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Religion and Rationality: Essays on Reason, God and Modernity serves as a collected volume of important essays and other writings on religion and reason by Jürgen. religion and rationality: essays on reason, god and modernity (studies in contemporary german social thought) by jürgen habermas Start by marking “Religion and Rationality: Essays on Reason, God & Modernity (Studies in Contemporary German Social Thought)” as Want to Read: Religion and Rationality: Essays on Reason, God and Modernity by Jürgen Habermas, 9780262083126, available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. Religion and Rationality: Essays on Reason, God and Modernity (Studies in Contemporary German Social Thought) [Jürgen Habermas] on Amazon.com. *FREE* shipping on. AbeBooks.com: Religion and Rationality: Essays on Reason, God and Modernity (Studies in Contemporary German Social Thought) (9780262582162) by Habermas, Jürgen and a. Religion and Rationality. Essays on Reason, God and Modernity. Eduardo Mendieta places Habermas's engagement with religion in the context of his work as a whole. Religion and Rationality: Essays on Reason, God and Modernity - Kindle edition by Jürgen Habermas, Eduardo Mendieta. Download it once and read it on your Kindle. Research Library; Religion and Rationality: Essays on Reason, God and Modernity Jürgen Habermas London: Blackwell 2002 ISBN 0745624871 Jurgen Habermas Religion and Rationality: Essays on Reason, God, and Modernity Published: February 05, 2003. Habermas, Jurgen, Religion and Rationality: Essays on.Categories
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The differences between the traditional and modern organization and why clearly defining organization helps managers
The traditional organizationonal structure was established and became popular in the first part of the 20th century, a time, where multilayered beauracracies were seen as the most effective and efficient.
When I think of modernity I think of change. Modernity is the act of how and why things progress, move forth and new ideas emerge throughout history. It is also the effect of these changes. Such changes can be seen from about 1400 to now. It is these changes that have occurred that allow us to live in a post modern society. Modernity is the act of change throughout history. Religion is constantly changing. This force unifies and separates people.
Postmodern Culture Constitutes A Crisis In Representation
In a world of delusions, illusions, allusions and virtual realities, but also of constructed realities and of ‘deconstructed’ textualities, the means of representation, the signs, have dissolved in the ongoing.
Changes in religion occur for many reasons. Some may see any particular aspect of their religion overlooked and set out to tell people why we should reexamine our beliefs and change the method in which we worship. Martin Luther was on person who had seen how his method of worship should change. Ultimately he established a new form of Christian religion called Lutheranism. This movement and movements similar to his has changed the way some will worship for centuries. Of
Southern Dialect in William Faulkner
In the writings of William Faulkner, the reader may sense that the author has created an entire world which directly reflects his own personal experience. Faulkner writes about the.
all the things that bring about new ideas and change discovery has to be perhaps the most influential to change. There are two ways in which discovery is accomplished one is to search for something new and the other is to make findings purely be accident. Both methods of discovery often happen through observation. The finding of Charles Darwin and his observation of finches is one of the most influential and controversial discoveries of our time. If not for his
Southern Dialect In William Faulkner
In the writings of William Faulkner, the reader may sense that the author has created an entire world which directly reflects his own personal experience. Faulkner writes about the area.
observations science and religion would be very different than they are today. If discovery leads to change then education must as well. Once education was only for the rich and powerful. But as education spread man has changed. Education has helped lead man to towards more knowledge changing how society and the individual thinks, acts, and socializes. This knowledge has allowed man to recreate him/her-self, it has given man the ability to logically act on choice
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Defense Mechanisms In Lit essay
Who hasn t been hurt if their life? A loved one passing away, a lover tearing at the heart, a rejection of something desired. Everyone has certain stresses in which they have to deal with and react to. As the burden of the stress mounts, certain levels of anxiety arise. How do humans behave in t
Death Penalty essay
The death penalty is irrevocable. "In case of a mistake, the executed prisoner cannot be given another chance. Justice can miscarry. In the last hundred years there have been more that 75 documented cases of wrongful conviction of criminal homicide. The death sentence was carried out in eight of the
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Dearfield, Colorado There have been categories established to explain the origins of cities and towns in an attempt to categorize them according to their purpose and the reason for their existence. According to Metropolitan State College of Denver Geography professor John R. Kilcoyne, this sim
Religion is a term that represents people’s beliefs and cultural systems. Everyone is free to join any religion as long as it is registered with a certain government. Each religion has its own doctrines and tenets. This is why, the one leading the group should be a person with the distinctive moral values. The main function of religion is to unite human beings with their gods.
