Positivism And Interpretivism Essay Scholarships - Homework for you

Homework for you

Positivism And Interpretivism Essay Scholarships

Rating: 4.3/5.0 (17 Votes)

Category: Essay


The Positivism And Interpretivism Philosophy Essay

Our Guarantees Our Quality Standards Our Fair Use Policy

What Makes UK Essays Different?
  • We have a verifiable trading history as a UK registered company (details at the bottom of every page).
  • Our Nottingham offices are open to the public where you can meet our team of over 40 full-time staff.
  • UK Essays partner with Feefo.com to publish verified customer testimonials - both good and bad!
Ask an Expert FREE

Ask an Expert Index Ask a Question Paid Services

About Our Ask an Expert Service

Our totally free "Ask an Expert" Service allows users to get an answer of up to 300 words to any academic question.

  • Questions typically answered within 24 hours.
  • All answers are researched and written by fully qualified academics in the question's subject area.
  • Our service is completely confidential, only the answer is published - we never publish your personal details.
  • Each professional answer comes with appropriate references.
About Us More About Us The Positivism And Interpretivism Philosophy Essay

Published: 23, March 2015

The book of Business Research Methods gives me guidance for how to do business studies and how to carry out research project. In the first part of the book tells me the relationship between theory and research, in the detail it's a explain of how to combine the theory and research during the business studies process. (Page: 4)

1a. What is meant by epistemological considerations?

Epistemological concerns the study of knowledge and what constitutes acceptable knowledge in a field of study? Epistemology is a kind of using the same principles, procedures, and ethos as the natural sciences study to explore the nature of human knowledge, structure, the relationship of recognizing the objective reality, the premise and basis of knowledge. The position that affirms the importance of imitating the natural sciences is invariably associated with an epistemological position known as positivism. (Page: 15)

1b. Explain in concrete terms the differences between the so-called positivism and interpretivism?

Professional Essay Writers

Get your grade
or your money back
using our Essay Writing Service!

Essay Writing Service

Positivism: (Page: 15-1.7)

Positivism is a kind way of epistemological position that claims to use the natural sciences methods to study and beyond of reality society. In the book, there are some principles of using positivism.

1. Only phenomena and hence knowledge confirmed by the senses can genuinely be warranted as knowledge (the principle of phenomenalism).

2. The purpose of theory is to generate hypotheses that can be tested and that will thereby allow explanations of laws to be assessed (the principle of phenomenalism).

3. Knowledge is arrived at through the gathering of facts that provide the basis for laws (the principle of phenomenalism).

4. Science must (and presumably can) be conducted in a way that is value free (that is, objective).

5. There is a clear distinction between scientific statements and normative statements and belief that the former are the true domain of scientist.

This last principle is implied by the first because the truth or otherwise of normative statements cannot confirmed by the senses.

Interpretivism: (Page: 16)

Interpretivism is a term given to a contrasting epistemology to positivism.

It is necessary for the research to understand differences between humans in our role as social actors.

There are differences between conducting research among people rather than physical objects.

To enter the social world of our research subjects, understand their world from their point of view.

Interpretivism arose as scientists felt that human beings were not puppets to react to stimuli in a prescribed manner. They were active and purposeful and can respond to stimuli in different ways depending upon their interpretation. Interpretivists describe human beings as having intent and the power to interpret;they say that human beings have the capability to construct their surroundings rather than being a mere spectators to what is happening around them. These scientists stressed the thinking, intentions and behaviors of human beings more than positivists thereby drawing conclusions that were more realistic and perhaps more valid also. Interpretivists talk about shared consciousness as the brain behind many of the concepts in a society.

2a. What is meant by ontological considerations?

Ontological considerations: (Page: 20)

Questions of social ontology are concerns with the view on nature of reality, the study of nature of existence.

The core question of this part is whether the social entity can and should be considered objective entities which have the truth external to social actors, or whether they can and should be considered social constructions built up from the perceptions and actions of social actors. (Bryman 2004: 16)

These positions are frequently referred to respectively as objectivism and constructionism.

2b. Explain in concrete terms the differences between objectivism and constructionism?

Objectivism: (Page: 21 1.13)

Objectivism is an ontological position that asserts that social phenomena and their meanings have an existence that is independent of social actors. It implies that social phenomena and the categories that we use in everyday discourse have an existence that is independent or separate from actors.

Constructionism: (Page: 22 1.14)

Constructionism is an ontological position (often also referred to as constructivism) which asserts that social phenomena and their meanings are continually being accomplished by social actors. It implies that social phenomena and categories are not only produced through social interaction but that they are in a constant state of revision.

Comprehensive Writing Services

Always on Time
Marked to Standard

Objectivism and constructivism is diametrically opposite assumptions about reality, mind, thought, meaning and symbolism. The objective belief is that the world is real. The reality is the external awareness. Since it is sees the world as real it assumes that learners have the same understanding of this reality. The reality can be structured model to guide a learner. Constructivist perspective requires learners to create their own reality based on his experiences and views. The constructivist point that not a reality. Because the reality is a product of personal views and experiences are unique individuals many reality can exist. The objectivism think the role of the mind as a processor of abstract symbols thought of as symbols of the builders of the Constructivist perspectives. Objectivism sees the role of the mind as a processor of abstract symbols while constructivism views the mind as a builder of symbols.

Relationship of epistemology and ontology to business research (Page: 23)

Every science has its own ontology, epistemology and consequently its own methodologies. So when the business research

Ontology defines the fundamental categories of reality. Domain ontology as distinct from formal ontology is related to focus of study. Each research field has its own ontology. Epistemology defines how we can know and reason that reality. The methodologies of each of these two scientists have followed as different systems of investigative techniques within their focus of study. They use different scientific methods studying different domains with different epistemology and ontology.

Request Removal

If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have the essay published on the UK Essays website then please click on the link below to request removal:

Request the removal of this essay

More from UK Essays

Other articles

Positivism vs interpretivism

Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy.

Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details.

