological And Methodological Assumptions. Which Method Or Methods Would Proponents Of Each Theory Favour As A Result Of Their Assumptions. In order to understand the production of sociological knowledge one must first examine the thought processes that lay behind each piece of research. Before a particular subject matter is researched, the researcher firstly makes certain assumptions about that matter. [tags: essays research papers]

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Sociology as a Science - Sociology emerged in the eighteenth century after a period of intense cultural, social and economic changes. As people began to try to understand these changes, there came a period called the Enlightenment. This is also considered by Hamilton (1992) to be a “time characterised by the development of distinctively modern forms of thought about society and the realm of the social.” The Enlightenment encouraged a new way of thinking marked by application of reason, experience and experiment to the natural and social world. [tags: Sociology Essays]

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The Problem of Science - The Problem of Science In this paper I deal with the status of science in Heidegger's thought. Particularly, I pose to Heidegger the question whether science can constitute a problem for philosophy, once one has cast doubt on philosophy's rank as first science whose prerogative is to establish the truth-criteria of the particular sciences. To express it with the convenience cliches always afford, this is the question of knowledge in the postmodern epoch. The paper traces the transition from the early "fundamental ontology" to the late notion of a thinking that is to come at the end of philosophy. [tags: Heidegger Philosophy Papers]

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Social Psychology - There are many explanations for the origins of modern social psychology. It is therefore important to consider that social psychology cannot be traced back to one single source of origin (Burr, 2003). Hence, this is the reason why there are debates of what social psychology is. Allport (1985) described social psychology as the study an individual’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviours which are influenced by the actual, imagines, or implied presence of others. As seen from this definition there is a direct link between social science and the individual psychology (Sewell, 1989). [tags: Psychology, Natural Science]

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The Nature of Quantitative Research - The Nature of Quantitative Research Quantitative Research Defined: According to Huysamen (1997), "descriptions of quantitative research typically discern a cycle of successive phases of hypothesis formulation, data collection, analysis and interpretation." Using a deductive approach, quantitative research seeks to establish facts, make predictions, and test hypotheses that have already been stated. A large part of the data analysis of quantitative research is statistical, striving to show that the world can be looked at in terms of one reality; this reality, when isolated in context, can be measured and understood, a perspective known as positivism (Gay & Airasian, 1999). [tags: Quantitative Research Papers]
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Philosophical Aspects of Literary Objectiveness - Philosophical Aspects of Literary Objectiveness ABSTRACT: Gadamer’s hermeneutic philosophy avoids the problem of literary objectiveness altogether. His approach witnesses the general fact that an indifference towards literary objectiveness in particular, leads to a peculiar neglect of par excellence literariness as such. It seems obvious, however, that the constitutive aspects of the crisis of literary objectiveness cannot be shown to contain the underlying intention of bringing about this situation. [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]
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The Gendered Division of Labour Within the Domestic Sphere - Sociological study on the gendered division of labour within the domestic sphere has perennially been characterised by evidence of a clear inequality concerning the allocation of unpaid chores within the home between men and women (Warren, 2003:734). While men have traditionally been regarded as primary breadwinners, the management of home-maintenance has remained largely women’s responsibility (Breen & Cooke, 2005:47). A number of theories exist to explain this unequal distribution of domestic labour, in particular the economic exchange model (which argues that women perform domestic duties in ‘exchange’ for financial support from their husbands), and the gender display model, which asserts. [tags: Gender]
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Aging, Death, Dying and End of Life Care - The purpose of this essay is to analyse various theories on ageing, death, dying, and end of life issues from different perspectives such as: biophysiological theories, psychosocial theories; and taking in consideration the cultural, historical, and religious implications around the aforementioned life stages. One will also discuss important issues relevant to social work practice such as dignity, autonomy, and their relationship with the concept of a successful ageing and a good death. One considers these areas important since they upheld anti-discriminatory practice and may perhaps promote the development of personalised care pathways, as well as fair and justifiable social policies. [tags: social issues, theories on ageing]
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Social Darwinism: Herbert Spencer and William Graham Sumner - Social Darwinism is term that is used for application of biological concepts of Charles Darwin to sociology and political science. The goal of this paper is to introduce two most known social Darwinists – Herbert Spencer and William Graham Sumner. Herbert Spencer is sometimes named as the founder of social Darwinism. However, labeling him as such is problematic. Spencer came with his concepts and with the term “survival of the fittest” before he got to know Darwin’s. His ideas are based on the theory of Lamarckian inheritance by French biologist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. [tags: biological concepts, evolutionary theories]
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