In one country, there may exist a various number of religious groups as, for instance, in Korea. Not long ago, Korean ancient beliefs have been associated with the religion group called Mugyo. Among their principles, the precious place occupies an ancestral veneration. This ritual has been a part of the traditional practices since the late centuries. All the same, the practices were affected by the wars that took place in Korea. Unfortunately, a lot of the people were forced to run away from their own country in order to look for a homage elsewhere. Naturally, they absorbed a new vision of things having been influenced by the environment of their new home countries. They were offered the new religious beliefs as a first priority over their own culture.
After the end of the wars, some of these people went back to their native country and introduced their new believes to those in Korea. As a result, it caused the diffusion of the Korean culture boundaries. The appearance of the new religion movements was the another factor that contributed to the change of the traditional religions. The doctrines of these new movements taught that some of the cultural rituals, like ancestorial veneration or spirit consultation, involved the superstitious practices. In comparison, such religion as Christianity strictly condemns devil worshipping or idol worship. This religion has gained many followers, who having joined it tried to evade their cultural rituals, as they had been brainwashed and accused of not being godly.
The other factor that also contributed to the changes in the traditional religions is urbanization together with a modernization .These two components come along with the influence of the western culture. The local people moved to the urban centers in the search of jobs .Here they met people from the different communities with whom they interacted and exchanged their views. This rural urban movement affected their religious believes, and at a certain time, the Korean government burned the Mugyo religions from the urban areas. This forced the followers living in the urban areas to move from shamanism to a different dominion.
The Korean culture was eroded due to the points mentioned above. Today, there is even a division between North and South Korea as results of the wars that took place earlier. Some people have thought it was wise to retain their culture. That is why they have brought changes in the traditional believes so they fit in the new regime and were accepted by everyone. The innovations were implemented on the most criticized practices. The following is well discussed below:
Mugyo is a religion that originated from the Southern Korea. It is also termed as the religion of gods or the Korean shamanism. It has a strong belief that the world is filled with spirits and ghosts. This religion has been renovated and made look like an archive of the Korean culture. It is associated with the veneration of ancestors which is termed as jerye in the Korean community.
Veneration of ancestors is an activity that has been taking place in Korea since the past centuries. It is usually a practice associated with the honoring the ancestors, and taking care of them in terms of giving a support. This can include giving them gifts in the form of food, cigarettes, money, est. The Korean people believe that veneration of ancestors is one of the main stages among the other eight that one need to pass through, so as to complete their duties on earth. They associate it with filial duties to their parents. They take their time to honor their ancestors as they believe that all their physical exhaustion is a consequence of the hard work the parents did while bringing them up.
In Korea, this religious practice is said to be a result of the combination of the Confucius teachings and the one of Laozi. Traditionally, the Koreans used to offer the food as sacrifices on the altar made for the deceased as it is stated in the Koreans mode of communication with the spirits in the spiritual world. At other times, they would visit their tombs and leave the gifts there.
According to the beliefs involved in Mugyo, the veneration of ancestors was to be carried out by a woman who was known as mudang or shaman. This woman had to be from the ch`onmin social class. It was also a person from a poor family a low class person. Her main duty was to serve as an intermediate between the livings and the spirits. The Po spirit was the spirit believed to remain on earth after a person has died, and if not well taken care of went rooming from one place to another. Despite the fact that this religion had been dismissed by the government claiming that it mostly involved fallacy actions, due to the growth of self confidence in ones culture, it has found a way to remain in the communities minds and hearts. Families in china believed that, when a person died, his/her soul continued to exist within the community, and it had powers to protect the family members from the wrong doers. The family members of the deceased were expected to feed the spirit by donating food and wine to the predecessor in a family temple. The rituals were hold on the tombs where their deceased was buried. The Korean people believed that a person had two souls, the Po and the Hun. The Hun was the spiritual soul that was supposed to enjoy a trip to the place of immortals; while the Po was considered to be a body spirit that remained on earth, and was the one they took care of. In addition, people were offered the Joss sticks instead of the prayers, which contained a message that the family wanted to pass to the deceased.