Explore all your favorite topics in the SlideShare app Get the SlideShare app to Save for Later — even offline

Continue to the mobile site »

  • Upload
  • Login
  • Signup

Double tap to zoom out

Positivism vs interpretivism

Share this SlideShare

LinkedIn Corporation © 2016

Free positivism Essays and Papers

The Differences Between Naturalism and Positivism - The world is wrought with dueling philosophies and principles. From political parties to legal ideologies, the world seems destined to be divided into some type of dichotomy. The legal philosophies of Positive and Natural law are no different. Many of us notice these differences, as most of the time they are quite obvious, but most of us do not, however, take the time to ponder and mull over in our minds just why these distinctions are important. It is not enough to say that two things are different or are simply opposed. [tags: Positivists vs Naturalists]
. 4 Works Cited

2765 words
(7.9 pages)

Strengths and Weaknesses of Biological Positivism - Biological Positivism has both its strengths and weaknesses, it changed the way of criminological ideas and opened up new theories that were based on scientific facts rather than philosophical ideas like in Classicism. It also highlighted the importance of looking into peoples genetic make-up as research such as Brunners' research into the extra 'Y' chromosome which led to the idea that genetic defects in a family can cause abnormal behaviours and also the Twin and Adoptions studies that showed a correlation between genetics and crime. [tags: Criminology, Behaviors, Theories]
. 10 Works Cited

2095 words
(6 pages)

Positivism And The Real - Positivism is a trend in bourgeois philosophy, which acknowledges the orthodoxy towards empirical knowledge of natural phenomena where metaphysics and theology are regarded as inadequate and imperfect systems of knowledge. Positivism, began to rise as the main intellectual movement during the second half of the 19th century in response to the inability of speculative philosophy, witch was indeed Romanticism. During the first half of 19th century, the Romanticism brought new views that helped the civilization of that time reach a higher level but it also brought the negative side effects. [tags: essays research papers]

678 words
(1.9 pages)

Criticisms of Ayer’s Logical Positivism - Ayer published Language, Truth & Logic in 1936 when he was only 26 years of age. He was a part of the Vienna Circle; who were notoriously known for their philosophy of logical positivism. Logical positivism is a philosophical theory that holds meaningful only those non-tautological propositions that can be analyzed by the tools of logic into elementary propositions or are empirically verifiable. It therefore rejects metaphysics, theology, and sometimes ethics as meaningless. In Language, Truth & Logic, Ayer puts forth his own version of the verification principle. [tags: Language, Truth & Logic, principle of verification]

1828 words
(5.2 pages)

Positivism - Positivism Positivism is a scientific approach to sociology (the science of society As Keat and Urry ('social theory as science', 1975) note: 'Positivism is concerned only with observable phenomena. It involves establishing law-like relations between them through the careful accumulation of factual knowledge. This occurs by means of observation, experimentation, comparison and prediction.' The terms' sociology' and 'positive philosophy' (positivism) were both coined by Auguste Comte (the founder of Sociology), an educated philosopher, born on January 19th 1798 in Montpellier, France. [tags: Papers]

981 words
(2.8 pages)

Racist Positivism in Latin America - The mutability of the postcolonial relationship between Indians and the republics becomes most apparent after 1850. The ideals of liberty and equality went astray in the late nineteenth century being destabilized by an upswing of another form political policy, liberalism. This liberalism was interwoven with racism and sexism, and colored by positivist interpretations of science, society and knowledge that were becoming common currency in Western Europe. In order to understand the reaction to liberal policies of native populations in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, it is important to focus on the scientific method that was applied to social phenomenon at the time. [tags: World History]

1168 words
(3.3 pages)

Exploring Research Methodologies: Positivism and Interpretivism - Exploring Research Methodologies: Positivism and Interpretivism Before a researcher can initiate a research project, they face the confusion and the range of theoretical perspectives, methodologies, methods, and the philosophical basis that encompasses them all. This seemingly meticulous structure for the research process is in fact aimed toward providing the researcher with a ‘scaffolding’, or a direction which they can go on to develop themselves to coincide with their particular research purposes. [tags: essays research papers]
. 15 Works Cited

2105 words
(6 pages)

Alfred Jules Ayer's "Language, Truth and Logic," the Major Thesis on Logical Positivism of its Time - In 1936 Alfred Jules Ayer published a book named, Language, Truth, and Logic. At the time of its publication, it was understood to be the major thesis of Logical Positivism (Macdonald). In order to understand the Verification Principle, one must first become somewhat familiar with Logical Positivism. Logical Positivism is a school of philosophic thought that combines empiricism, the idea that observational evidence is indispensable for knowledge of the world, with a version of rationalism incorporating mathematical and logico-linguistic constructs and deductions in epistemology, the study of knowledge (Log Pos). [tags: Alfred Jules Ayer, Language, Truth and Logic, Logi]

995 words
(2.8 pages)

Overview of Market Research -. Marketers mainly embark on marketing research in order to understand how and why things happen. Research is defined as a careful study or undertaking that is done to find or generate new knowledge about a phenomenon (Merriam-Webster Dictionary). Research is conducted using a methodology which is simply the paradigm, methods, tools, strategies and analysis used to gather data and analyze about the phenomenon as depicted in figure 1 (Oates, 2009). Figure 1 Research methodology adapted from Oates (2009) Methodologies are based on a set of paradigms, which are a set of beliefs that the research subscribes to. [tags: marketing, positivism paradigm]
. 7 Works Cited

941 words
(2.7 pages)

The Marxist Crime Perspective on Juvenile Delinquency of African Americans - Introduction Countless studies from respected sociologists, criminologists, and psychologists have suggested several theories as to why juvenile delinquency exists. The theory this paper uses to explain juvenile delinquency is the Marxist perspective of the Conflict Theory. What this paper seeks to achieve is to show how this theory is conceptualized, how it causes juvenile delinquency particularly for African Americans, statistics on African American juveniles, and why it could lead to a life of crime as juveniles transition into adulthood. [tags: conflict theory, positivism, juvenile delinquency]
. 8 Works Cited

2699 words
(7.7 pages)

The Relational Nature of Species Concepts - The Relational Nature of Species Concepts ABSTRACT: Édouard Le Roy as early as 1901 observed the existence of an intellectual movement seeking to break from traditional positivism and set for himself the task of drawing up the program of this new positivism. Noting that this program precedes the Vienna Circle, I endeavor to determine its nature and to evaluate its impact on logical positivism. Viewed in this light, the discussions between Le Roy, Poincaré and Duhem appear more prolonged and substantial than is usually thought. [tags: Species Positivism Essays]
. 21 Works Cited

3452 words
(9.9 pages)

