Category: Research Paper
All students are normally required to complete the following subjects.
Some of the subjects in these two lists may not routinely require research papers for course credit, or may not restrict the topic of the paper to particular subdisciplines. Students may still use such subjects to fulfill the above requirements, as long as they write a research paper in the relevant area (either as part of or in addition to the normal subject-specific requirements for course credit).
The subjects comprising the Core Curriculum will normally be taken according to the following schedule:
24.952 Advanced Syntax
24.962 Advanced Phonology
24.973 Advanced Semantics
24.993 Tutorial in Linguistics and Related Fields
Incompletes in the First Year
Incompletes in 1st-year subjects cannot be carried forward into the 2nd year. Fall incompletes must be completed by the end of the following spring term, and spring incompletes by August 1st of that year.
24.949 Lang Acquisition I
advanced syntax-semantics subject
advanced phonology-morphology subject
24.991 Workshop (Fall or Spring)
24.991 Workshop (Fall or Spring)
Below is an essay on "Phonology" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.
Fricatives are consonants that are formed by impeding the flow of air somewhere in the vocal apparatus so that a friction-sound is produced. Because of the way the flow of breath is heard in producing fricatives, fricatives are also called spirants. Fricatives may be voiced (vocal cords vibrating during the articulation of the fricative) or voiceless (vocal cords not vibrating during the articulation of the fricative). Here is a list of the fricatives in Present-Day English.
1. /f/ (the phoneme spelled f in fine): voiceless labiodental fricative.
2. /v/ (the phoneme spelled v in vine): voiced labiodental fricative.
3. // (the phoneme spelled th in thistle): voiceless interdental fricative.
4. /ð/ (the phoneme spelled th in this): voiced interdental fricative.
5. /s/ (the phoneme spelled s in sue): voiceless alveolar fricative.
6. /z/ (the phoneme spelled z in zoo): voiced alveolar fricative.
7. /s</ (the phoneme spelled sh in shore): voiceless alveopalatal fricative.
8. /z</ (the phoneme spelled z in azure): voiced alveopalatal fricative.
9. /h/ (the phoneme spelled h in hot): voiceless fricative, produced at various points depending upon the vowels in the vicinity. For example, in hot, /h/ is velar, whereas in heat, /h/ is alveopalatal.
Affricates are consonants that are formed by stopping the flow of air somewhere in the vocal apparatus, and then releasing the air relatively slowly so that a friction-sound is produced. Present-Day English has only two affricates, one of which is voiced (vocal cords vibrating during the articulation of the affricate) and one of which is voiceless (vocal cords not vibrating during the articulation of the affricate).
* the voiced dental fricative /ð/ (as in this)
* the voiceless dental fricative /θ/ (as in thing)
There are two types of morphemes-free morphemes and bound morphemes. "Free morphemes" can stand alone with a specific meaning, for example, eat, date, weak. "Bound morphemes" cannot stand.
Part III. Understanding Theory and Issues in the Field
Research Paper: “Native speakers of Spanish learning English:
Phonetic problems that may arise and some possible solutions”
This paper was written in the spring of 2012, in my second semester at HPU. As the course was to teach us both the different phonological sounds, as well as how to address different problems speakers learning English may have, this paper was a good way to encompass both what I had learned and my prior knowledge of the Spanish language. We were allowed to choose any language that we were familiar with, and Spanish is the language other than English that I feel most comfortable speaking and discussing, so I chose that as my topic.
The beginning of this paper describes the similarities and differences amongst phonological sounds such as phonemes and allophones in both English and Spanish so that the reader may better understand their differences. Following a brief examination of some important differences between English and Spanish using the phonetic alphabet, I have addressed five different potential problems that native Spanish speakers learning English may have. The paper concludes with some possible solutions and suggested activities for teachers to use when teaching this specific group of ELLs.
I am proud of this paper because I believe I had a good amount of knowledge of Spanish when I began to address the different problems speakers have, and I was able to recognize both the problems mentioned in textbooks as well as the ones I have encountered with this group of learners. I believe that the choices I made in regards to choosing and describing the different problems the leaners face demonstrated my knowledge of both languages and of what I had learned about phonology and phonetics from this course. A final strength in this paper, I believe, is my use and incorporation of activities for teachers to use when helping students with the phonological problems noted in the paper. Although I found many of them from other sources, I was able to explain the procedures of each so that teachers may use them in the classroom.
