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Essay/Term paper: Circulation systems over china

Circulation Systems Over China

Introduction: The Earth's atmosphere is in continuous motion: movement which is
attempting to balance the constant differences in pressure and temperature
between different parts of the globe. It is this motion which carries water from
the ocean to the continents to provide precipitation and moves heat energy from
the tropical regions toward the poles, warming the high latitudes. It is this
circulation which plays a basic part in maintaining a steady state in the
atmosphere and generating the climatic zones which characterise different parts
of the earth. China, from its latitudinal location, mostly belongs to the mid-
latitudes, with a small part to the low latitudes. It is located at south of
Siberia and the north of the tropical Pacific. At this distinctive location, the
country is affected by the alternate seasonal expansion and contraction of the
polar continental highs and tropical maritime air masses, along with the
seasonal shifts of the overhead sun. These changes in the pressure systems over
Asia generate the unique Asian monsoon circulation which prevails over China
throughout the year.

Surface Pressure Field and Winds: For any fluid to initiate movements, pressure
gradient must exists. Therefore, for a close understanding of the circulation
system that operates over China, we should start from discussing the seasonal
pressure distribution at sea-level over the Asia-Pacific region, which is the
driving force for the air movements in China. Most clearly to be seen, the
largest difference in the atmospheric pressure occurs between winter and summer,
whereby January and July can be considered as representative months. In January,
a typical cold anticyclone with central pressure above 1,040 hectopascals (hPa)
developed over mid-Siberia and Mongolia (Mongolian High); while a strongly
established cyclone over the north-western Pacific Ocean (Aleutian Low). Since
both pressure systems practically lie in the same latitude of 50�° to 55�°N, a
steep pressure gradient occurs which produces strong and persistent north-
westerlies over Northeast China. A third pressure system which affects China,
although limited only to south-eastern China, is the equatorial Low over
Australia and New Guinea. The vast territory of East China lies in the middle of
the path along which the Mongolian cold air tries to rush southward into the
Equatorial Low. Northerly and north-easterly flows prevail over the eastern half
of China. As a typical feature, the Mongolian High is only a rather shallow
pressure system. It disappears at the 500-hPa level. West China which has a
higher elevation, therefore feels little of its influence; Yunnan highlands are
even predominated by south-westerlies during most of the winter. The pressure
pattern at sea-level during summer differs completely from winter conditions. In
July, a strong cyclone is located over the north-western Indian-Pakistan
subcontinent, with central pressure below 1,000 hPa. Although it covers an
extensive area that the circulation around it affects almost all of the
continental Asia, the pressure field shows a relatively weak gradient so that
for China only a moderate variation of pressure is experienced. An extensive
subtropical high with pressures exceeding 1,025 hPa is situated in the western
North Pacific to the east of the China coast. Because of these two intense
pressure systems, the surface wind distribution over China in the summer season
is characterised by southerlies in the eastern parts and easterlies over the
Northwest. In contrast with the Mongolian High in winter, the heat low in July
is quite thick. In 500-hPa level, the low pressure cell still exists, which is
about the highest level it could attain. Even the surface winds over the Tibet
Plateau in West China are governed by the heat low during the summer season.
During winter as a whole, January experiences the strongest anticyclonic
pressure field; whereas in summer, the circulation over China is predominated by
the heat low centred at the Indian-Pakistan region. Long term records indicates
that the period from June to September comprises the summer pattern, typified by
July. The period from October to May comprises the winter circulation pattern,
typified by January. (Zhang, 1992)