Karl Marx - Chose one of sociology’s founding “figures” and critically assess his or her particular contribution. There are many of sociology's founding figures that have extremely well-built ideas, practices and studies that I could explore, but one renowned philosopher stands out amongst the crowd, and that person is named Karl Marx (1818-1883). In this essay I aim to explore and critically assess his ideas, theories, and studies in his contribution to sociology, and if his ideas, theories and studies are useful to this contribution to sociology. [tags: sociology, marx, positivism]
. 12 Works Cited

1744 words
(5 pages)

Passion or Money? That is the Question - A person walks by. Completely average, completely not worth paying attention to, but they walk by. They could have been famous from inventing the ‘next great thing’ but instead nobody knows their face from another, because the person walking never did complete their passion, and everyone just keeps going throughout their day, never realizing the potential in one another. That person could have been following their passion in their work, and they would have had been everything that is desirable in this earthly world, but instead of chasing their dreams- what they called a fantasy- that individual settled for the perfect life of mediocrity. [tags: Outcomes, Positivism]
. 12 Works Cited

1816 words
(5.2 pages)

Nietzsche’s Concept of Eternal Recurrence - Friedrich Nietzsche is a German philosopher who lived in 1844 to 1900, and his proposition on eternal recurrence was one of his most discussed works. The concept states that the world is eternally self – destroying, then self – creating, over time. He radicalizes the Christian concept of eternity and combines it with simple reasoning to come up with an innovative concept. This paper will discuss in detail what eternal recurrence is and the implications of such a concept on free spirits, and whether adopting such a belief will make a person’s life better or not. [tags: Philosophy, Positivism]
. 1 Works Cited

1227 words
(3.5 pages)

Comparing Positive and Natural Law - Comparing Positive and Natural Law “Do what you believe is right.” This is a phrase common to us all, brought to our attention by parents, reinforced by teachers, and preached by leaders. But how does one define what is right. Is it what we believe in our hearts, or is it what we know is acceptable. This is a predominant dilemma that can be traced throughout society, and is the main focal point of Sophocles’ play Antigone. Written in 441 B.C. Antigone is one of the earliest records of the conflict between Natural law and Positive law. [tags: Positivism Philosophy Philosophical Essays]

1441 words
(4.1 pages)

The Positivist Post-Positivist Paradigm: Understanding the Social World of the Indigenous People - The positivist-post-positivist paradigm is the most appropriate paradigm for research regarding the subject matter of Northern Frontier, Northern Homeland by Thomas Berger (1988). This paradigm states that social science research pushes towards western cultures causing other regions to adapt to western ideas. According to Travers (2010), “[t]he physical and the social sciences are products of western culture in a specific historical moment. [s]cience is a modern phenomenon, emerging in step with capitalism, industrialism, global expansion, and a liberal philosophy” (p. [tags: Social Science]
. 4 Works Cited

1281 words
(3.7 pages)

Positive Psychology: The Effects of Positive Emotions - Positive psychology describes the effects a positive attitude can have on one’s enjoyment of a situation, people, and life as whole. If one is able to find something good about every situation they encounter, then their overall life experience will be positive. It explains that one’s mindset determines the outcome of a situation, including how well they get along with people around them. Positive emotions are capable of changing not only one's outlook on life, but also their life as a whole. By viewing every situation in a positive way stress can be reduced, and both physical and mental discomfort will be limited. [tags: positivism, physical therapy, mental illness]
. 10 Works Cited

1432 words
(4.1 pages)

The Positivist School of Criminology - The positivist school was created in the 1800's and was based on the principle that the only way to truly understand something in society was by looking at it from a scientific point of view (Adler, Mueller, and Laufer 2012). There were many people who contributed to the positivist school, however the person who first placed an emphasis on a scientific approach was Auguste Comte (Adler et al 2012). By approaching criminology in a more scientific way, a lot more progress was made, as people began to consider the reasons for criminal behavior from a different perspective. [tags: Criminology Essays]
. 1 Works Cited

888 words
(2.5 pages)

Positivist Crimonology - Positivist criminology is a method in which data is collected, using observable factors, to explains why people commit crimes or act deviant (Beirne& Messerschmidt, 2006). A positivist theory call Anomie theory was created by Emile Durkheim, but I agree with Robert Merton's/Cohen's explanation of it. Merton thought society gives goals to individuals, with out the tools to obtain them, in which this causes deviant behavior. Merton talks about goals being set for individual's which can't always be obtained legally. [tags: Crime, Reflections]
. 1 Works Cited

1306 words
(3.7 pages)

Positivist and Constructionist Theories: Basic Differences - Positivist and Constructionist theories: basic differences There exists conflicting theories among sociologists in the area of determining why a person is considered to be a deviant, and the reasons behind why he or she has committed a deviant act. From a positivistic perspective, deviance is based on biological or social determinism. Alternatively, from a constructionist perspective, deviance is created and assigned by society. Both perspectives seek to give a theory for why a person may become known as deviant. [tags: deviant theories, determinism]
. 2 Works Cited

920 words
(2.6 pages)

The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx - The positivist tradition in anthropology, suggested in the Erikson text to have begun following the release of The Course of Positive Philosophy by August Comte between 1830-1842 describes anthropology as the “position that social phenomena can, and should, be investigated 'objectively,' without reference to the personal opinions or the cultural context of the investigator” (Erikson, & Murphy, 2010, p. 10). The early modern study of anthropology is essentially an articulation of Comte's views on how human societies should be examined. [tags: positivist tradition, erikson, anthropology]

1253 words
(3.6 pages)

Research Analysis: A Discussion of the Four Worldviews - Introduction This paper will provide a hypothetical discussion of how each of the four “worldviews” (post-positivism, constructivism, advocacy/participatory, and pragmatism) might apply to the proposed study. It will refer to the topic paper developed during the class RSH9101B (Research Topic, Problem, Purpose, and Questions) with the assistance of Dr. Kenneth Gossett, class mentor. The portion of the Topic Paper to be used will be the problem statement, which will provide the foundation for this discussion and completion of this assignment. [tags: Research Analysis ]
. 2 Works Cited

2174 words
(6.2 pages)

What is Social Science? - Human evolution and the dramatic social change accompanying progress and transformation demands a uniform discipline which assesses human interaction and the social world issues that pervade society. Hence it was in the context of extraordinary societal change, the Enlightenment period, that the development of a human science or ‘social science’ emerged, defined as the ‘attempt to explain social phenomena within the limits of available evidence” (Lewins, 1992, p.5).The concept of a social science can be further understood from a philosophical stand point where the work of social scientists can be classified in terms of a positivist or non-positivist position. [tags: Social Science]
. 4 Works Cited