The biggest weakness of this paper was the APA formatting. I had learned how to do MLA in another class, which I thought could be done universally, but I found out that I was incorrect. I had used footnotes throughout so that my citations would take up less space in my text and discovered that this was not the right way to go about citing sources. Additionally, I did a poor job of proofreading and editing this paper as when the paper was returned, I noticed I had misused conjunctions multiple times throughout my paper which I was able to fix in my revised version for the portfolio. Additionally, I had problems with consistency when addressing and providing remedies for the different problems Spanish speakers learning English may have. I wrote about four problems, but only offered remedies for three of those problems. To address this missing remedy, I stated in my introduction that I would be providing solutions with only three of the problems.
In conclusion, I believe I am more prepared to assist Spanish learners of English when they are in my classroom. This paper can be found here.
RESEARCH PROJECTS IN PROGRESS
AT THE INSTITUTE OF LANGUAGE & PHONOLOGY:
1. Grammar Study
The purpose of this research is to determine if there are any improvements in a person's spoken English grammar, after completing a Compton P-ESL program. This is being done by tabulating the number of grammar errors that clients produce when they "make up" a sentence for each of 66 words that are a part of a standardized assessment, done at the beginning of their course. The same assessment is done at the end of their course, thus allowing for a comparison with the number of grammar errors produced in their "made up" sentences at the end of their course. To date we have compiled date for 14 clients and will be adding at least 6 more to establish a reliable data sample. Preliminary results suggest some very striking differences, and this initial phase of the study should be completed by the end of April, 2012 and will be submitted for presentation at the American Speech and Hearing Association meeting in 2013..
Other variable being examined are the types of grammar errors produced, comparisons of average before/after sentence length, semantic similarities and differences in the types of sentences made up for the same words at the beginning and end of the course and, no doubt, many other questions that will arise, as we get further along with the project.
2. Listening Comprehension
The purpose of this project is to determine if there are any improvements in a person's listening comprehension of spoken English after completing a Compton P-ESL program. I am currently evaluating the reliability and "acceptability" of the various listening comprehension tests that are currently available, and which are most widely used. The next step will be to administer a pre and post comprehension test, tabulate the results and statistical analyses. I will welcome speaking with any P-ESL certified speech pathologists who are interested in participating.
3. Comparison of percentages of Accent Improvement using the CD-ROM vs. the Online Practice Materials
The purpose of this research is to determine if there is a significant difference in speaking improvement for clients using the CD-ROM vs. the online practice materials. We already have some data showing a very positive difference in favor of the online program. However, I want a large data base of at least 100 to 150 clients from at least 15 or 20 language backgrounds who have used the online program. I will welcome speaking with any P-ESL certified speech pathologists who are interested in participating.
4. A Longitudinal Study of the Evolution and Speech and Language Development of Young Children. This research is a revisit of a study initiated approximately 25 years age, and is based on the new computer analyses technologies and possibilities made during the past 10 years. This research involves analyzing the speech and language developmental data of Children from 1 yr. to 4 yrs which includes thousands of ongoing speech samples collected from 6 children during this period of their development.
5. Preparation of a Monograph Applied Studies of Foreign Accent: 1978 through 2012
This publication will detail and provide physical documentation for approximately 15 research projects that I have presented at various professional conferences over the years. The monograph will include the following topics and issues:
SUMMARY OF PUBLICATIONS
Arthur J. Compton, Ph.D.
Compton, A.J. "Effects of Filtering and Vocal Duration upon the Identification of Speakers, Aurally," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. . Vol. 35, pp. 1748-1752, (1963) (masters thesis Publication)
Compton, A.J. "Aural Perception of Different Syntactic Structures and Length," Language and Speech . Vol. 10, pp. 81-87, (1967) (Ph.D. thesis publication)
Compton, A.J. "Annual Review of J.S.H.R. Research, 1967" J. Speech and Hearing Disorders . Vol. 33, pp. 303-317, (1968)
Compton, A.J. "Generative Studies of Children's Phonological Disorders," J. Speech and Hearing Disorders, Vol. 35, pp. 315-339, (1970). (This is the first of a series of reports outlining some of the implications of generative phonology to the diagnosis and treatment of children's articulatory disorders.)
