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The University Of Oxford Essay, Research Paper
The University of Oxford
The University of Oxford in Oxford, England is a very old and distinguished institution. Oxford University has been in existence for around nine centuries (Brief 1). It is the oldest English speaking university in the world (History 1). There is no exact date when the University was established, but there is some evidence of teaching going on around 1096 (Kenny 2). There are said to be several different founders of the University, but there is no way to designate one over another. Oxford was always struggling to prove it self as being a serious university. This is because of its great rival university in Paris, which got most of the spotlight in the earlier days. Oxford is rich in its origins and history, which is due to its extremely old background. Even though Oxford is such a distinguished institution it does have a past of problems. The University has a history of altercations with the townspeople, which involves fights, major crimes, and conflicts over the unfair treatment the townspeople received due to the University. The University s relations with authority came with an abundance of privileges. The king and other leaders always put the University s needs before the townspeople. Oxford also demanded a great deal from its students, whose lives revolved around the University. Oxford was an extremely difficult school whose courses were of the highest quality. Oxford University is a very important part of England s history and society today. Oxford University s origins, relations with town and authority, students, and curriculum make it of the most important and significant institutions of all time.
Oxford University has had many situations, people, and events that have helped in its growth. Oxford s location is in an ideal place for a major university. It is located on the confluence of the Rivers Cherwill and Thames (Oxford 1). Since Oxford is not a great cathedral city its location is one of the things that helped it gain people and popularity in its earlier days (Leff 77). The fact that royal and religious people surrounded Oxford also attracted visitors and students to its whereabouts (Leff 77).
Henry I built a palace at Woodstock, which is only a few miles down the road from Oxford (Leff 77). There are also two monasteries built around Oxford, which brought the religious people to the city (Leff 77). One of the major events in Oxford s past, which helped to bring students to the city, is when King Henry III banned English students from attending Paris University in 1167 (Story 4). This forced the English students who were attending Paris to come to Oxford if they wanted to continue their studies. King Henry III s ban greatly boosted the number of students attending Oxford University. These are a few of the major things that helped in the growth of Oxford University.
The origin s of an individual being the head of the school at Oxford are unknown to this day, but there are bits and pieces of historic information that show early leaders. There is some mention of a master of schools around 1201, but there is no chancellor in existence at that time (Thompson 2). In 1214 a charter of liberties, this involves the punishment of the townspeople, contains the first reference to a chancellor (Leff 79). The year 1214 marked the inauguration of a chancellor at Oxford University, whose name is Robert Grosseteste (Leff 79). The chancellor at Oxford symbolized something different than at its rival Paris University. At Oxford the chancellor stands for self-rule because, he was in the society of masters. While at Paris the chancellor was not in the society of masters so he would symbolize alien rule. Probably one of the earliest known teachers is Theobald Stampenisis in 1117 (Leff 77). He taught European fame and is said to have had around fifty pupils while he was at Oxford (Leff 77). Emo of Friesland was the first student to attend Oxford from overseas in 1190 (History 1). His arrival marked the beginning of Oxford University s tradition of international scholarships. These are just a few of the notable leaders who brought about great things to Oxford University.
Oxford University s relations with authority were something like a parent and a spoiled child. Whatever the University wanted they pretty much received. One of the University s many privileges was the custody over bread, ale, and weights and measures (Leff 88). In 1231 Henry III forced the burgesses to lower the rents. This was the first but not the last time a king stepped in to lower rents in order to help the students. In 1311 Edward II ordered the sheriff to place any student who had been taken into custody into a separate jail from the townspeople (Leff 88). This is another example of the uncontrollable privileges being given to the University and its students. Edward III showed his strong preferential treatment on March 5, 1355 when he placed the masters and scholars of Oxford University under the protection of the crown
(Leff 1). The only form of real discipline that any king showed towards the students of Oxford University was in 1231, when Henry III ordered the expulsion of any student who was not on tract for a master (Leff 83). These are only a few of the numerous occasions of the king s bias treatment against the townspeople, and in favor of the University.