1426 words
(4.1 pages)

The Importance of Integrated Production System in the Manufacturing Industry. - CHAPTER 3 Research Methodology 3.1 Introduction The chapter 2 literature review emphasized several approaches and key academic theories for the examination of role of integrated production system in the manufacturing industry to enhance the productivity. At this stage, it is crucial to expand knowledge and understanding of the philosophy and methodology of research. It is essential for the selection of most suitable methods to reach at the consistent and authentic conclusion according to the defined research objectives. [tags: Business Management]

2390 words
(6.8 pages)

Psychology Takes Roots in the United States - Introduction Behaviorism started slowly in the United States in the early 20th century but John B. Watson brought this new way of psychology to the forefront in the world of psychology (Greenwood, 2009) with his teaching on measurable things (Dewey, 2007). Behaviorists in America in the mid-twentieth century desired to explain and regulate behaviors and even create set laws that could describe said behaviors (Dewey, 2007). Watson (1913) states that psychology, according to behaviorists, is an objective and experimental part of science which needs little self-analysis similar to that of chemistry and physics. [tags: Psychology ]
. 10 Works Cited

1420 words
(4.1 pages)

A Critical Evaluation of The Issue of Taking an Item from Work - The act of stealing items from work can be considered as a crime under criminal statute. The theft act 1968 states that a person is guilty of committing a crime of theft if that person ‘dishonestly appropriates property belonging to another with the intention of permanently depriving’. In saying that the four main criminological presepectives, which include: classical, positivist, interactionist critical criminology, interpret the act of stealing an item from work differently. Ultimately, the issue of taking items from work is important as the idea of what constitutes stealing from work can be blurry. [tags: the theft act, classical criminology]
. 16 Works Cited

1877 words
(5.4 pages)

Research Methods and Design - Abstract Using required reading, discussions, and quizzes for references, I have produced in this assignment a scholarly document that addresses three topic areas: (a) philosophy of research, (b) core concept for research design, and (c), other approaches to research. I assessed explicit knowledge-base description of key concepts and questions related to the topic area. The purpose of this assignment was to demonstrate necessary proficiency in identification, articulation, and application, of related components characteristic of the social sciences. [tags: Research Methods, Research Design]
. 4 Works Cited

2660 words
(7.6 pages)

Values in Urban Studies - Introduction: In Urban Studies the two theoretical frameworks of positivism and standpoint ideologies hold slightly ontological and epistemological differences in the question of value free science. I will argue from a standpoint perspective that values do and should come into urban studies research because values allow us too empirically and rationally understand urban processes from the perspective of the liberation of gender and heterosexist oppression. First I will develop a working definition of positivist and standpoint frameworks. [tags: Values Ethics Sociology]
. 8 Works Cited

2173 words
(6.2 pages)

Blaike Norman's Approaches to Social Enquiry - There are different ways in which researchers can use in order to establish the theoretical hypothesis they sought to establish. Before setting out on a research, the researcher must choose a research problem, the question to be addressed by the research, the strategy to be employed in the research, establish any assumption or hypothesis evolving around the research problem and the outcome expected. According to Blaike Norman in his book the ‘Approaches to social enquiry’, there are about ten research paradigms that have been classified into classical and contemporary research paradigms. [tags: Research Paradigms, Social Theories]
. 1 Works Cited

803 words
(2.3 pages)

Blaike Norman's Approaches to Social Enquiry - There are different ways in which researchers can use in order to establish the theoretical hypothesis they sought to establish. Before setting out on a research, the researcher must choose a research problem, the question to be addressed by the research, the strategy to be employed in the research, establish any assumption or hypothesis evolving around the research problem and the outcome expected. According to Blaike Norman in his book the ‘Approaches to social enquiry’, there are about ten research paradigms that have been classified into classical and contemporary research paradigms. [tags: Research Paradigms]
. 1 Works Cited

950 words
(2.7 pages)

What are Ontology and Epistemology? - What are ontology and epistemology and why are they important in social science research Introduction The study of any particular science involves embracing particular and specific ontology, epistemology and methodologies that are different from each other. Ontology is the concept that defines and explains the essential types of truth (Blaikie 2009). Every field of science constitutes its own ontology and in most cases two types of ontology exists: formal ontology and domain ontology (Blaikie 2009). [tags: Philosophy, Truth]

1722 words
(4.9 pages)

Effective Educational Practices - Due to the very nature of educators all across this nation being in an age where accountability is the driving force behind educational systems, leaders must look at changing the way they do things by doing educational research to meet the standards of No Child Left Behind (NCLB). According to Lodico, Spaulding, & Voeglte (2010), meeting NCLB requirements makes knowledge of educational research an essential component of professional preparation for all educators (p2). In order for educational discrepancies to be corrected, educators must develop and deepen their skill set about the research approaches that can be used to bring reliability and validity to any program being utilized by our edu. [tags: Educational Issues]
. 5 Works Cited

2289 words
(6.5 pages)

Sociological Theory: Positivistic, Interpretative, And Critical - Sociological Theory: Positivistic, Interpretative, and Critical Comment on the three types of sociological theories, explain and argue, based on your library or Internet research, which type of theory is the most appropriate theory for sociology to adopt. The three general types of sociological theory are positivistic, interpretive and critical theory.In determining which theory is the most appropriate for sociology to adopt,a basic understanding of each theory's strengths and weaknesses is necessary.In defining each of these theories, it is important to determine the ontological basis orthe theory's basis for determining what is knowable; the epistemological basis or the theory's relation. [tags: essays research papers]

1875 words
(5.4 pages)

Aspects of Criminology - Criminology is defined as an interdisciplinary profession built around the scientific study of crime and criminal behavior including their forms, causes, legal aspects, and control. There are many aspects in the field of criminology. These aspects include the areas of research involved, the criminology schools of thought, theoretical developments and the people involved in creating and developing the theories. What role do criminologists play in the field of criminology. The term criminologist is used to describe any individual who is employed in the criminal justice field regardless of formal training. [tags: feminist, criminal behavior, criminologists]
. 5 Works Cited

1963 words
(5.6 pages)