There is a considerable difference of how veneration of ancestors was performed in the past, and how it is done in the modern days. For example, we have seen that in the past, the shaman was a woman but in the present days the ritual is performed by men. It is clear that the Korean people have made changes to enable it to be accepted by others in the community, starting with the government that thinks that this religion involves a lot of superstitious activities.
Despite the fact that new religious denomination has cropped up, there are people who still perform this ritual. Unlike how it was being performed in the early days, where people used to feed their ancestors daily, nowadays they have one day in April during the Qingming, when they take time to respect their ancestors.
This ceremony is conducted with the presence of only 10 men who are called Wei. It is held on a mountain where the men practice climbing behind the spring field. Their destination usually is a village cemetery. On their way, they move without stopping or talking. The cemetery contains piles of mud that is set in rows. These rows represent a certain age group. There is also a crucial difference in that, namely, the one who conducted the ritual in the past was a woman called mudang; those who perform the ritual these days are men called Wei.
At the first place, the men reach the graves of the people who has died recently, and at last, move on to the rest rows systematically. The main attention is paid to the graves of their family members. One man known as Wei Minghe notifies the rest ones symbolizing the deceased house; and explains that if they manage to mud on the grave before the dawn, the dead soul will acquire a tiled roof; bud if they are late, then the deceased gets a thatched roof.This ceremony is conducted just before the sunrise.
Christianity is a religion that has acquired quite a number of followers in China in the recent years. This religion took part in the renovation of the Korean rituals. In the past century, it had absolutely refused to get involved in the shamanic rituals. Unfortunately, its followers faced persecution and were sentenced to death. As a result, they opted to incorporate these practices in their new doctrine .They chose as well a concrete date on which they would carry out their memorial services to their ancestors.
I suppose, that any cultural practices of the community should not be dismissed as it is a spiritual legacy of the people. Some of the rituals has been practiced since times, when those who are being venerated now were alive. The Koreans believe that, venerating their ancestors is one of the ways to show the filial grief, therefore, it should not be denounced as it has its own benefits.
Through the commemoration of the ancestors, one gains the protection and the relief that the spirit would not room around causing disasters in the society as it is believed. Veneration of ancestors should then be a strong and valued cultural practice in the whole Korea. I think, the religion will never get to the end in Korea, as we can now see that they have managed to save their legacy, and no matter how the government tries to burn it, it finds a way to revive.Buy Religion and Modernity in Korea essay paper online
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Modernism: We Have Technology.
The evolution of the relationship between Modernism and Christianity. Where do I go from here?
If you are an avid historian you will know that Western history can be divided up into categories: Medieval, early modern, modern and not postmodern. For political sake Modernism is considered to be the period between the dall of the Bastille in 1789 (google search it… great history) and the fall of the Berlin Wall 1989. The French Revolution as the starting point of the modern age is taken as the ultimate symbol of enlightenment. In the French revolution all of its feudal system and the power of the church gave way to liberty and equality of all. Of course this is the “Camelot” theory… way different to the actual truth. As an end to the Modern era, the Berlin wall coming down symbolized the fall of one of the most powerful modernist systems, Marxism.
Modernism is considered to be a movement of ideas. A new way of thinking about humanity and the world it also defined the end of the middle ages. Although we live in a post-modernist era, essentially the core ideas are modernist. One of the greatest developments in the Modern era was science. It is a symbol of modernism. The greatest success story of mankind. It certainly offered a foundation and in many ways became the face of modernism.
The basic idea is that science could solve anything. With that tool in hand humanity could understand the reality of all things. The modern era was an optimistic time. Intellectually people could be sure about what was true; Scientifically, knowledge would grow all the time; socially, technology would conquer illness, there would be growing prosperity in all. Humanity was succeeding. The world was expanding, new countries founded all the time. The Western Modern Man was dominating the whole world.