The chancellor of Oxford University was given many privileges by the kings, which made him the most powerful man in the city of Oxford. The kings were so much in favor of the University that they would take the chancellor s word over the mayor or sheriff on almost any occasion (Leff 88). In 1244 Henry III extended the chancellors power to all cases of rents, and prices of food and movables, which involved scholars (Leff 83). King Edward III s charter on June 27, 1355 gave the chancellor sole jurisdiction over the items of bread, ale, weights and measures, with the power to punish transgressors (Leff 91). The chancellor position at Oxford University was given its biggest responsibility in 1309 by King Edward II, who gave the chancellor the right to put burgesses and other townspeople in his own separate court (Leff 88). This privilege was expanded even more when Edward III made the chancellor s court free from royal interference and no worry of being charged with false imprisonment. The kings of England made Oxford University s chancellor one of the most powerful and authoritative men in England.
The townspeople of Oxford University were unjustly treated and abused in order for the students to have better lives. In 1305 Edward I banned the people of Oxford s annual town tournaments and joust because it made to much noise, which disturbed the students studies (Leff 88). This is one example of how the University s needs and wishes always came foremost to the towns. In 1248 Henry III made the town responsible for the murder of a scholar, without even investigating into the incident to try and find the truth (Leff 83). There was another occurrence of a student getting killed in 1297. However, this time the townspeople who were responsible for the murder were found and punished, but still the town had to pay the University a two hundred pound compensation fee (Leff 85). These are a few of the instances of the University getting what ever it could out of the town, with little to no justice for the townspeople of Oxford.
The burgesses of Oxford were very unjustly and improperly treated. Often the students of the University would commit major crimes against the townspeople but only receive minor punishment. One example of this occurred in 1244 when forty-five students were imprisoned for attacking the Jews but were soon released under the chancellor s orders (Leff 83). Even when the burgesses were merely defending themselves they were considered to have committed crimes and were severely punished for them. One example of this is in 1209 when a scholar murdered a woman and in return the townspeople executed several scholars (Leff 78). In punishment for their actions these townspeople were excommunicated and the town had to pay retribution for the students deaths (Leff 78). The burgesses believed that Oxford was a hotbed of criminals and clerks (Leff 86). The burgesses of the city of Oxford described their situation in this way:
…if a clerk wound or beat or does violence to a layman, for which he is
imprisoned by the bailiff, he will at once be delivered by the chancellor without
writing [written security], and if a layman ill-treats a clerk he will be imprisoned
by the chancellor, and will be there a month or forty days, and will not be
delivered without grievous ransom both to their common chest and the injured
party, so that it grievously seems to the commonality that there is not one law
for the clerks and the laymen (Leff 86).
These are just a small number of the wrong doings committed against the people who lived in the town of Oxford.
Oxford students in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries were taught in a different way than college students today. There were also no specific courses like History, Mathematics, and Biology etc (Story 4). Instead the students at Oxford were taught to be well-rounded individuals (Story 4). During a student s time at Oxford he attended lectures on any of the following categories: law, medicine, theology and the seven arts. At the end of student s studies at Oxford he had to take an oral exam in order to receive his master (Story 4). So as one can see, a student at Oxford University had to have a great deal of discipline to be able to achieve his goals.
There were four different topics taught at Oxford University in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (Leff 127). They may differ in regulations and the time taken to gain a master in one subject to another, but they all consist of very difficult and thorough material. Theology was the most revered of the subjects taught, due to its goals of understanding our purpose in life and life itself. Next there is law, which was probably the most studied of all the subjects at Oxford. Then there is Medicine, which was well needed and well taught at the University. Finally, the seven arts, which took the least amount of time to obtain a master but were very widely used through out the world.
The history of theology at Oxford University has been well preserved. Gordon Leff, author of the book Paris and Oxford Universities in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries, believes that there are several factors that contributed toward such preservation of the study of theology at Oxford. He had this to say about the issue at both Oxford University and rival Paris University:
the theological faculties of both universities have survived, partly because of the nature of the subject, partly because its members were older and spent over twice as long there as in the arts faculty, and partly because of the nature of the course (Leff 160-161).