The Heresies of Thomas Hardy - The Heresies of Thomas Hardy Thomas Hardy is widely recognized as a poet who went against the conventions of his contemporaries by calling religion into question. Hardy's writing style is so prone to allow random natural events to decide the course of his novels that he often seems to be asking why God, if he existed, would let such bad things happen to basically good people. Another philosopher who expressed heretical views about conventional religion during Hardy's era was Auguste Comte, founder of positivism. [tags: Biography Biographies Essays]
. 2 Works Cited

516 words
(1.5 pages)

Research Methodology - Introduction This chapter aims to explain the research methodology carried out throughout the research study. Firstly the selected research design is defined and described. This is followed by an explanation of the research approach and subject paradigm chosen for the research. Subsequently, this chapter focuses on describing the secondary data methodology used in the literature review of the research. Later, the information regarding to the primary data methodology is given. This section explicates the reasons behind the selection of a quantitative approach as well as the instrument employed to collect the data. [tags: Research Analysis ]

2173 words
(6.2 pages)

Review on What Aspects of Vocabulary Knowledge Do Textbooks Give Attention To - Introduction This paper is devoted to the discussions about three main areas of the selected article-- What aspects of vocabulary knowledge do textbooks give attention to. In first place, an examination of the possible philosophical assumption, which seems existing ontologically and epistemologically behind the research approach. Greener(2011) suggests knowing of some widely debated philosophical ideas would give researchers more chances accomplishing good researches. Because such knowledge could throw a light in the way scholars choose and organise certain methods. [tags: Education Methods, Deductive Research]

1932 words
(5.5 pages)

Human Imperfection Illustrated in Hawthorne's The Birthmark - It is hard to say that one is human and perfect at the same time. Human beings are not capable of achieving perfection; if that would be so, humans would stop being humans. By nature the human race is full of flaws, some appearing as early as in the womb. From defects in the body, to defects in the mind, to the mistakes that one makes in quotidian life, it is impossible to deny that human imperfection exists. To try to manipulate humans into perfection is not only impossible, but it takes away the very essence of being a human being. [tags: The Birthmark]

900 words
(2.6 pages)

Classical Theory: Cesane Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham - Crime have existed over many centuries, different eras affect the flow of crime and within those eras. Furthermore amongst individuals, there was different way of thinking into how to reduce and eliminate occurred. The act of crime cannot be eliminated, as different individuals have different perspectives of crime and for theses reasons, have different methods of advocating and eliminating crime. This essay will firstly explore the views of Classical Theory, by looking at Cesane Beccaria, the father of Classical theory and Jeremy Bentham, the founder of Utilitarian and explore how there influences are incorporated into laws and regulations, around the world. [tags: feudalism, capitalism, biological theories]
. 6 Works Cited

1636 words
(4.7 pages)

The Extent to Which Logical Positivists Proved that God Talk is Meaningless - The Extent to Which Logical Positivists Proved that God Talk is Meaningless When Ludwig Wittgenstein wrote "The world is all that is the case. The world is the totality of facts and not of things" he was not only beginning a book but also a movement in philosophy called Logical Positivism. Wittgenstein was not the founder of this new movement but rather it came from a group of thinkers in Vienna in the 1920's (called the Vienna Circle) who took his ideas to create, what they called, the Verification Principle. [tags: Papers]

830 words
(2.4 pages)

The Verification Principle and Ethics - In order to understand the Verification Principle, one must first become familiar with Logical Positivism. Logical Positivism is a school of philosophy that combines empiricism, the idea that observational evidence is indispensable for knowledge of the world, with a version of rationalism incorporating mathematical and logico-linguistic constructs and deductions in epistemology, the study of knowledge (Wikipedia). The Verification Principle as A.J. Ayer states, is a statement is cognitively meaningful if and only if it is either analytic or in principle empirically verifiable. [tags: Verification Principle, rhetoric, ethics, ]

643 words
(1.8 pages)

Ethical Philosophies and the Hippocratic Physician - Ethical Philosophies and the Hippocratic Physician Twenty four centuries ago, Hippocrates created the profession of medicine, for the first time in human history separating and refining the art of healing from primitive superstitions and religious rituals. His famous Oath forged medicine into what the Greeks called a technik, a craft requiring the entire person of the craftsman, an art that, according to Socrates in his dialogue Gorgias, involved virtue in the soul and spirit as well as the hands and brain. [tags: Philosophy Medicine]
. 7 Works Cited

1785 words
(5.1 pages)

Compare and Contrast Criminological Theories - Criminological theories interpret the competing paradigms of Human Nature, Social Order, Definition of Crime, Extent and Distribution of Crime, Causes of Crime, and Policy, differently. Even though these theories have added to societies understanding of criminal behaviour, all have been unable to explain why punishment or treatment of offenders is unable to prevent deviancy, and thus are ineffective methods of control. The new penology is a contemporary response that favours the management of criminals by predicting future harm on society. [tags: Models of Criminology]
. 2 Works Cited

3235 words
(9.2 pages)

How the Victorian Age Shifted the Focus of Hamlet - How the Victorian Age Shifted the Focus of Hamlet 19th century critic William Hazlitt praised Hamlet by saying that, "The whole play is an exact transcript of what might be supposed to have taken pace at the court of Denmark, at the remote period of the time fixed upon." (Hazlitt 164-169) Though it is clearly a testament to the realism of Shakespeare's tragedy, there is something strange and confusing in Hazlitt's analysis. To put it plainly, Hamlet is most definitely not a realistic play. [tags: Shakespeare Hamlet Essays]
. 5 Works Cited

1444 words
(4.1 pages)

Defending Longino's Social Epistemology - Defending Longino's Social Epistemology (1) ABSTRACT: Though many agree that we need to account for the role that social factors play in inquiry, developing a viable social epistemology has proved to be a difficult task. According to Longino, it is the processes that make inquiry possible that are aptly described as social, for they require a number of people to sustain them. These processes not only facilitate inquiry, but also ensure that the results of inquiry are more than mere subjective opinions, and thus deserve to be called knowledge. [tags: Science Scientific Philosophical Papers]
. 10 Works Cited

3566 words
(10.2 pages)

The Usefulness of Sociological Theories in Explaining Crime and the Control of Crime - The Usefulness of Sociological Theories in Explaining Crime and the Control of Crime This paper seeks to explore the usefulness of Sociological Theories in explaining crime and whether in doing so there arises implications for probation practice. I shall begin by providing a brief explanation for the historical development of criminological thinking, starting with Classicism and moving onto Positivism both which lay the foundations for the development of sociological theories in the 1960’s and 1970’s. [tags: Papers]

3034 words
(8.7 pages)