Monsoon: We can conclude that the prevailing winds over most parts of China are
from north, north-west and north-east in winter, whilst in summer, they follow a
persistent southern direction which varies from south-westerlies to south-
easterlies. This marked seasonal variation in wind direction (over 120�°) is
often defined as 'monsoon', which results from the seasonal variation of the
thermal structure of the underlying surfaces and involves different air masses,
producing noticeable effects on the weather and climate of the areas concerned.
Chinese meteorologists often define monsoon as an alternation of two kinds of
air-flows with different properties: prevailing winds direction differ largely
in winter and summer; since winter and summer monsoons originated in different
regions, there are substantial differences in their air-mass properties; and
finally, they are accompanied by various weather phenomena, thus bringing a
great diversity of seasons. (Manfred, 1988) The monsoon index. which expresses
the relative strength of the alternating wind directions, is often applied as a
indicator for the characteristic of the change of wind direction. For the
monsoon near the surface, the area of maximum monsoon indices is found south of
the Nanling Mountains at the Guangdong and Fujian coastal region. A minimum
index is found over Sichuan and eastern Yunnan, but the indices increase again
further west to another maximum over southern Tibet. This implies that the
minimum over Sichuan and Yunnan represents a boundary area between two monsoons.
Eastern parts of the area belong to the East Asian monsoon, which is well
established in both summer and winter, although winter monsoon is stronger;
monsoon precipitation is associated with the polar front. The parts west of the
boundary are affected by the Indian monsoon, which is most noticeable in summer
and rains fall mostly within the area of the summer monsoon air. Apart from the
directional variation of the monsoon, another distinctive property is the
different nature of the summer and winter monsoons which is governed by their
origin. Due to its origin from mid-Siberia and Mongolia, the winter monsoon can
be characterised by cold and dry air masses (cP). As for every air masses, the
character is gradually averaged out with increasing distance from their origin.
This implies that the dry-cold character of the winter monsoon are weakened from
North to South China, and that over the southern parts warmer and moister air
masses of an oceanic origin may even take over the climatic condition in winter.
However, due to the advancing speed of the winter monsoon, its thermal effect is
still very noticeable even to the southernmost of China. Representing a typical
phenomenon of the winter monsoon, cold waves migrate far southward throughout
China and finally even invade Hainan Island. In summer, warm and moist air
masses of a tropical origin (mT) prevail. They 'invade' China although their
nature is gradually weakened as they are going further into the continent. The
effects of the summer monsoon are negligible over West and North-west China
where geographical and topographical conditions prevent the invasion of the
moist and warm summer-monsoonal air. The different nature between winter and
summer monsoon air masses also leads to a clear seasonal difference in
precipitation. As a general rule, winter represents a dry, summer a wet period.
In summer, the front of the advancing equatorial air masses provides most of the
monsoonal precipitation, while the interior air masses lead to less rainfall and
fine weather which last a few consecutive days. The northward advance of the
front of the equatorial air masses may 'catch-up' the retreating polar air
masses in the first half of June in the middle and lower parts of the Yangtze to
constitute extensive rainfall called "plum rains" (Mei-yu), which is associated
with very hot and damp air, massive low cloud and depressing weather.

Temporary Disturbances: Aside from the seasonal occurrence of monsoons, there
are other periodic circulation systems which affect the climate of China.
Although there are a number of them, I am intended to discuss only some of them
in this section, namely the upper westerly troughs in the westerlies, the extra-
tropical cyclones and anticyclones and typhoons. Except for summer, China comes
mostly under the influence of westerlies, which are divided by the Tibet Plateau
and flow over China as 'northern westerlies' and 'southern westerlies'. Often
come along with these westerlies are troughs and ridges of pressure systems
which are transported from west to east, and some of them are accompanied by
cyclones and anticyclones on the earth surface. The northern branch of
westerlies which carry the majority of the troughs move to the east through
Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia into Northeast China, then into the North China Sea.
While advancing to the east, the troughs located at the southern part of the
waves would affect Gansu, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and North China. The second
branch of the westerlies come from the south of Tibet Plateau originated from
the Mediterranean Sea and North Africa. These westerlies enter China and bring
moist air to southern China. Besides the Mongolia High that we have discussed,
China is also influenced by a high frequency of cyclones and anticyclones. The
cyclones in China are extra-tropical cyclones and some of them are related to
the westerlies discussed. Most of them occur in spring and pass through China in
a west-east direction. Anticyclones in China are more evenly distributed over
the seasons. Their source regions are mostly Siberia and the Mongolian Plateau,
and they often travel through China in a east and south-eastward direction. The
extra-tropical cyclones and anticyclones bring a variety of weather to China,
from rainfall to snow, and from warm, cloudy to cold, clear weather. Typhoons
represent an important weather system in China. They are associated with gales
and torrential rain in South, East and North China. Especially for the typhoon
rainfall, which accounts for more than 50% of the annual total in the coastal
areas of Zhejiang, Fujian and Guangdong Provinces, is of extreme importance to
China's main agricultural regions. The typhoon season is in the period from June
to November, with high concentration from July to October when the formation
criterion prevail. All of the typhoon originated either from North Pacific Ocean
east of Taiwan and the Philippines; and the South China Sea, they generally move
in a east-west direction in the Pacific and some of them may recurve to the
north-east as they approach to the coast.

Conclusion: The climate of China is principally determined by the monsoonal
nature of the area. Nevertheless, we should not forget that China's climate is
also affected by other occasional disturbances that vary from season to season.
Moreover, the monsoonal nature is gradually weaken from its point of origin ¾
the air mass source region. It is therefore debatable whether or not China as a
whole experiences a monsoon climate. In general, Chinese climatologist often
regard Xinjiang, the central and western part of North Qaidam Basin, western
part of the Tibet Plateau, northern part of Inner Mongolia as under non-
monsoonal continental climate type, and the rest of the vast territory is under
circulation-determined monsoon type climate.

JOHN J. H. & JOHN E. O. (1993), Climatology: An Atmospheric Science, Macmillan
Publishing Company: New York.

