SYNTHESIS Essay, Research Paper
Literature is a diverse and bountiful area of intelligence where many ideas, ideals, and dreams can come about. Writings have come from as far back as the time of Jesus to whatever was produced yesterday. People have written superior works that can inspire, lead, and in the end, produce. Shakespear, Descartes, Voltaire, Shelly, the list goes on. Twenty-eight themes are said to apply to all types of literature. Any one of these themes is said to describe one, some, or all works done in this field. Whoever said that there are twenty-eight is incorrect at best. Actually, twenty-nine themes exist, the newly added one being the theme of cynicism. All the literary works read this first semester have, along with other minor/major themes, had one theme that will combine them all. The bond that holds all of these works together is the cynical outlook they all share on life.
Faust is the epic battle between man and his limitations with the Lord and Mephistopheles thrown into the mix just to complicate things. This is a journey that sees Mephistopheles try a backwards attempt at showing the ever cynical Faust that there is a reason to keep on living. As it is now, Faust believes that his life is miserable and that being a part of humanity can only hinder his thirst for knowledge.
The other side gives me little trouble;
First batter this present world to rubble,
Then the other may rise. if that’s the plan.
This earth is where my springs of joy have started,
And this sun shines on me when brokenhearted;
If I can first from them be parted,
Then let happen what will and can!
I wish to heat no more about it.
Whether there too men hate and love
Or whether in those spheres too, in the future,
There is a Below or an Above.
(Faust, Faust, 994)
Humanity is a curse to Faust and he, in turn, has a very cynical view on the probability of
being human as an asset rather than a curse. “And you are fully within your rights; I have made no mad or outrageous claim. If I stay as I am, I am a slave? whether yours or another’s, it’s all the same.” (Faust, Faust, 996) Faust sees himself as a slave to humanity and once again emphasizes his cynical outlook on the prospect of staying human.
“Who’s there?” (Bernardo, Hamlet, p.1) Possibly the most overlooked line Shakespear has ever written even though it tells the tale of Hamlet in a mere two words. The Hamlet character is an outlet of how Shakespear viewed what was happening in the world at the time. It was the age of the Renaissance. While being the greatest period of scientific, artistic genius in human history, it also bore the mark of being the greatest period of man’s inhumanity to man. “Who’s there?” (Ibid) is his own commentary on the multitude of personalities going on at this time. Shakespear has cynical views toward what is happening in the world and the oscillation of people between the ideal man of Copernicus and Galileo to the evil kings and rulers of Denmark.
From the beginning of time, man has had a need to attempt to defy the stronghold that God holds on creation. The early cavemen would kill women in order to ensure a
family of males. A man by the name of Adolf Hitler was set on taking over the entire world with his specially engineered Aryan race. Mary Shelly’s Frankenstein is the pure disregard for God in the creation of another life form. Frankenstein is Mary Shelly’s 1984
(George Orwell). Frankenstein is Shelly’s take on her vision of the disturbing future that she can predict happening. At the time Frankenstein was written, the scientific and industrial revolution had just finished. With the rapid advent of technology, this book is very reasonable interpretation of what many people were fearing the future would bring.
Learn from me, if not by my precepts, at least by my example, how dangerous
is the acquirement of knowledge and how much happier that man is who
believes his native town to be the world, then he who aspires to become greater
than his nature will allow.
This quote shows the ignorance and stubbornest that Shelly sees in mankind. Humans over time have shown that they just don’t learn. Without knowing it, Shelly has foreshadowed life for all of us. Her cynical look on what could happen has come true with the advent of technology and the responsibility of those who posses the knowledge to put it into practice. Hitler is tantamount to Victor much like the Aryan soldiers equate to the wretch. “A new species would bless me as its creator and source; many happy and excellent natures would owe their being to me. No father could claim the gratitude of child so completely as I should deserve theirs” (Frankenstein, 52). Victor is planning his master race. Shelly’s cynicism saw it all in advance. Frankenstein was a cynical view on life that was happening and the life that was inevitable.