Husserl, Carnap, Heidegger, and Wittgenstein - Husserl, Carnap, Heidegger, and Wittgenstein ABSTRACT: Phenomenology and logical positivism both subscribed to an empirical-verifiability criterion of mental or linguistic meaning. The acceptance of this criterion confronted them with the same problem: how to understand the Other as a subject with his own experience, if the existence and nature of the Other's experiences cannot be verified. Husserl tackled this problem in the Cartesian Meditations, but he could not reconcile the verifiability criterion with understanding the Other's feelings and sensations. [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]
. 6 Works Cited

3604 words
(10.3 pages)

Research Philosophy - Research philosophy, refers to the development of knowledge adopted by the researchers in their research (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2009). In other words, it is the theory that used to direct the researcher for conducting the procedure of research design, research strategy, questionnaire design and sampling (Malhotra, 2009). It is very important to have a clear understanding of the research philosophy so that we could examine the assumptions about the way we view the world, which are contained in the research philosophy we choose, knowing that whether they are appropriate or not (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2009). [tags: Ontology, Epistemology]

745 words
(2.1 pages)

Corporate Social Responsibility in Transition Economy of Romania - Overview of the research: “Corporate Social Responsibility in transition economy of Romania” August 2010 Abstract The paper will look very concisely at the historical evolution of the social theory in order to emphasize the complexity of contemporaneous concept and their importance in researching management issues. This paper will also enunciate the role of the theoretical framework in researching management topics identifying theoretical orientation or paradigm of the research, formulating hypothesis and clear defining the aim and expectations of the research. [tags: Social Responsibility Essays]
. 7 Works Cited

1655 words
(4.7 pages)

Perceptions of the Work Environment in Stenden University Hotel and Their Effect on Job Attitudes? - In society there’s little room to escape working for a living. You need a job to survive, to succeed and be wealthy and ultimately happy. It could be in a multimillion dollar organization, a franchise, a family, or your own entrepreneurial company, whatever type of job it is, it is work. And because work is such an essential part of adult’s lives, its effect on our well being and happiness is logically large. Therefore it is pivotal not to perceive work as cumbersome and unsatisfactory but a place you have a positive attitude towards in order for its affect to be positive on whatever aspect of our lives that it affects. [tags: Psychology ]

506 words
(1.4 pages)

Origins of Behaviorism - Origins of Behaviorism Behaviourism originated with the work of John B. Watson from 1913. Behaviourism is based on the following sets of claims: (1) Psychology is the study of behaviour. [tags: Papers]

1716 words
(4.9 pages)

Freud's Psychology of Religion - Sigmund Freud, born in 1856, was originally an Austrian medical doctor who would eventually continue on to become the Father of Psychoanalysis. Freud remains an analogous symbol with psychology, not only because of his psychological school, but also because of the controversy surrounding many of his theories. While Freud’s proposed stages of psychosexual development are some of his most criticized concepts, his view of religion also proved to be controversial. Freud was raised Jewish, but his ideals changed by psychoanalyzing himself. [tags: Psychology]
. 1 Works Cited

1447 words
(4.1 pages)

Thomas Hardy's Philosophy Influences His Writing - Thomas Hardy's Philosophy Influences His Writing In a letter written in 1920, Thomas Hardy comments, "it is my misfortune that people will treat my mood-dictated writing as a single scientific theory" (Hicks 111). Hardy did not write under the pretenses of a single belief system, but was "so often misunderstood that he had to try and give some clear and precise statement of his beliefs" (Hicks, 110). Although he did not fulfill the role of philosopher, often these statements were read as Hardy's "philosophy." According to Jacobson, the task of a philosopher is to "develop articulate, settled systems of thought about the nature of the world, about the moral constitution of mankind, and abou. [tags: Biography Biographies Essays]
. 3 Works Cited

799 words
(2.3 pages)

The Differences Between Popular Science Disciplines - Positivism was the ideology that initially underpinned all disciplines of early sciences and describes a belief that the complete objective truth can be reached. Natural scientists today hold the universal belief that a truth can repeatedly be exampled until it is falsified by way of methodical research, indicating a positivist approach which incorporates an objective reality. However as time and advancements has progressed, social scientists have embraced the ideology of probabilism. This is the notion that where the subject matter incorporates numerous anomalies and contingencies, the appropriate action is to downsize the explanations to accurately fit the probabilities of the work (Duus-O. [tags: Natural Sciences, Social Sciences]
. 8 Works Cited

1289 words
(3.7 pages)

Frederick Taylor’s Principles of Scientific Management and the Multiple Frames for Viewing Work Organizations - Frederick Taylor’s Principles of Scientific Management and the Multiple Frames for Viewing Work Organizations (graphics not included) Dr. Frederick Winslow Taylor in a speech called "The Principles of Scientific Management" delivered on March 3, 1915 to the Cleveland Advertising Club exhorts his audience to take on a new, revolutionary view of the way work should get done. To combat the time-ingrained attitude of workmen throughout the world that "it is in their best interest to go slow instead of fast," Taylor proposes four principles of the scientific management of work. [tags: Organizations Management]

1245 words
(3.6 pages)

Assessing the View that Religious Language is Meaningless - Assessing the View that Religious Language is Meaningless In recent times one of the most compelling and interesting arguments against God and religion has come from linguistic philosophy. In very basic terms the argument points out the fact that religion must necessarily use language in order to express abstract ideas such as God, love and so on, and in doing so commits a fallacy because as soon as such ideas are put into words they become meaningless. However, this is a rather large generalisation; the specific arguments go into a lot more detail and most vary in some way from this basic idea. [tags: Papers]

1930 words
(5.5 pages)

Leo Strauss and Reinhold Niebuhr - Leo Strauss and Reinhold Niebuhr represent two giants of twentieth century political philosophy. The Jewish classicist and Christian theologian contemporaries articulated profound thoughts on political philosophy and earned recognition for their work on the subject of international relations. Indeed, their prominence within the field of international relations continues into modern times and contemporary debates. The Bush administration’s Straussian policy and President Obama’s favoring of Niebuhrian ideals emphasize the radical differences between Strauss’ invocation of natural right and Niebuhr’s cautious and engaged approach to international relations. [tags: Political Philosophy, US Foreign Policy]
. 1 Works Cited

2119 words
(6.1 pages)