MANFRED D. & PENG G. (1988), The Climate of China, Springer-Verlag: Berlin

ZHANG J. & LIN Z. (1992), Climate of China, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. & Shanghai
Scientific and Technical Publishers: Shanghai.

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Buddhism in Mongolia: Prefarce to History of Mongolian Buddhism

Buddhism in Mongolia: Prefarce to History of Mongolian Buddhism

For more essays and articles on historical topics, visit the History Archives at Article Myriad

In order to explore the development of Buddhism as Mongolia’s predominant religion and its significance in the country’s cultural and political history, it is important to understand some of the geographical characteristics of this country that are largely unknown to Westerners. It is also important to understand how these traits of physical territory and land boundaries have influenced Mongolia’s political, social, cultural, and religious history. Mongolia is typically considered an Asian nation; however, it shares geographical borders with China on the south and the east, and Russia on the north (Central Intelligence Agency n.p.). Both of these borders are incredibly extensive; the border between Mongolia and China is almost 3,000 miles long, and the border between Mongolia and Russia is 2,200 miles long (Central Intelligence Agency n.p.).

Mongolia also shares a much smaller border with Kazakhstan, which is its neighbor to the west. Mongolia’s geographical position, then, has placed it in contact with at least two diverse cultural influences, and its history has been shaped by the tensions it has experienced as it negotiates being a veritable middle kingdom between the large and politically important countries of China and Russia (Kaplonski 17). In other words, the religion and general society, more so than in many other nations and regions, is significantly impacted by geographical location and the important historical, political, territorial, and other issues caused by the paradox of both this possibility of extreme isolation and long-term contact with other cultures and ideas.

Geographical Conditions and the Historical Antecedents of Mongolian Buddhism

The landmass of Mongolia is impressive, totaling approximately 1,564,116 square kilometers; it is the second largest landlocked country in the world, another fact that has influenced its history in important ways (Central Intelligence Agency n.p.). The vast territory that Mongolia currently occupies was captured in the 13 th century by the famous warrior Genghis Khan, as he is known to Westerners, or Chinggis Khan, as he is known to Mongolians (Central Intelligency Agency n.p.). Chinggis Khan was a significant figure in Mongolian history, for he united disparate bands of Mongols, began to lay the foundation for the development of a cultural identity, and, among other political achievements, facilitated the introduction of Buddhism to Mongolia (Amitai & Biran 245). As Amitai and Biran explain, Chinggis Khan’s insatiable quest for developing a Mongolian empire in the Eurasian region brought him and his supporters into direct contact with people from a diverse array of cultures and religious backgrounds (245). Part of Chinggis Khan’s political strategy was to “exploit the religious allegiances of [his] unsubued enemies” (Amitai & Biran 245), but also, perhaps largely unconsciously, to begin developing a religious identity for the Mongols based on a pastiche of the beliefs that he observed and acquired in his travels.

Prior to Chinggis Khan’s return to his Mongol kingdom, when he brought Buddhism back as a sort of religious souvenir, Amitai and Biran indicate that many Mongols practiced various forms of shamanic religious beliefs, drawn from a wide range of spiritual traditions (246). Christianity was not unknown to the Mongols either, however, as a relatively strong European expeditionary movement brought its religion along with it (Amitai & Biran 248). A large number of people who identified as Mongols who had come from what is now modern-day Iran also practiced Islam, so until the moment of Khan’s rule, Mongolia sustained a variety of religious beliefs and practices that were as diverse as the backgrounds of its people (Amitai & Biran 247; Fagan 35). As Amitai and Biran conclude, “There is no doubt that the Mongols did rely upon servitors from a wide range of geographical and confessional backgrounds….” (247).

These seemingly disparate groups of religious adherents did not, as some observers might assume erroneously, generate profound conflict or a lack of identity among the Mongols. On the contrary, write Amitai and Biran, “the frontiers between different faiths were not impermeable,” (254), and it is most likely that rather than any single one of the groups practicing a “pure” version of its denomination’s beliefs there was an “amalgam” that was uniquely Mongolian (Amitai & Biran 254). This can be explained, in large part, to the psychological and social attributes of a nomadic population, which the Mongols were (Amitai & Biran 254). Yet this comfortable interplay of religions was largely due to the policies and practices of the 13 th century leader, Chinggis Khan, who “invited Muslims, Christians, Buddhists and Daoists here, [according to] Mongolian member of Parliament, Sendenjav Dulam…. ” (Fagan 34). Parliament member Dulam continues by saying that Mongolians have inherited a legacy of religious tolerance that is rare in the world. He goes on to say that “Mongolians are very tolerant in the religious sphere- I’ve never come across anything like it anywhere else” (in Fagan 34). As will be discussed later in this paper, the trend of religious tolerance that was established so many centuries ago is still a prominent feature of contemporary life in Mongolia, despite emergent concerns.