Theology at Oxford University in the thirteen and fourteenth centuries was based on the Bible and the Sentences (Leff 164). The Sentences were written by Peter Lombard and consisted of four books discussing the topics of God, Creation, Christ, and the Sacraments (Leff 164). Theology attracted the purest thinkers and those who were prepared to spend a large portion of their lives debating and speculating on abstract questions, which had no direct relevance outside of the university and religious areas. The number of students who achieved masters in theology was very small because of the degree of difficulty of the subject. In the late thirteenth century and the first two decades of the fourteenth century only about twenty students receive their license in theology from Oxford (Leff 163). However, those involved in theology did receive the highest honors.
Law is the area of study at Oxford that attracted the wealthiest people and promised the most lucrative returns. At Oxford there was the study of civil and then canon law (Leff 178). Before being permitted to study canon law one first had to swear to have taken three years of courses in civil law (Leff 178-179). It took a student of law at Oxford six years to earn a bachelor and five more years to obtain a license to practice law (Leff 178). Law was probably the most widely studied subject at Oxford, with one of the highest demands in the world outside of the University.
Medicine was another of the main courses taught at Oxford, which also promised profitable rewards and was very much needed in the world. The study of medicine at Oxford took four years to acquire a bachelor and either six or eight for a license, depending on whether or not the student had a master in the arts (Leff 180). Also to achieve a license in medicine one had to pass an exam that consisted mainly of ancient Arabian traditions (Leff 180). After getting a license one had to lecture at the University for a year before he was permitted to practice in the outside world (Leff 180).
The arts were also taught at Oxford University. There are seven of these arts and they are as follows: grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic and music, astronomy, moral philosophy, and metaphysics (Leff 146). The arts were mainly considered to be a stepping-stone on the way to another higher course. The course of arts had many different regulations that were first brought about by Robert de Courcon in 1215
(Leff 138). There were regulations on what books could be read, ages for different grades, and the conditions to be observed (Leff 138). The minimum age one could be to study the arts was twenty-one, and the minimum period of study in a particular subject of the arts was four years (Leff 138).
The reputation of Oxford University is one full of troubles in its social and political life but very admirable in its scholarly life. Around the 1170 s Oxford University was known as a place lawyers could get very superlative advice
(Thompson 2). Oxford was recognized as being one of the leading schools in the teaching of theology and law; however, it was also well known as an exceptional school of medicine and philosophy. In 1911 the vice chancellor of Oxford University had this to say about the reputation of Oxford:
To be given the right, and therefore the duty, to speak in this place, and from this Chair, to speak for Oxford and on the high theme of Poetry, is indeed to be
accorded a position, which might well overweight event the most competent and confident (Warren 3).
Oxford University is a very important part of England s history. In 1355 Edward III paid tribute to the University for its invaluable contribution to learning (Brief 1). In those days being honored by a king was a very big deal, even more so than today
(Brief 1). One of the many milestones in the University s history is in 1878, when the first halls were established for women (History 1). This shows the University s willingness to change against its many years of tradition, which proves that Oxford is an all around exceptional school of learning.
Oxford University today has become one of the most highly distinguished schools in the world. Oxford has greatly expanded its number of students having over sixteen thousand in attendance last year (Oxford Facts 1). One quarter of these students are from over seas or some other location out side of England (Oxford Facts 1). This fact shows Oxford University s commitment to trying to attract as many foreign students as possible (Oxford Facts 1). In attendance last year there was one hundred and thirty different nationalities among the student body (Oxford Facts 1). Almost five thousands students are in postgraduate work; of these three thousand are in arts and humanities.
The University of Oxford in Oxford, England has been around for a very long time. It has been giving students an education, and making a history for itself with all of the famous events and people that have been involved with the University. Oxford University has been one of the leading institutions of learning for the better part of nine centuries. All of its existence Oxford has been a very important part of England s society and economy. As well as being a big part in England s past, Oxford is also an important part in England today. The University has had some of the best students attending it and some of the best courses being taught in his halls and colleges. The lives of the students were dependent upon their education and in the end their graduation at Oxford University. Even though Oxford is a very highly distinguished school of learning, it did have its share of problems with the townspeople, who were being ill-treated by the University and the King of England. Oxford s origins are hard to pinpoint because of it exceedingly old existence but are very interesting. Oxford
University is a very distinguishable and significant institution of learning in England s history and present day.