A Philosophical Examination of Language - A Philosophical Examination of Language "Philosophy is language idling." —Ludwig Wittgenstein Language and philosophy have an intimate connection to one another; without a philosophical examination of the meanings and structure of language, we cannot easily ascertain the objective truth of the statements we make, nor can we usefully discuss abstract concepts. The philosophy of language seeks to understand the concepts expressed by language and to find a system by which it can effectively and accurately do so. [tags: Phylosophy]
. 10 Works Cited

3566 words
(10.2 pages)

Cinema and Anthropology Description - Visual anthropology plausibly carries on from the idea that culture is noticeable through perceptible characters entrenched in ceremonies, gestures, artifacts and rituals positioned in artificial and natural settings. Culture is visualized of as bringing out itself in scripts with intrigues connecting actors and actresses with props, lines, settings and costumes. The cultural nature is the computation of the state of affairs in which individuals take part (Ruby, 2000). If an individual can observe culture, then researchers ought to have the ability to make use of audiovisual technologies to document it as data open to presentation and analysis. [tags: cultural nature, filmmaking, photo history]
. 4 Works Cited

920 words
(2.6 pages)

The Colonies of Culture:The Postcolonial Self in Latin America and Africa - The Colonies of Culture:The Postcolonial Self in Latin America and Africa The colony is not only a possibility in the geographical; it is a mental dominance that can imperialize the entire self. Entire continents have be domineered, resources completely dried, and at colonialism’s usual worst, the mental devastation of the indigenous culture has left a people hollow. Indigenous culture is no longer that. In the globalized world, no culture is autonomous; culture cannot breathe without new ideas and new perspectives, perspectives that have traditionally come from the people who have lived within the culture. [tags: essays papers]

2368 words
(6.8 pages)

East Geman border guard: Let him go. - My fellow justices of the court, we find ourselves at a crossroads, advised to convict of murder a man whose prior government would have lauded, not punished, him for his actions. We must weigh the unjust loss of a human life against the injustice of convicting a man under an ex post facto law. Hans’ death is a terrible tragedy, but we must rule with respect to our system’s principles and reverse the lower court’s decision. This man’s former superiors, both his commanding officers and his government, emphasized that, whatever happened, it was better to kill a man than let him escape across the border. [tags: Law]

2175 words
(6.2 pages)

The Marxist Crime Perspective of Conflict Theory - Introduction Countless studies from respected sociologists, criminologists, and psychologists have suggested several theories as to why juvenile delinquency exists. The theory this paper uses to explain for juvenile delinquency is the Marxist perspective of the Conflict Theory. What this paper seeks to achieve is to show how this theory is conceptualized, how it causes juvenile delinquency particularly for African Americans, statistics on African American juveniles, and why it could lead to a life of crime as juveniles transition into adulthood. [tags: Juvenile Delinquents, Lower Class Families]
. 10 Works Cited

1903 words
(5.4 pages)

Linking Body Type and Criminal Behavior - Many researchers have tried to address the issue of crime, and more specifically criminal behavior. One factor, which causes much debate, is whether body type directly affects criminal behavior. Is it possible to determine who will be a criminal simply by examination of a person’s body type. Researchers like William Sheldon, Sean Maddan, Jeffrey T. Wlaker, and J. Mitchell Miller believe that there is a link between criminality and body type. Others like Chris L. Gibson and Kevin M. Beaver believe otherwise. [tags: Criminology]
. 4 Works Cited

2162 words
(6.2 pages)

Community Power and Participatory Decision-Making - Critical theory appears unpopular probably because of its ideological bias as claimed by Pease, Form and Rytina (1970). Liebert and Imershein (1977) similarly assert that a common theoretical tendency in community research is a distinctly “political theme that tends to find the greatest efficacy and power, and indeed the most universal structure of power, to lie in a certain organized diversity, a pluralist state of subsystems within an integrated system of elites” (pp. 191-192). The primary aim of critical theory, as James Bohman (2005) notes, is to thwart oppression. [tags: Karl Marx, Social Constructionism]

1225 words
(3.5 pages)

Validity: External, Internal, and Construct - Validity In research paradigm, validity and reliability are the most basic characteristic issues used in qualitative and quantitative analysis. Validity as a psychometric standard is embedded in a positivist approach, which is relevant in reflecting on the qualitative point of view ascribed to the establishment of the truth. In view of this, definition of positivism ascribe to a theory systematic to validity. Additionally, other empirical conceptions culminating from resided validity include truth, deduction, universal laws, evidence, reason, and actuality among others. [tags: Business Management ]
. 5 Works Cited

2019 words
(5.8 pages)

Essay on Justice - Essay on Justice ‘Justice is such an elusive concept that it hardly seems worthwhile for a legal system to strive to achieve it’. Justice is something that we all want from a Law and believe should be an integral part in any legal system. However, the meaning of Justice is very difficult to define. There are many aspects of justice that we may question about; i.e. is a particular law just. Is the legal system just. Much of the issue of justice is very controversial and raises questions such as whether the combination of Law and system produce a just result. [tags: Papers]

1478 words
(4.2 pages)

The Verification Principle - The Verification Principle I would like to start this essay by explaining the background to Logical Positivism and the Verification Principle. The Verification Principle is a philosophical doctrine fundamental to Logical Positivism. Logical Positivists argue that a statement is meaningful only if it is either empirically verifiable or else tautological (You can get to its truth by the meanings of its terms). They believe that if you can give evidence to back up what you said then that evidence was what your statement was all about, e.g. [tags: Papers]

823 words
(2.4 pages)

Durkheim's Interpretations - Durkheim's Interpretations Later studies have tended to confirm Durkheims original interpretations. Halbachs (1930) argues that many of Durkheims correlations, religious and domestic, may be more effectively explained in terms of rural and urban life. Gibbs and Martin (1964) have argued that the belief of status integration provides a more quantifiable perception of integration. Later studies adopt a positivist approach. [tags: Papers]

332 words
(0.9 pages)

Nishida Kitarô's Studies of the Good and the Debate Concerning Universal Truth in Early Twentieth-C - Nishida Kitarô's Studies of the Good and the Debate Concerning Universal Truth in Early Twentieth-Century Japan ABSTRACT: When Nishida Kitarô wrote Studies of the Good, he was a high school teacher in Kanazawa far from Tokyo, the center of Japanese scholarship. While he was praised for his intellectual effort, there was no substantive agreement about the content of his ideas. Critics disagreed with the way he conceived of reality and of truth as contained in reality. Taken together, I believe that the responses to Nishida's early work give us a window on the state of Japanese philosophy in the early twentieth century. [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]