The Mongolian Empire Essay

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The Mongolian Empire
The Mongolian Empire The most savage conquerors of history were the Mongols. The Mongolian empire was the largest land empire of its era and occupied land from the yellow sea.

The Mongolian Empire The most savage conquerors of history were the Mongols. The Mongolian empire was the largest land empire of its era and occupied land from the yellow sea in Eastern Asia to the border of Eastern Europe. The empire included land in China, Korea, Mongolia, Persia as well as parts of Thailand and Russia. The Mongols derived from loosely organized nomadic tribes around Mongolia, Siberia and Manchuria. They lived off their land and the resources provided, and became

Ghengis Khan the Great
His name struck anguish in the hearts across Asia, yet he remains an icon to the people of Mongolia. He could slay thousands without flinching. He was considered.

great warriors. It is believed that the Mongols helped the spread of racial tolerance, religion and trade promotion. The Mongols have also been credited with useful inventions such as paper and gunpowder. The early Empire, which thrived through the later part of the 11th century and into the mid 12th, held within it the great conquests of surrounding lands and the creation of strong leadership. The Later Empire was a period of tolerance for the Mongolian Empire through the late

Ghengis Khan The Great
His name struck anguish in the hearts across Asia, yet he remains an icon to the people of Mongolia. He could slay thousands without flinching. He was considered.

12th century. Chieftains much like the Hunnish tribes ruled Mongolian tribes until one great man named Temujin, or Genghis Khan rose to power as head chieftain. Genghis Khan unified the scattered Mongolian tribes into a great fighting force and a rising empire. He became the undisputed leader and was known as the �Lord of all the peoples dwelling in felt tents.� Genghis aimed to train an efficient and disciplined army as well as to conquer lands for his growing

Life Of Genghis Kahn
Genghis Kahn's destructive path was unique and has yet to be surpassed by any other single person. Genghis Kahn was a famous Mongolian ruler that lived from 1162-1227. He.

empire. Genghis Khan was shrewd and ruthless with great ambition and power. He formed a crew of highly trained officers to travel through the tribes and train people for war. The Mongols specialized in sieging other empires and used specialized tactics such as filling the moats with sandbags for easier attacks. In the Early Empire Genghis Kan hoped to conquer China to expand the Mongolian Empire. His tribes first attacked Xi Xia along the North West Chinese border. He conquered

Genghis Khan
The old world had many great leaders. Alexander the Great, Hannibal and even Julius Caesar met with struggle on their rise to power. Perhaps Genghis Khan was the most significant.

Xi Xia by judging the Chinese Armies and applying tactics for his armies in relation to this. Xi Xia was the centrepoint of the Chinese military and was a great success for Genghis Khan and the Mongols. After Xi Xia, the Mongols approached Northern China. In North China, the Jin Dynasty of the Ruzhen tribe ruled. Genghis Khan and the Mongols attacked in the spring so that their horses would survive the route across the desert. This proves the intelligence

genghis khan
Genghis Khan & The Terrible Mongols Genghis Khan before his father’s death. Temujin had many skills. He was taught to ride horses at a very early age. He was an.

and efficient planning that Genghis excelled at. Although the Mongols seemed well equipped for war against the Jin Dynasty, they were unable to subdue the Manchu people. Tragedy then struck the Mongolian Empire, their faithful and powerful leader, Genghis Khan died in 1227. But not before he was able to focus his ruthless attacks on Russia and Muslim lands in 1218 ;obtaining vast amounts of land at the cost of the Islamic-Arabic culture. Ogotai, the son of Genghis Khan ruled

Genghis Khan & The Terrible Mongols
Genghis Khan & The Terrible Mongols Genghis Khan before his father’s death. Temujin had many skills. He was taught to ride horses at a very early age. He was an.

after his father�s death and led the Mongolians to victory against the Jin Dynasty in 1234. Seven years later, the Mongols threatened Western Europe and raided the lands with armies of over 150,000. Focusing their attacks on Hungary and Poland, the Mongols were succeeding in battles yet fate let them back to Mongolia when Ogotai died and left them without a leader. This led to the evolution into the later Mongolian Empire at a time of greater tolerance. A picture

The old world had many great leaders. Alexander the Great, Hannibal and even Julius Caesar met with struggle on their rise to.

of Genghis Khan It was not until 1279 that a new Khan accepted the role of leader of the Mongolian people. Kublai Khan was Genghis Khans grandson and succeeding in completing his grandfather�s dream by conquering China. This later Empire lasted until 1368 and established a more structural empire. A capital was formed as the centre of the Mongolian Empire, Cambuluc, located near present day Beijing. After conquering China, Kublai Chan focused

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Mongolian History - Rise of Ghengis Khan - Research Paper

Mongolian History - Rise of Ghengis Khan


After the migration of the Jurchen, the Borjigin Mongols had emerged in central Mongolia as the leading clan of a loose federation. The principal Borjigin Mongol leader, Kabul Khan, began a series of raids into Jin in 1135. In 1162 (some historians say 1167), Temujin, the first son of Mongol chieftain Yesugei, and grandson of Kabul, was born. Yesugei, who was chief of the Kiyat subclan of the Borjigin Mongols, was killed by neighboring Tatars in 1175, when Temujin was only twelve years old. The Kiyat rejected the boy as their leader and chose one of his kin instead. Temujin and his immediate family were abandoned and apparently left to die in a semi-desert, mountainous region.