This optimism was based on a strong feeling of certainty. The use of having a reason, and experimenting. The two main systems about how to.Comments
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Religion is one of the richest sources of morality, ethical principles and social consciousness. As the form of social morality, religion changes and influences modern society, changes individuals, interferes with other religions. As religion is a wide spread worldview and behavior of the certain community, defined by faith, different spheres of social existence depend on it. Throughout most of human history, religion has played a crucial role in the construction of social reality and the man was the most effective and widely used means of the social control in society.
In the social structure of society traditionally religion is one of the most important social institutions, including the system of social norms, roles, beliefs and procedures (rituals, ceremonies), formal and informal codes of conduct, and organizational forms.
Different religions perceive the war and peace dilemma in the common way: violence is inappropriate, until the subject of the controversy is the religion itself. All profits, sacred books and traditions are strict about the morality of the war: a person should fight for his faith war it is the “war for peace” (Gopin, 26).
Walter Wink, Christianpacifist theologian, claims that according to the Christian knowledge about Jesus Christ, a man should turn another cheek, ceasing the idea of peace and fighting with violence. Nevertheless, Christian tradition supported wars as acceptable means for the main aim – spreading of Christian faith (Smock, 43).
Islamic religion emphasizes the importance of independence and unity within territorial, cultural and religion aspects. As the part of this preservation, muslins have permission to protect religion in common way. Nevertheless, main monotheistic religions (Islam, Judaism, Christianity) are connected within their structure, origin, that is why perception of other religions is proclaimed in holy scriptures - Bible, Koran and Torah. For example, Christianity admits the divinity Jewish Tanakh, Islam accepts Jewish profits Moses, Abraham, David (Gopin, 45). That is why historical connection between religions influences interrelation between these religions.
Durkheim (14) claims that "if religion has given birth to all that is essential in society, it is because the idea of society is the soul of religion". Analyzing this point of view Barakat (123) emphasizes “Religious forces, then, are social forces. Far from being external and above society, religion is in its image; it reflects all its aspects”.
One of the main principles in Judaism in its perception of the war and violence is a principle of personal example and total involvement. The main idea in this sphere is the desire to understand and respect other communities and religions. Modern society based formation of social consciousness and tolerance on common issues. Sympathy in interaction with other religion representatives is a pledge for coexistence of different religions in religiously pluralistic world.
Religious pluralism refers to different parts of social, political and cultural peculiarities of the certain society. This concept deals with interaction, coexistence and interference between different religions within the same social or cultural space (Banchoff, 4). Religious pluralism influences media: all religious holidays, peculiarities and taboos should be mentioned. Media as the mainstream source of information should be fair, respectful and tolerant.
Theologian Barakat (44) examined Arabic values, traditions and religiosity and claimed that “Governmental control over the mass media and culture is accompanied by the banning of publications produced in other Arab countries”. He also emphasized the way Arabic society protects religious secrecy by forming mass media taboos on political, religious, and sexual topics and terms or even criticisms of other rulers and governments that are friendly (Barakat, 44).
upp (65) perceives liberal media as the suppressor of Christian tradition wide spreading. Showing Christianity as greedy and unspiritual religion, media spreads non-Christian extremism, popular nowadays. Unfortunately, this kind of religion minorities’ popularization is rather caused by commercial benefit of media sources.
Violence for a higher cause is the natural phenomenon for fanatical religious minorities (Banchoff, 4). The representatives of religion minorities consider spreading of other religions as oppression, and inserting of alien values as the aggression. For example, Islam perceive ceasing of materialistic values as unnatural influence, that is why, politics study this question, analyzing different way of universal perception of spiritual values, acceptable for all religions on the level of mass media spreading.
Globalization caused the mutation of religious identities, limiting and fitting them for technocratic society (Banchoff, 79). In modern society, scientific breakthrough influences religion, changing dogmas and rules. For example, Christian religion admitted existence of planets and atoms, whereas common scientific concepts were punished few centuries ago. However, globalization influences religion in different spheres, making it technocratic and questioning its spirituality.
Modern society considers religion as the factor that is important enough to examine, however, it should be suppressed as the problem of international and intercultural misunderstanding (Banchoff, 87).Ethical principle of tolerance explains the importance of learning and understanding religious differences, perceiving them as the part of human identity (Banchoff, 91).