“What is optimism?” (Cacambo, Candide). “It is the mania of maintaining that
everything is well when we are wretched” (Candide, Candide). Voltaire has used Candide and all of the characters in it to voice his opinion on the world. The mythical El Dorado is the point of optimism in the pit of despair that engulfs Candide. Optimism is about the only thing that Candide is allowed in his journeys. Optimism of finding his love, finding his friend, finding happiness. After all that Candide must go through, he finally wins out. In the end, he gets everything that he wants. Even though Candide wins in the end, Voltaire criticizes the whole makeup of the world. From town to town, Candide is harassed and tortured (except for El Dorado of course). This is Voltaire’s cynical view on what he sees the world as. “Certainly, if everything is well it is only in El Dorado and not in the rest of the world” (Candide, Candide). The garden metaphor is one that can weave its way into the theme of cynicism. Much like in the story of Faust, the end comes with a serene setting in the garden. Voltaire’s garden metaphor is an extemely cynical outlook on the limitations of man. His view is one in the same of the Generation X of this time period. The theory of “Life’s a bitch, why try?” is evident in the metaphor of the garden. Voltaire’s attitude is “Be happy with gardening because this is as far as humanity is going to get.”
Much like the view of Shelly in Frankenstein, Miguel de Cervantes has a cynical view of the technology boom in the world. Cervantes uses Don Quixote to show his cynical views on the world around him and the world that is forthcoming.
Having, then made all these preparations, he did not wish to lose any time in putting
his plan into effect, for he could not but blame himself for what the world was losing
by his delay, so many were the wrongs that were to be righted, the grievances to be
redressed, the abuses to be done away with, and the duties to be performed.
(Narrator, Don Quixote, 829)
Cervantes saw the world in need of a revert back to the days of chivalry. He believed that the world needed a hero along the lines of el Cid and Amadis of Gaul. “what the world needed most was knights-errant and a revival of chivalry” (Narrator, Don Quixote, 830). Cervantes saw a lost and desolate world which needed the excitement and class of a knight to lead by example. Cervantes is also cynical of the advent in technology. The scene where Don Quixote tries to fight the windmills because he thinks that they are monsters shows how Cervantes feels of the industrial boom. He uses this scene to convey his feelings of how technology is a monster and needs to be destroyed; but much like in the story, technology wins.
The past is flooded with cynicism. Now the question is, has the world gotten any better. The answer is no. In recent surveys, the facts are overwhelmingly in favor of distrust. “Sixty percent of people believe that most people will lie if they can gain from it. Forty-six percent of people say that most people are just out for themselves. Seventy-two percent agree that there is a growing loss of basic trust and faith in other people” (Don Oldenburg, A deep, troubling cynicism, p.2). General mistrust is taking over our world. Much like in the past, people today are cynical of anything, helpful or not.
The truth in right and wrong, the boundaries of the law, You
seem to miss the point, arresting for a joint.
You seem to wonder why hundreds of people die, you’re writing
tickets man, my mom got jumped, they ran!
Now I’ll play a public servant, to serve and protect by the
law and the state.
I’d bust the punks that rape, steal and murder, and
leave you be, if you crossed me, I’d shake your hand like
a man, not a God.
(Anselmo, Fucking Hostile, Vulgar Display of Power)
As seen here, the lyrics of a popular song show a clear, cynical view towards law enforcement and the government. As has been shown, Cynicism is a topic and theme that has appeared in every time period and every situation from the inception of man up to and including today. Cynicism ties it all together.
When writing an informative synthesis essay you will be required to combine multiple sources with your own voice and ideas to explain a certain position or topic. To accomplish this, you will need at least two sources which offer information on your topic. Look for material that contains a unique opinion or analysis, and then use these differences, or the sum of total of ideas, to formulate your own position. The key to a good synthesis essay is being selective with the information you present and using it to strengthen your thesis.