Temujin did not die, however. In a dramatic struggle described in The Secret History of the Mongols, Temujin, by the age of twenty, had become the leader of the Kiyat subclan and by 1196, the unquestioned chief of the Borjigin Mongols. Sixteen years of nearly constant warfare followed as Temujin consolidated his power north of the Gobi. Much of his early success was because of his first alliance, with the neighboring Kereit clan, and because of subsidies that he and the Kereit received from the Jin emperor in payment for punitive operations against Tatars and other tribes that threatened the northern frontiers of Jin. Jin by this time had become absorbed into the Chinese cultural system and was politically weak and increasingly subject to harassment by Western Xia, the Chinese, and finally the Mongols. Later Temujin broke with the Kereit, and, in a series of major campaigns, he defeated all the Mongol and Tatar tribes in the region from the Altai Mountains to Manchuria. In time Temujin emerged as the strongest chieftain among a number of contending leaders in a confederation of clan lineages. His principal opponents in this struggle had been the Naiman Mongols, and he selected Karakorum (west-southwest of modern Ulaanbaatar, near modern Har Horin), their capital, as the seat of his new empire.

In 1206 Temujin's leadership of all Mongols and other peoples they had conquered between the Altai Mountains and the Da Hinggan (Greater Khingan) Range was acknowledged formally by a council of chieftains as their khan. Temujin took the honorific chinggis, meaning supreme or great (also romanized as genghis or jenghiz), creating the title Chinggis Khan, in an effort to signify the unprecedented scope of his power. In latter hagiography, Chinggis was said even to have had divine ancestry. The contributions of Chinggis to Mongol organizational development had lasting impact. He took personal control of the old clan lineages, ending the tradition of noninterference by the khan. He unified the Mongol tribes through a logistical nexus involving food supplies, sheep and horse herds, intelligence and security, and transportation. A census system was developed to organize the decimal-based political jurisdictions and to recruit soldiers more easily. As the great khan, Chinggis was able to consolidate his organization and to institutionalize his leadership over a Eurasian empire. Critical ingredients were his new and unprecedented military system and politico-military organization. His exceptionally flexible mounted army and the cadre of Chinese and Muslim siege-warfare experts who facilitated his conquest of cities comprised one of the most formidable instruments of warfare that the world had ever seen.

At the time of his first kuriltai at Karakorum, Chinggis already was engaged in a dispute with Western Xia, the first of his wars of conquest. In 1205 the Mongol military organization, based on the tumen (see Glossary), had defeated the much larger Tangut forces easily. Despite problems in conquering the well-fortified Western Xia cities, the results were the same in the campaigns of 1207 and 1209. When peace was concluded in 1209, the Western Xia emperor, with substantially reduced dominion, acknowledged Chinggis as overlord.

Ogedi and Continuing Conquest

In compliance with the will of the dead khan, a kuriltai at Karakorum in 1228 selected Ogedei as khan. The kuriltai also decided to launch a campaign against the Bulghars, Turks in the region of Kazan on the middle Volga River, and to complete the conquest of the outlying Western Xia territories. By 1229 Batu Khan, grandson of Chinggis, had defeated most of the Bulghar outposts, and in 1231 Ogedei sent an expedition to conquer the Korean Peninsula.

That same year, Ogedei decided to destroy Jin. He formed an alliance with the Song, then sent Tului southward with a large army into Jin territory. In 1232 in the middle of the campaign, Tului died, and Subetei took command. He continued on to besiege Kaifeng, the Jin capital. Despite the defenders'

Mongol essay writing

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About Us More About Us Sandwiched Mongolia Between Russia And China

Published: 23, March 2015

Mongolia is a land-locked country, located between two super power neighbours, Russia and China with a huge, empty land and small population, and it is economically weak in comparing with its neighbours. Mongols have a truly astonishing history1. Close on eight centuries ago they erupted on the world arena as if out of nowhere. The Imperial power of Mongols of that time made their neighbours be silent and follow the Great Mongols' policies, and locked them into an exclusive relationship with the Empire. Only at that period history Mongols were dominant in the trilateral relationship with two neighbours. Since the mid-seventeenth century, till the end of the Cold War Era Mongolia became, in general, isolated from the outside world and locked, having the relations only with the two neighbours. Might say the country became weak, demoralised and disintegrated and was under their control and dependency. All these changes in their relationship drive me to make some conclusions as follows. Mongolia in the recent past and present was, is and will be influenced by both neighbours in future.