The University of OxfordThe University of Oxford in Oxford, England is a very old and distinguished institution. Oxford University has been in existence for around nine centuries (Brief 1). Oxford was always struggling to prove it self as being a serious university. Oxford University is a very important part of England's history and society today. Oxford's location is in an ideal place for a major university.2. The Famous University of Cambridge
It has some of the most famous universities of the world like Oxford, Cambridge and London universities. The city of Cambridge is in the county of Cambridgeshire and is famous because it is the home of Cambridge University, one of the oldest and most prestigious universities of the world.The Cambridge City occupies an area of 16 square miles. Other than being the home of Cambridge University, Cambridge City itself is a very lively city. The name later became Cantabridge and then by 14th century, Cambridge.Foundation of the University Of Cambridge The University of Cambridge was establi.3. Oxford's Authorship
As Orson Welles put it in 1954, "Ithink Oxford wrote Shakespeare. (FN*).The case for Oxford's authorship hardly rests on hidden clues andallusions, however. In an eight-year study of the de Vere Bible, a University ofMassachusetts doctoral student named Roger Stritmatter has found thatthe 430-year-old book is essentially, as he puts it, "Shake-speare'sBible with the Earl of Oxford's coat of arms on the cover.". Furthermore, three of Shake-speare'sdiagnostic verses show up in Oxford's extant letters. More than a mere authorial specter, the Prince enacts e.4. The Biography of Louis XIV
BibliographyAshley, Maurice, Louis XIV and the greatness of France, London. English Universities Press, 1946Briggs, Robin, Early modern France ,Oxford ; New York. Oxford University Press, 1977Bluche, Francois, Louis XIV. translated by Mark Greengrass, Oxford ; New York. Blackwell, 1990. Oxford ; New York. Blackwell, 1990Erlanger, Philippe, Louis XIV. Translated from French by Stephen Cox. Louis XIV, 2nd ed, London. Oxford University Press, 1967. ------------------------------------------------------------------------**Bibliography**BibliographyAshley, Maurice, Louis.5. Caterbury Tale: Oxford Cleric Tale
Now, his target for his life is getting to the Oxford University and is to be the best-known scholar. Finally, Joe clears up his mind that he still going to Oxford University. In the age of 18, Joe get accepted by the Oxford University. Later, he figured out that John was the Oxford's principal. Joe keeps up the same habit with the book in the Oxford and later known as top student in the university.6. Scientific Investigation on Canadian Pond Weed
The effect of temperature on the rate of photosynthesis in Canadian Pondweed Elodea sp.In this investigation I plan to investigate how temperature effects the rate of photosynthesis in Canadian pond weed, this will be achieved by comparing the amount of oxygen produced by the pondweed at different t.7. Stephen Hawkings Universe
"Hawking was born January 8, 1942 in Oxford, England on the 300th anniversary of Galileo's death" ("Hawking PBS"). Albans School, he attended University College, Oxford, he concentrated on physics and earned a degree in Natural Science three years later" (Hawking).8. The Story of Flea by John Donne
Conceits on John Donne's "The Flea"John Donne was born into an old Roman Catholic family. At age 11 he entered the University of Oxford, where he studied for three years. He spent the next three years at the University on Cambridge, but took no degree at either university. In 1593, Donne's younge.9. The Medieval and Modern Universities
Universities: Medieval and ModernUniversities have existed since the Twelfth Century AD and have been evolving ever since. The student and teacher roles have evolved as well as the general purpose of going to a university. A more serious issue that has arisen throughout the history of universities is that of rioting. A recount of the riot at Oxford (130)in the 13th century is reminiscent of a riot that occured at Kent State in the 1960's. One aspect of universities, however, has stayed the same.10. Heathcliff in Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights
Macaulay according to The Oxford Companion to English Literature (Oxford University Press, New York, 1985) as "proud, moody, cynical, with defiance on his brow, and misery in his heart. implacable in revenge, yet capable of deep and strong affection.".11. Adam Smith's Biography