Choose your source material carefully. Make sure it corresponds with your topic and the assignment. Try to combine a number of different resources, everything from books and newspapers to lectures and scientific studies. Read the material, take notes and highlight the parts you want to use.
Create a thesis. This is the main focus of your essay. It must be clear and concise, directly stating your purpose. Use the information you've gathered during your research to help you come up with a thesis statement, but make sure the idea is solely your own.
Sketch an outline. This is simply an organizational plan for your essay. Think about how you want to arrange your information and how it's going to be expressed throughout the essay. Remember, it should follow a logical order and include your sources.
Write your introduction. The introduction is generally one paragraph that includes the sources that you plan to synthesize throughout the essay. Provide the title and author of each source and summarize the topics. The introduction should also contain your thesis statement. Most often, it is the last sentence of the introductory paragraph.
Write the body of your synthesis essay. This is the core of the assignment where you must draw upon the information you've gathered and synthesize it in order to support your thesis. Use all of your sources and demonstrate their similarities as well as their differences to completely inform the reader. Remember to always properly cite the sources according to the guidelines (MLA or AP).
Write your conclusion. This is the last paragraph of your essay. Remind the reader of the information you've provided and clearly connect it to your thesis statement. If necessary, you can refer the reader to further research or state that there were certain elements of the topic that you could not cover within the confines of your essay.
Edit your essay to ensure that all of the information adheres to your topic and thesis statement. Make any necessary changes and proofread for grammatical errors. Give the essay to a friend or family member, as another person who may be able to spot mistakes or inconsistencies that you've missed.
Roland Baur, Robin Beech, Erwin Sigel, Lucien RufenerAbstract
Monepantel is a recently developed anthelmintic with a novel mode of action. Parasitic nematodes with reduced sensitivity to monepantel have led to the identification of MPTL-1, a ligand-gated ion-channel subunit of the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus, as a potential drug target. Homomeric MPTL-1 channels reconstituted in Xenopus oocytes are gated by µM concentrations of betaine and mM concentrations of choline. Measurement of reversal potentials indicated that the channel has a similar conductance for Na(+) and K(+) ions and does not permeate Ca(2+). Concentrations of monepantel (amino-acetonitrile derivative [AAD]-2225) >0.1 μM, but not its inactive enantiomer AAD-2224, induced channel opening in an irreversible manner. Currents elicited by monepantel alone were larger than the maximal current amplitudes achieved with betaine or choline, making monepantel a superagonist. Currents elicited by betaine or choline were allosterically potentiated by nM concentrations of monepantel and to a much smaller degree by AAD-2224. We have also reconstituted the Caenorhabditis elegans homomeric ACR-20 receptor in Xenopus oocytes. The acr-20 sequence has higher similarity to mptl-1 than acr-23, the primary target for monepantel mode of action in C. elegans. The ACR-20 channel is gated similarly as MPTL-1. Monepantel, but not AAD-2224, was able to induce channel opening in an irreversible manner at similar concentrations as for MPTL-1. Interestingly, the allosteric potentiation measured in the presence of betaine was much smaller than in MPTL-1 receptors. Together, these results establish the mode of action of monepantel in H. contortus and contribute to our understanding of the mode of action of this anthelmintic. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.Related Materials
However, this writer also borrowed information from a source to improve their argument. This quote includes another link to the source from which this information is borrowed.
"Mary Carskadon at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island, who is a pioneer in the area of adolescent sleep, has shown that teenagers need about 9 hours a night to maintain full alertness and academic performance."
The next panel shows the source article.Regulation of Adolescent Sleep: Implications for Behavior - CARSKADON - 2006 - Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences - Wiley Online Library Assignment
Deconstructing Synthesizing - Assignment:
•Click on the link in the next panel.