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Historically, we had a very close ties with China rather than with Russia. Russia had presence in our early and later medieval history as well as from the beginning of this century. Our direct neighbourhood with sedentary China has been maintained since the ancient times till now. The late relationship with Russia started from the seventeenth century, while the Russians reached the Yenisei, ten years later the Lena river, in 1644 they were on the Amur river and the mid-seventeenth century they founded their settlements at the southern end of the Baikal lake and Amur basin, like Irkutsk and Khabarovsk. The latter was founded by general Khabarov and renamed after him.

Both our neighbours were frightened of Mongolia, suffered a lot during her rise and power of thousands years and almost were interested to demoralize or destroy its power, i.e. they were happy, when Mongolia was disintegrated and stuck in anarchy and became enfeeblement due to the internal conflict if to compare our southern neighbour with Russia, China was dependent from Mongolia in whole her history. Neighbourhood with Mongolia and, quite often, expeditions and wars provoked by the northern neighbour- almost led Mongols to trouble and drove to the political crisis of all Chinese dynasties, such kind of dependency from Mongols and Mongolia remained till the complete downfall of the Mongolian sovereignty in the mid-seventeenth century. Mongolia of both sides of Gobi desert and the western group of Mongols also became subjects of the Manchu Qing dynasty as well as China itself. Only most northerly group of Mongols, Buriyat Mongols became subjects of the Tsar of Russia as a result of the Treaty of Nerchinsk, concluded between the Russians and Manchus in 1689. Actually, Mongolia and Mongols were divided between their neighbours, some to the north and west under the Russian rule and some to the south under the Manchu rule. Mongols of that time lost their independence, and Mongolia became a part of the Manchu Qing dynasty /1644-1911/. During the existence of Manchu power over Mongolia and China we did not have bilateral relationship on the level of states. Thus, the situation might have remained had it not been for the birth of Mongolian nationalism. In the nineteenth century as increasing numbers of Russian settlers moved into Buriyatia, and Chinese into Inner Mongolia, Mongols in those regions responded by becoming more sharply aware of their national identity and the need to assert it. Nationalism developed more slowly in Outer Mongolia till 1906, when the Manchu Imperial Government under the pressure of the Chinese society was announced as " a New Policy towards Mongolia", which gave the permission to settle Outer Mongolia by the Chinese people and do trade activities and use its land for agriculture and permit mixed marriages. Until that time in Outer Mongolia where the influx of settlers was smaller and the corresponding pressures on the indigenous population were less marked. Nevertheless, it was to be there, in Outer Mongolia, that independent Mongolia was reestablished, when the Manchu Qing dynasty was disintegrated and overthrown in 1911. In the same year "Independent Mongolia" was instituted under the leadership of Bogdo Jebzundamba Khutugtu, the Living Buddha. Later the Government of independent Mongolia announced its independence and establishment of own state to the 9 super power countries of that time, namely UK, France, Germany, USA, Japan, Denmark, Holland, Belgium and Austria. Due to the situation of that time, Mongolia did not receive their recognition, only Tibet established bilateral relationship and signed a treaty with "state of Mongolia" in 1913.

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Mongols under the leadership of some patriotic nobles and Bogdo sought the national independence and reunification of all Mongols and their territories, but two neighbours, the Tsarist Russia and the newly formed Republic of China, did not willingly give up.

From this moment of the history both our neighbours had a different position on the Mongolian independence issue. Russia had its own interest in Mongolia: they wanted to create a buffer zone between China and themselves, so their Government waged a double-track policy, which, on the one hand, encouraged the Outer Mongolian independence. On the other hand, they could not stand for the reunification of all Mongols and pressure new China for the recognition of the Mongolian independence. The concern of the later was partly to create a buffer zone and to protect the interest of the inconsiderable number of Russian merchants and entrepreneurs who were already well established in Outer Mongolia. Aftermath Russia and China considered to have "autonomous Mongolia" in 1913 and later pushed the Mongolian Government to sign a so-called "trilateral treaty of Khyakhta" in 1915. However, Mongolia continued to be divided into the northern (Outer Mongolia) and southern (Inner Mongolia) sections. Later the Russian Imperial Government itself was swept away and Mongolia temporarily lost its independence when the Chinese General Xu Shuzhen gained control in 1919. Yet even while this was happening, the Mongolian nationalism was given a new impetus, this time under the influence of the Bolshevik revolution of 1917.