3122 words
(8.9 pages)

The Relevance of Behavioral Psychology to Instructional Technology - The Relevance of Behavioral Psychology to Instructional Technology Behavioral Psychology Defined John Watson wrote a paper in the Psychological Review in 1913 and defined behavioral psychology or behaviorism as …a purely objective experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior. Introspection forms no essential part of its methods, nor is the scientific value of its data dependent upon the readiness with which they lend themselves to interpretation in terms of consciousness. [tags: Psychology Psychological Papers]
. 7 Works Cited

1509 words
(4.3 pages)

Reasons for the Migration to Canudos, the Vale of Tears - In order to describe the reasons of the migration to Canudos it is important to understand what Canudos was and was not. The population of Canudos was not a group of religious fanatics that came together to throw off their oppressors. Instead it was a group of people seeking a viable and dignified existence in a time of economic and spiritual alienation. The people of Canudos were not a homogenous group of barbaric savages, but a cross section of the sertanejo population (Levine p.158). While Canudos did threaten the labor supply of the oligarchy and supported the monarchy, it was not violent in nature. [tags: World History]

438 words
(1.3 pages)

Social Research - AISHA GITTENS-HIPPOLYTE Taking Two Of The Theoretical Approaches To Social Research Discussed In The Module, Demonstrate The Connections Between Their Ontological, Epistemological And Methodological Assumptions. Which Method Or Methods Would Proponents Of Each Theory Favour As A Result Of Their Assumptions. In order to understand the production of sociological knowledge one must first examine the thought processes that lay behind each piece of research. Before a particular subject matter is researched, the researcher firstly makes certain assumptions about that matter. [tags: essays research papers]

1830 words
(5.2 pages)

Sociology as a Science - Sociology emerged in the eighteenth century after a period of intense cultural, social and economic changes. As people began to try to understand these changes, there came a period called the Enlightenment. This is also considered by Hamilton (1992) to be a “time characterised by the development of distinctively modern forms of thought about society and the realm of the social.” The Enlightenment encouraged a new way of thinking marked by application of reason, experience and experiment to the natural and social world. [tags: Sociology Essays]

1143 words
(3.3 pages)

The Problem of Science - The Problem of Science In this paper I deal with the status of science in Heidegger's thought. Particularly, I pose to Heidegger the question whether science can constitute a problem for philosophy, once one has cast doubt on philosophy's rank as first science whose prerogative is to establish the truth-criteria of the particular sciences. To express it with the convenience cliches always afford, this is the question of knowledge in the postmodern epoch. The paper traces the transition from the early "fundamental ontology" to the late notion of a thinking that is to come at the end of philosophy. [tags: Heidegger Philosophy Papers]

4072 words
(11.6 pages)

Social Psychology - There are many explanations for the origins of modern social psychology. It is therefore important to consider that social psychology cannot be traced back to one single source of origin (Burr, 2003). Hence, this is the reason why there are debates of what social psychology is. Allport (1985) described social psychology as the study an individual’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviours which are influenced by the actual, imagines, or implied presence of others. As seen from this definition there is a direct link between social science and the individual psychology (Sewell, 1989). [tags: Psychology, Natural Science]

1691 words
(4.8 pages)

The Nature of Quantitative Research - The Nature of Quantitative Research Quantitative Research Defined: According to Huysamen (1997), "descriptions of quantitative research typically discern a cycle of successive phases of hypothesis formulation, data collection, analysis and interpretation." Using a deductive approach, quantitative research seeks to establish facts, make predictions, and test hypotheses that have already been stated. A large part of the data analysis of quantitative research is statistical, striving to show that the world can be looked at in terms of one reality; this reality, when isolated in context, can be measured and understood, a perspective known as positivism (Gay & Airasian, 1999). [tags: Quantitative Research Papers]
. 8 Works Cited

1337 words
(3.8 pages)

Philosophical Aspects of Literary Objectiveness - Philosophical Aspects of Literary Objectiveness ABSTRACT: Gadamer’s hermeneutic philosophy avoids the problem of literary objectiveness altogether. His approach witnesses the general fact that an indifference towards literary objectiveness in particular, leads to a peculiar neglect of par excellence literariness as such. It seems obvious, however, that the constitutive aspects of the crisis of literary objectiveness cannot be shown to contain the underlying intention of bringing about this situation. [tags: Philosophy Philosophical Papers]
. 3 Works Cited

3384 words
(9.7 pages)

The Gendered Division of Labour Within the Domestic Sphere - Sociological study on the gendered division of labour within the domestic sphere has perennially been characterised by evidence of a clear inequality concerning the allocation of unpaid chores within the home between men and women (Warren, 2003:734). While men have traditionally been regarded as primary breadwinners, the management of home-maintenance has remained largely women’s responsibility (Breen & Cooke, 2005:47). A number of theories exist to explain this unequal distribution of domestic labour, in particular the economic exchange model (which argues that women perform domestic duties in ‘exchange’ for financial support from their husbands), and the gender display model, which asserts. [tags: Gender]
. 14 Works Cited

1821 words
(5.2 pages)

Aging, Death, Dying and End of Life Care - The purpose of this essay is to analyse various theories on ageing, death, dying, and end of life issues from different perspectives such as: biophysiological theories, psychosocial theories; and taking in consideration the cultural, historical, and religious implications around the aforementioned life stages. One will also discuss important issues relevant to social work practice such as dignity, autonomy, and their relationship with the concept of a successful ageing and a good death. One considers these areas important since they upheld anti-discriminatory practice and may perhaps promote the development of personalised care pathways, as well as fair and justifiable social policies. [tags: social issues, theories on ageing]
. 22 Works Cited

2419 words
(6.9 pages)

Social Darwinism: Herbert Spencer and William Graham Sumner - Social Darwinism is term that is used for application of biological concepts of Charles Darwin to sociology and political science. The goal of this paper is to introduce two most known social Darwinists – Herbert Spencer and William Graham Sumner. Herbert Spencer is sometimes named as the founder of social Darwinism. However, labeling him as such is problematic. Spencer came with his concepts and with the term “survival of the fittest” before he got to know Darwin’s. His ideas are based on the theory of Lamarckian inheritance by French biologist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. [tags: biological concepts, evolutionary theories]
. 13 Works Cited

1402 words
(4 pages)