•Follow a different link until you get back to the original source.
•Chart your steps on a sheet of paper following these steps:
▫Write the quote you started with.
▫Read the article linked through the quote, and write a 7-10 sentence summary of the article.
▫Repeat steps above until you find the original source.
▫Explain in a thorough paragraph how the information is synthesized through each step.
▫How does the borrowed information improve the argument of "Dear Students: An Apology From a Teacher"?Dear Students: An Apology From A Teacher | Lizanne Foster Synthesis Essay Reminders
Most successful writers incorporate information from other places to improve the persuasiveness of their arguments. When writing a synthesis essay, your argument is central. Below are some reminders:
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See Chapter 3 in The Language of Composition for more info.Synthesis Essay
The need to memorialize events or people is complex; in some cases, monuments honor moments of great achievement, while in other cases, monuments pay homage to deep sacrifice. A monument’s size, location, and materials are all considerations in planning and creating a memorial to the past. Read the following seven sources carefully, including the introductory information for each source. Then, in a well-organized essay that synthesizes at least three of the sources for support, examine the factors a group or agency should consider in memorializing an event or person and in creating a monument.
Context is first provided about the USPS and how it’s mail volume has decreased over the past decade (email, other delivery companies), leading to cutbacks on delivery days and other services.
Carefully read the following seven sources, including the introductory information for each source. Then synthesize information from at least three of the sources and incorporate it into a coherent, well-developed essay that argues a clear position on whether the USPS should be restructured to meet the needs of a changing world, and if so, how.
In much of the world, the time that regulates our lives is altered by daylight saving time. Each year, we set our clocks back an hour in the fall and then move them forward an hour in the spring. This annual shift is thought to have been invented by Benjamin Franklin, who in 1784 wrote a letter to a French journal suggesting that Parisians
could economize on candles if they simply woke up earlier during the summer. Daylight saving time was adopted by the United States in the twentieth century and is regulated by the federal government. Even though daylight saving time has been widely adopted, it still has detractors.
Read the following sources (including the introductory information) carefully. Then synthesize at least three of the sources into an essay that evaluates daylight saving time and offers a recommendation about its continued use.
So, how do I start?
Prompt about considerations for monuments/memorials
Factor 1:Feasibility for Completion
DBQ vs. Synthesis
AP Central does acknowledge that the synthesis essay is similar to the DBQ.
2003 AP U.S. History DBQ prompt:Analyze the responses of Franklin D. Roosevelt's administration to the problems of the Great Depression. How effective were these responses? How did they change the role of the federal government? Use the documents and your knowledge of the period 1929-1941 to construct your essay.
2007 synthesis prompt(first one ever):
That advertising plays a huge role in society is readily apparent to anyone who watches television, listens to radio, reads newspapers, uses the Internet, or simply looks at billboards on streets and buses. Advertising has fierce critics as well as staunch advocates. Critics claim that advertisement is propaganda, while advocates counter that advertising fosters free trade and promotes prosperity…Read the sources…and write an essay in which you develop a position on the effects of advertising.
SAMPLE: 2011 Synthesis Question
Locavoresare people who have decided to eat locally grown or produced products as much as possible. With an eye to nutrition as well as sustainability (resource use that preserves the environment), the locavore movement has become widespread over the past decade.
Imagine that a community is considering organizing a locavore movement. Carefully read the following seven sources, including the introductory information for each source. Then synthesize information from at least three of the sources and incorporate it into a coherent, well-developed essay that identifies the key issues associated with the locavoremovement and examinestheir implications for the community.
Make sure that your argument is central; use the sources to illustrate and support your reasoning. Avoid merely summarizing the sources. Indicate clearly which sources you are drawing from, whether through direct quotation, paraphrase, or summary. You may cite the sources as Source A, Source B, etc. or by using the descriptions in parentheses.