The Mongolian People's Party (later renamed as the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party) was founded in 1921 and took possession of the capital, Urga. The Provisional Revolutionary Government declared once again an "independence" of Mongolia in July 11, 1921. In the same year, Independent Mongolia was officially recognized by Bolshevik Russia. And the Mongolian People's Republic was proclaimed on the territory of Outer Mongolia in, 1924. Since the victory of People's Revolution of Mongolia in 1921 there was established a new relationship between Mongolia and newly formed Soviet Union on the territory of Russia. That relationship had a history of 70 years till the collapse of the Soviet Union itself. During this period the Russian interest in Mongolia was replaced by the Soviet involvement, and the country became locked into an exclusive relationship with the Soviet Union, its domestic and foreign policies tethered by Moscow that it was, in effect, little more than a Soviet republic. The relationship with its southern neighbour during this period was almost negative. But throughout World War Two changed its relationship with China. Only in 1946, that China recognized Mongolia's independence. When China became the People's Republic in 1949, the diplomatic relationship had been re-established between two countries. Since that time, till the early 60's the trilateral relationship between Mongolia and its both neighbours based on the socialism and Marxist-Leninist ideology and was quite positive. During that "honeymoon", Mongolia signed a treaty of mutual friendship with the PRC, in 1960, and the border between two states marked, in 1962. Later when the southern neighbour had a "Cultural revolution" /1966-1976/ Mongolia once again was closely reflected by the Soviet policies and the relationship with China was in stagnation by two decades. Mongolia of that time became an armed camp: the Soviet and Chinese troops were posted against one another along the Mongolian-Chinese border. Tensions between Ulaanbaatar and Beijing lessened when Sino-Soviet rapprochement began to evolve in the. mid 80's.


The Mongolian-Chinese relationship completely recovered with the withdrawal of the Soviet troops from Mongolia in 1990-1991. Aftermath the collapse of the Soviet Union, Mongolia became really independent from the confrontation of both neighbours and tensions between Ulaanbaatar and Beijing lessened and it became past events in the history of two countries relationship. And "the Buffer state", Mongolia now had a neutral position towards its neighbours. Nowadays, Mongolia has "own voice" on its foreign policy and an equal relation with both neighbours and signed a treaty on friendly relations and cooperation with Russia in 1993 and the PRC in 1994.

The economic relations of Mongolia with two neighbours are different than before.

Though the re-establishment of relations with China in nearly all fields represented a new start and developed very quickly. In particular, the economic relations developed quickly. Thus, according to the sources of the National Development Board of Mongolia, the trade with China totalled 12,5% of Mongolian foreign trade in 1995. In 1996, The trade with China totalled 16.1% of Mongolia's foreign trade, 3.6% exceeding the previous year. Such relations with Russia is currently at the state of stagnation since the collapse of the SovievUnion and the CMEA (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance), caused mainly by the domestic crisis and economic difficulties in Russia. Nevertheless, Russia remains one of Mongolia's leading trade partners and the trade with Russia totalled 29,87% in 1995 and 27.5% in 1996, of Mongolia's foreign trade.(Table 1)

This Essay is

Total Foreign Trade Turnover

*Based on the data given on the "Statistical Bulletin of 1996", December 1996, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, pp. 49-50.

In 1995, Mongolia was dependent on Russia for 51% of its import, particularly of petroleum and lubricants(1.8). But in 1996, it dropped to 34.2%). Mainly because of utilizing mining and petroleum excavation, which are available for joint ventures and direct foreign investment. Starting from 1989, Mongolia has been negotiating with major foreign companies on prospecting for and processing of oil. Several international energy firms are already pursuing investment opportunities in Mongolia, surveying the southern, eastern and south-eastern regions of Mongolia for prospective oil deposits. Western company officials have estimated oil reserves in place at two known fields of Mongolia at 50 million barrels, of which between 10 to 30 per cent can be recovered. It is stressed that development of in country processing of oil, as an import substitution, would be favourably considered (2,24).

In Post-Cold War Era, Mongolia created its own foreign policy concept. It said: "Maintaining friendly relations with the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China shall be a priority direction of Mongolia's foreign policy activity. It shall not adopt the line of either country but shall maintain in priciple a balanced relationship with both of them and shall promote all-around good-neighbourly cooperation. In doing so, the traditional relations as well as the specific nature of our economic cooperation with these two countries will be taken into account" (3.72). In September 1992, Mongolia declared a nuclear free zone that was recognized by two neighbours, USA and other United Nations Security Council members. Many of us know. that "since the end of World War II, the Soviet Union alone conducted about 715 tests, of which 506 were in the atmosphere. The vast majority of these tests was conducted at the Semipalatinsk test site. China has conducted 41 tests at the Lop Nor test site, of which 23 were in the atmosphere. Both of these test sites are relatively close to the Mongolian border"(3.37) .Until 1996, only two countries, China and France continued the nuclear weapons tests despite international concern and protests. At beginning of 1995, France announced the end of its tests and the commitment to the CTBT (Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty). Later, only China remained unwillingly for "zero option" and " has opposed a test ban" (4). Last year, Mongolian President P.Ochirbat sent a special protest message to top leaders in Beijing and it was passed to the Chinese President Jiang Zemin by the Mongolian prime minister P.Jasrai on his visit to Beijing in March 27-30. Mongolia has made a point of protesting all of Beijing's nuclear tests, which are conducted at the Lop Nor test site in northeastern Xinjiang province (autonomous region-B.Kh.J.) near the border with Mongolia. The message noted that good ties between Ulaanbaatar and Beijing are essential and expressed gratitude for China's support of Mongolia's self-declared nuclear-free zone (5). The "protest" message of Mongolian president to the Chinese president did not mentioned in the Chinese main newspaper "Renmin Ribao", but its full of the articles on Sino-Mongolian friendship and rapid economic mutual cooperation (6). In the end of 1996, China, at last signed the CTBT and now all nuclear power nations stopped conducting tests. In result, Mongolia is finally relieved from nuclear hazards.