Adam Smith was born in Kirkcaldy, Scotland in 1723. During his late teenage years, he studied at the University of Glasgow and Oxford University. In 1751, he became a professor at Glasgow. While there, he wrote The Theory of Moral Sentiment in 1759. This philosophical work gained Smith an appointmen.12. History of Glasgow University
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Thomas Edward Lawrence, called Lawrence of Arabia was born in 1888and died in a motorcycle accident in 1935. Thomas was born inTremadoc, Wales. and attended the University of Oxford. In 1910 hewent on a archaeological expedition to the ancient Hittite city ofCarchemish (located in Turkey), and th.14. Biography of Thomas Hobbes
He was educated at Oxford University, and served as secretary to Sir Francis Bacon and as a tutor to William Cavendish, who later became Earl of Devonshire. He also attended Oxford University approximately fifty years later than Hobbes.15. "The Ode To The West Wind" By Shelley
" Ode to the West Wind" was written by Percy Bysshe Shelley shortly before his death in 1822. Shelley spent the majority of his life in England where he was born to an upper class family. He attended Eton for his primary education and Oxford University until he was expelled for the publication of Th.16. John Ronald Reuel Tolkien
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien was an Oxford University professor who helped revived the medieval romance and the fairytale. Tolkien is best known for his epic fancy-romance trilogy of novels such as "Lord of the Ring's" and the "Hobbit." His stories consisted of the stories of good vs. evil. His char.17. English Professor
Born in Somerset County, he went to school at Oxford University where he got to be good friends with a man named Anthony Ashley Cooper. He has degrees from Brigham Young University and the University of Utah.18. The Early Life of John Steinbeck: A Novelist
John Ernst Steinbeck was a California novelist, he attended Stanford University.Steinbeck worked at "odd jobs"(Oxford University 722). John Ernst Steinbeck was a California novelist, he attended Stanford University.Steinbeck worked at "odd jobs"(Oxford University 722).19. Thomas Hobbes' Famous Work: "Leviathan"
Thomas Hobbes was an English philosopher who was lived from 1588-1679. He attended Oxford University where he studied classics. His occupation was a tutor, but he also traveled around Europe to meet with scientists and to study different forms of government. He became interested in why people allowe.20. Lord of the Flies
The book I read was Lord of the Flies by William Golding. William Gerald Golding was born in Cornwall, England in 1911. He studied physics and English literature at Marlboro and Oxford University of England. He also took part in the Second World War by joining the British Navy in 1940. After the war.21. A Higher Education During the Middle Ages
But even then the meaning of university was different. Unlike today's university, the medieval universities referred to the students and masters rather than to a building or specific place. Each university originated in one of three ways: 1) of spontaneous foundations, 2) of papal, imperial, communal, or joint foundations, or 3) paper universities, universities with foundation charters but never physically formed. Oxford too had spontaneous foundations, emerging around 1208 to 1209 due to a conflict between the clerics and the townspeople. Oxford was organized like the Paris m.22. Adam Smith
He was educated at the universities of Glasgow and Oxford. He was educated at the universities of Glasgow and Oxford. He was educated at the universities of Glasgow and Oxford. He was educated at the universities of Glasgow and Oxford. At the age of fifteen, he began his schooling at Glasgow and Oxford.23. The Early Life of William Golding
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Autor: anton • November 15, 2010 • 3,157 Words (13 Pages) • 498 Views
The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world.
The university traces its roots back to at least the end of the 11th century, although the exact date of foundation remains unclear. According to legend, after riots between scholars and townsfolk broke out in 1209, some of the academics at Oxford fled north-east to the town of Cambridge, where the University of Cambridge was founded. The two universities have since had a long history of competition with each other, and are the most selective universities in the United Kingdom (see Oxbridge rivalry).
Oxford is a member of the Russell Group of research-led British universities, the Coimbra Group (a network of leading European universities), the LERU (League of European Research Universities), and is also a core member of the Europaeum. Oxford University is currently ranked 5th in the world's Top 100 universities.