Universal ethical values are under threat in modern materialistic society, as a result religions are oriented on preservation of morality in society. All religions play common role in modern world, ceasing spiritual values. Materialistic values influences social conscious, people appears indifferent to objective virtues, such as dignity, family, culture, heritage and nature, while religions remind their importance.
Thoreau analyzed this concept in his work “Walden”, in which person becomes alienated from urbanity to find oneself, learning to understand real virtues, natural blessings instead of imaginary aims and ends, discovering personal possibilities. Nowadays aims and goals are often formed by technocratic consuming society.
Explaining the way Muslims perceive urbanization, Barakat (89) claims that Muslim religious life exists in terms of a rural-urban dichotomy. Monotheism in Arab cities monotheism helps to preserve traditions and rituals. However, “Muslims in rural areas emphasize hierarchical relationships and express belief through reliance on sainthood, symbolism, and mystical practices” (Barakat, 89). As a result, Muslims preserves their religious identity in all forms of social being.
Foregoing the real aim and values, material obsession primarily implemented as the measures for family wealth became the main reason for existence. Oriental religions emphasize the importance of unity with nature as the process of harmonization, developing virtues such as family values, thrusting aside destructive material obsession (Foss, 13)
Analyzing spiritual and materialistic values, different philosophic schools perceived religion as the source of social morality formation. However, since the governing role of religion was substituted by individual hierarchy of values, different philosophers, such as Aristotle, Sartre and Nietzsche suggested that each person forms his or her own scale of values. However, this opinion was close to the Buddhist perception of ethics, which emphasizes the ultimate role of individual morality in objective ethics formation.
For example, Marx denies religions in general and Christianity in particular, as oriented on financial speculation and corruption. According to his ideology, religion makes an individual even more dependent on the material well-being. As a result, Marx denies its positive influence on public morality (Tucker, 72).
Freud’s perception of Christian religion brings certain controversy. On the one hand, Freud wrote that religion is a universal obsessive neurosis. He also said that religious doctrine, psychologically conceived, is an illusion, the projection of infantile fantasy of soothe people who can not resist the suffering, uncertainty, and death.
Barakat claims that regarding totem as the first object of worship, Freud positioned this religion as father substitute. The strength of religion is explained by Freud as one of several ways human beings seek to realize their repressed wishes and pleasures and avoid the pains of life (Barakat, 124). Considering this substitution as psychologically caused, Freud believed that society tries to put responsibility of their own life on outer sources of independent power. This post-Marxist theory was also developed by existential philosopher Sartre. He claimed that divine conception of human being is the projection of society that tried to avoid responsibility. As religion underlines the unimportance of mortal life in comparison with eternal paradise, society use beliefs as excuses.
The interrelation between individuals in society, which plays the main role in their sympathy towards each other find its manifestation in Christian religion. Common perception of God forms sympathetic understanding between people. The idea of the divine creature, which embraces all objective virtues, as the ultimately good energy that exists in each person, influences social interdependence and morality (Freud, 71).
Freud usually regarded as a Jew, who took his Jewish ethnic identity, but rejected all religious things, including Christianity. However, Vitz (58) believes that Freud was a public atheist, but he was certainly not a natural atheist. Freud’s perception of Church was a dual against Christianity. Vitz hypothesizes that Freud had a strong, life-long, positive identification.
Tocqueville claimed that potential involvement of an individual it the religion tends to form spiritual and ethical values, helping in the formation of personal perception of ethics. Tocqueville’s conception of “habits of the heart” begins with spiritual priorities. Personal values give ethical background and develop personality (Mayer, 252). Tocqueville explains “habits of the heart” as specific category that comprises family life, religious convictions and participation in local politics. Tocqueville understands these spheres of social live as interrelated.
He emphasizes influence of Christianity on American democratic society that based its social ethics formation on Christian religion to avoid the materialism, greediness, and other threats of capitalistic worlds. Tocqueville explained devoutness of citizens in USA, religiosity of Americans, as the influence of family as the core individual morality formation.
However, emphasizing the role of family in American religiosity, one should mention that Christian tradition perceives a woman as a potential carrier of Christian tradition in a family. Stark (48) in his article "Reconstructing the Rise of Christianity: the Role of Woman" states that ancient sources and modern scholars unanimously agree that the initial addressing to Christianity occurred more often among women.