Many technological advances in the modern era has brought up the question whether or not that the current generation of people under thirty years of age should be deemed as the dumbest generation. The sources given lack the evidence needed to support the claim that those under age thirty are "the dumbest generation." The sources that are in favor of this make very logical examples depicting said claim; however, the author fails to support it using facts and statistics. The sources in which the author tries to disprove the claim utilizes facts and statistics from conducted experiments. This ratifies that the evidence given in these sources can deteriorate the original claim, proving that people under thirty are not the dumbest generation. Mark Bauerlein is an English professor and researcher at Emory University and he writes that young Americans are considered the dumbest generation. Bauerlein's first statement in the excerpt begins by saying, "This is the paradox of the Dumbest Generation" (Source 1). He introduces some of the positives of young Americans such as ". life has never been s yielding, goods so plentiful schooling so accessible, diversion so easy, and liberties so copious" (Source 1). As he concludes this list, he begins to state the original claim that people under thirty are considered the dumbest generation. Bauerlein should not have used the list of positives of the young Americans. This adds a place for the reader to attack and weakens the point that Bauerlein is trying to make. Bauerlein leaves another fragile place for a reader to take advantage of when he says, ". knowledge and skills haven't kept pace, and the intellectual habits that complement them are slipping. The advantages of twenty-first century teen life keep expanding. " (Source 1). He contradicts the idea made in the first line with the use of the second one. If current people make advances, how can Bauerlein call this generation to be the dumbest? Using.
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Essay Protein Synthesis and over other 25,000+ free term papers, essays and research papers examples are available on the website!
Autor: colombia50 • August 5, 2015 • Essay • 491 Words (2 Pages) • 96 Views
Protein Synthesis requires various parts of the cell. The process is elaborate and must be precise for it to work properly and effectively. Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA has a double helix structure composed of three basic components: a five-carbon sugar called deoxyribose, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. There are four types of nitrogenous bases in DNA: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. Hydrogen bonds will only shape or form in the middle of certain base pairs: guanine with cytosine and adenine with thymine. These pairs are called complimentary strands because each and everyone aids the other to build and alternative strand.
RNA is a single-stranded nucleic acid molecule also involved in protein synthesis. Protein synthesis is composed of two main classifications: transcription, which is the process of copying RNA information to DNA, and translation, which is the process of turning RNA information to DNA. There are various types of RNA within a cell, each playing a specific role in the synthesis of protein molecules. The three main types of RNA are messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries the instructions for assembling amino acids together into large protein molecules to other parts of the cell. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) are small organelles, composed of two subunits, where proteins are created. Lastly, transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules transfer each and every amino acid the the ribosomes on the authority of the coded instructions given in the mRNA.
Next, transcription is another part of protein synthesis. It is when “a segment of DNA is used to produce a complementary mRNA molecule,” as stated in lesson 3.05, on page 4. Transcription uses a special protein called RNA polymerase, similar to form and purpose as DNA polymerase. Transcription begins when the RNA polymerase attaches itself to a DNA molecule and divides its strands. One of the DNA strands serves as a template to build nucleotides together into a complimentary mRNA strand. Determined base sequences on the DNA molecules (promoters), signal where the enzyme (RNA polymerase) should being transcribing a section of mRNA, and later other base sequences on the DNA then indicate the new mRNA is finished, meaning transcription stops.
After transcription, the new mRNA component leaves the nucleus and enters the cytoplasm. The mRNA is then used in translation, which happens in the cell’s ribosomes. The procedure uses the genetic code on the mRNA strand to guide the fabrication of a protein molecule. First a ribosome joins with a mRNA molecule, and as each codon passes through the ribosome, tRNA molecules bring the parallel amino acid into the ribosome. Each transfer RNA molecule has a group of three unpaired nitrogenous babes called anticodons. Each anticodon sequence is compatible to a specific codon on the mRNA. Lastly the protein chain continues to expand until the ribosome reaches a stop codon on the mRNA