The date of the University's foundation is unknown, and indeed it may not have been a single event, but there is evidence of teaching there as early as 1096. When Henry II of England forbade English students to study at the University of Paris in 1167, Oxford began to grow very quickly. The foundation of the first halls of residence, which later became colleges, dates from this period. Rioting in 1209 led many scholars to leave Oxford for other parts of the country, leading to the establishment of a university in Cambridge. On June 20, 1214, a charter of liberties was granted to the University by Nicholas de Romanis, the papal legate, which authorised the appointment of a chancellor of the University. Riots between townsmen and scholars ("town and gown") were common until the St Scholastica Day riot in 1355 led to the king confirming the supremacy of the University over the town.
The University's status was formally confirmed by an Act for the Incorporation of Both Universities in 1571, in which the University's formal title is given as The Chancellor, Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford. In 1603 the University granted the right to appoint two Members of Parliament, a right which lasted until the abolition of university constituencies in 1949.
Archbishop William Laud drew up a comprehensive set of statutes, known as the Laudian Code, in 1636. Charles I ratified them. The University supported the king during the English Civil War. It served as the site of his court and parliament, but Oxford eventually clashed with his second son, the Roman Catholic James II, who was later overthrown in the Revolution of 1688.
The university served as the site of the Oxford Movement in the Church of England in the 1830s.
Parliament accepted proposals submitted by a Royal Commission appointed in 1850. These proposals revolutionised the medieval workings of the University, workings that had remained unchanged since 1636. Royal commissions appointed in 1872 and 1919 continued this work. The Universities Tests Act opened the University to Dissenters and Roman Catholics in 1871. The first women's halls were established in 1878, and women were admitted to degrees in 1920.
Oxford is a collegiate university, consisting of the University's central facilities, such as departments and faculties, libraries and science facilities, and 39 colleges and 7 Permanent Private Halls (PPHs). All teaching staff and degree students must belong to one of the colleges (or PPHs). These colleges are not only houses of residence, but have substantial responsibility for the teaching of undergraduates and postgraduates. Some colleges only accept postgraduate students. Only one of the colleges, St Hilda's, remains single-sex, accepting only women (though several of the religious PPHs are male-only). The debate over allowing the admission of men into St. Hilda's is a common motion brought before its JCR (Junior Common Room) and a vote will be held in 2006 to decide whether or not to make the college mixed.
Oxford's collegiate system springs from the fact that the University came into existence through the gradual agglomeration of independent institutions in the city of Oxford.
See also: Colleges of Oxford University, and a list of Cambridge sister colleges.
Brasenose College in the 1670s
As well as the collegiate level of organisation, the University is subdivided into departments on a subject basis, much like most other universities. Departments take a major role in graduate education and an increasing role in undergraduate education, providing lectures and classes and organising examinations. Departments are also a centre of research, funded by outside bodies including major research councils; while colleges have an interest in research, few are subject-specialized in organisation.
Governance and administration
The main legislative body of the University is Congregation, the assembly of all academics who teach in the University. Another body, Convocation, encompassing all the graduates of Oxford, was formerly the main legislative body of the University, and until 1949 elected the two Members of Parliament for the University. Convocation now has very limited functions: the main one is to elect the (largely symbolic) Chancellor of the University, most recently in 2003 with the election of Christopher Patten. Convocation also elects the Professor of Poetry.
The executive body of the University is the University Council, which consists of the Vice-Chancellor, Dr John Hood (succeeding Sir Colin Lucas), heads of departments and other members elected by Congregation in addition to observers from the Student Union. Until 1969, the statutes also provided for an Ancient House of Congregation, which somehow survived the university reforms in the 19th century and was summoned for the sole purpose of granting degrees. Since then degrees have been granted by Congregation, but as late as 1994 these were still being announced in the Gazette as meetings of the Ancient House.
The academic year is divided into three terms, known as Full Terms, each of eight weeks' duration. Michaelmas Term lasts from October to December; Hilary Term from January till March; and Trinity Term from April till June. These terms are amongst the shortest of any British university, and the workload during each term is therefore intense. Students are also expected to prepare heavily in the three vacations (known as the Christmas,