Woman since pre-historic times played role of domestic goddess in family. Carrying house, children and taking care of members of her family, the spiritual heritage was a part of woman’s responsibility. The natural irrationality, intuition, emotionalism, and sentimentalism of women helped them to become worshippers.
The female role in the religion has shown the example of sacrifice as the limitation for the biggest purposes: the sacrifice of time, deeds, comfort, and the life as the whole for a child’s sake. Any woman comes through different life examinations that can be understood as sacrifices during different periods of her life: the pain, experienced during the childbirth, time devoted to the child, - all these actions bring pleasure and happiness, natural and sincere in the ends, while the process may be not as pleasant as the satisfaction of the fact that a woman is carrying her own child.
The Buddhism understands sacrifice in the common way: a person’s own limitation in pleasure brings the happiness on the higher level, that contemporary world temptation. Religion as the form of social consciousness influences all social spheres in modern world.
However, perception of religion as the source of morality influences different aspects of individual perception, such as faith as the sacrifice. Different religions understand sacrifice in a different way, noticed even in the analysis of the translation of the word “sacrifice” that is misleadingly understood by media as the process of giving away something valuable (Carter, 3).
Nevertheless, the meaning of sacrifice can be understood on both material and non-material level, as the “gift” to the divine, or as the limitation for faith. Considering sacrifice as the satisfaction of God, humanity was far from the understanding of the real purpose of sacrifice.
Philosopher and theologian Barakat (213) analyzed perception of labour among ancient Egyptians and came to conclusion that being hard working slaves, they experienced satisfaction of faith. This is another point of view on self-sacrifice that functioned as a psychological aspect of perception of religion and sacrifice during the whole history of humanity. He notes that "Slavery will never disappear from the world. Each age has its slavery and its slaves. The paradise of the poor will never be on this earth" (Barakat, 213). Sacrifice of worshiping is the projection of labour sacrifice. An individual or society in general that can’t obtain happiness in mortal life is ready for self-sacrifice for happiness in paradise.
Analyzing these facts it is possible to come to conclusion that in modern religiously pluralistic society, all religions play role of spiritual source, formation of values and ceasing of virtues, contesting rather with globalization and materialism, than with each other. However, religious diversity doesn’t provoke intercultural violence.
Globalization influenced perception of religion, changing interrelation between adherents of different faiths. Tolerance as the main virtue of nowadays religion representatives teaches to respect representatives of other religions. Nowadays media representation of religion is a distorted point of view that influences stereotypes and gives misleading perception.
Nature is one of the most important sources of spirituality, as much as environmentalism that studies influence on a man’s perception of the technocratic society that put under the threat nature, gaining doubtable materialistic aims, forgetting about objective spiritual values, such as family environment, and feelings.
Different philosophic schools perceived religion, church and faith in a special way. For example, Marx considered religion as the form of business that ruins spiritual values instead of forming them. Freud emphasizes the emptiness of religion, explaining the fear that influences a person’s desire to pray.
Tocqueville underlined the importance of religiosity for American society, explaining family and Church as the moral basis for American capitalistic society. Explaining the role of family for the formation of personality one should mention the role of woman in Christian tradition and religion in general.
Women were carriers of domestic comfort and their children’s sake. That is why religion was a form of woman’s sacred mission, while their emotionality and irrationality made them perfect mediators. Moreover, carrying a child and giving birth, a woman experienced the contact with another world, becoming closer to religion. Caring a child is also a serious sacrifice for every woman that gets her closer to her faith.
Sacrifice as the process of limitation for high reasons is another subject for sacrifice, understood by Oriental Religions that teach for high purposes without making material object main aims.
Modern world changed perception of religion in general. Monotheistic religions used to be an ultimate source of truth, whereas now religion plays role of spiritual source, cultural and historical formation of personality, ethnical identity. Religion helps to find answers for serious questions, shows that people differ a lot but they have a lot in common. Western philosophers wanted to thrust aside religion, nevertheless, religion forms world perception, influence people, helping to find their identity.Religion and Values in Modern Society. Custom Religion and Values in Modern Society Essay Writing Service || Religion and Values in Modern Society Essay samples, help
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