As a result of the new foreign policy, Mongolia signed treaties on friendly relations and cooperation with its two super -power and nuclear neighbours, which committed the neighbours not to enter any political-military blocs. not to sign any agreement with third parties nor to allow the use of one's territory which may threaten the sovereignty and security of the other party (3.49-52).


Mongolia is a sparsely populated country of nearly 2.4 million people, an almost homogeneous Mongolian speaking population. As a bitter deal of history, the majority of Mongols are living outside of Mongolia. They inhabit in neighbouring Russia and China, as well as Iran, Afghanistan, and other countries. Five million Mongols live in China and around one million in Russia and several hundred thousand live in different countries, so the total population of Mongols is around or over 9 million. At the beginning of this century and its first two decades there was a strong Pan-Mongol movement among the ethnic Mongols which ended only with the re-establishment of the Mongolian state in Outer Mongolia, which historically always was the center of all Mongolian states throughout her over 2 thousand year history. Later the Mongolian leader Kh.Choibalsan tried to bargain on the reunification of all Mongols with J.Stalin at the end of World War II ,but he was unsuccessful.

Now in Mongolia and among Mongolian minorities in China and Russia Pan -Mongolian feelings still exist. According to the Proclamation of the Union of Human Rights Protection of Inner Mongolia announced in February 20, 1996, during the last 50 years under the Chinese communist regime out of 5 million Inner Mongolians, 300 thousand were killed and a half of million of them injured; the Proclamation also noted they stand for independence of Inner Mongolia, and support to the people of Tibet and Xinjiang (7). The proclamation was published in the Mongolian independent newspaper "IL Tovchoo" as a result, and after the detention of Inner Mongolian protesters, in December of 1995, in Inner Mongolia(8), hundreds of Mongolians protested last February and March in Ulaanbaatar against what they called widespread abuse of human rights in Chinese Inner Mongolia (9). The situation of Buriyat Mongols, in general, is quiet. However, they are unhappy with the national policy of President Leonid Potapov of Buriyatia (10), who is of "Russian" origin, or "mangad" in Buriyat Mongolian language, which means "monster". Most Mongols in southeastern Russia. the so-called Kalmyks are still trying to survive among the Russians and stand up economically under the leadership of the Kalmyk president K.Ilyumjinov, who is always described in negative terms in Russian newspapers, whether they would be independent or official.

Pan-Mongol feeling might become a movement, while the "heartland" of all Mongols-present day Mongolia will develop economically and her living standards will grow higher than in neighbouring countries (e.g. Russia and China). Nationalism will arise as a main ideology for all Mongols, and human rights and democracy issues will become a real value for all of them. All of this process will take decades and materialize into reality in the far future.

Mongolia of the last decade of the twentieth century is a very different country from what it was even a decade ago. Now Mongolia is a democratic and market economy oriented country with the multiparty parliament. Mongolia's relations with the two neighbours are equal developing, finally, on the right way. This Post Cold War era's trilateral relationship will continue in a positive direction until the next major alteration in the circumstances, if Russia would experience political breakdown or perhaps by a crucial change in the PRC policy towards Taiwan, namely a "liberation by force" which could happen after the reversion of Hong Kong and Macao to the mainland of China.

Throughout the twentieth century, the Russian and Soviet influence over Mongolia has been predominant factor in its national development. The Post Cold War era has changed Mongolia's external environment and for the future of the country will be important not only well established relationship with the two neighbours on the vertical, but also its connection with the outside world on the horizontal level: Germany and other west European countries in the West ,and Japan ,Korea ,USA and whole of the Pacific Rim in the East. It will become a some kind of balance of Mongolia's relationship with the neighbouring two nuclear super powers with their unstable domestic situation now and in unpredictable future.

In conclusion, I may say Mongolia is still geopolitically important, being a buffer and one of SOMP (States Other than Major Powers) country.

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