Compton, A.J. "Generative Studies of Children's Phonological Disorders: A Strategy of Therapy," Measurements in Hearing, Speech and Language . Ed. Sadanand Singh, University Park Press, (1975)
Compton, A.J. "Generative Studies of Children's Phonological Disorders: Clinical Ramifications," Normal and Deficient Child Language . Eds. D. Morehead and A. Morehead, University Park Press (1976)
Compton, A.J. "Studies of Early Child Phonology: Data Collection and Analyses," Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, pp. 99-109, Stanford University, (1977)
Compton, A.J. Compton Speech and Language Screening Evaluation. Carousel House, San Francisco, CA (1978), Revised Ed. (1999)
Compton, A.J. Compton Phonological Assessment of Children. Carousel House, San Francisco, CA (1978), Rev.Ed. (2008)
Compton, A.J. Phonetics for Children's Misarticulations. Carousel House, San Francisco, CA (1981)
Compton, A.J. & Kline, M. Compton Speech and Language Screening Evaluation: Spanish Adaptation. Carousel House, San Francisco (1983) Revised Ed. (1999)
Compton, A.J. Compton Phonological Assessment of Foreign Accent, Carousel House, San Francisco, CA (1983), Revised Ed. (2012)
Foreign Accent Improvement Series, (Self-Study Accent Improvement programs, each of which include a Manual and a CD-ROM or a set of four cassette practice tapes)
Compton, A.J. Pronouncing English for Cantonese Speakers. Carousel House, San Francisco, CA (1983), Revised Ed. (1999)
Compton, A.J. Pronouncing English for Filipino Speakers. Carousel House, San Francisco, CA (1996), Revised Ed. (1999)
Compton, A.J. Pronouncing English for Japanese Speakers. Carousel House, San Francisco, CA (1983), Revised Ed. (1999)
Compton, A.J. Pronouncing English for Korean Speakers. Carousel House, San Francisco, CA (2004),
Compton, A.J. Pronouncing English for Mandarin Speakers. Carousel House, San Francisco, CA (1985), Revised Ed. (1999)
Compton, A.J. Pronouncing English for Slavic Speakers. Carousel House, San Francisco, CA (1996), Revised Ed. (1999)
Compton, A.J. Pronouncing English for Spanish Speakers. Carousel House, San Francisco, CA (1983), Revised Ed. (1999)
Compton, A.J. Pronouncing English for Vietnamese Speakers. Carousel House, San Francisco, CA (1983), Revised Ed. (1999)
Compton, A.J. Compton P-ESL Program ," Carousel House, San Francisco, CA (1984), Revised Ed. (2009) (This is the master client manual including the scripts of all practice materials. This publication and the accompanying CD-ROM or cassette-tape practice materials is available only to Institute certified speech pathologists who have taken a Training Workshop)
Compton, A.J. The Vowel Book. Carousel House, San Francisco, CA (1990)
Compton, A.J. Speech Production Illustrations: Consonants. Carousel House, San Francisco, CA (1991)Compton, A.J. Speech Production Illustrations: Vowels Carousel House, San Francisco, CA (1992)
Compton, A.J. Phonetic Transcription of Foreign Accent. Carousel House, San Francisco, CA Rev.Ed. (2010)
Compton, A.J. Compton P-ESL Audio Demonstration of Foreign Accent Improvement: 72 Foreign Language Backgrounds. Carousel House, San Francisco, CA (1992)
Compton, A.J. Foreign Accent Norms of American English for 47 of the Worlds Languages. Carousel House, San Francisco, CA, Rev.Ed.(2009) (The publication documents and provides normative date for the accented sounds of American English and constitutes the most comprehensive compilation of foreign accent ever undertaken).
Compton, A.J. Compton Screening Assessment of Foreign Accent. Carousel House, San Francisco, CA (1998)
CONFERENCES AND WORKSHOPS
Arthur J. Compton, Ph.D.
"Children's Phonological Development and Disorders," paper presented at the Conference on Psycholinguistic Approaches to the Study of Language Development and Disorders held at the University of Iowa for which I also served as director, June 20-21, (1969)
"Developmental Phonology" paper presented at the Annual Child Language Research Forum at Stanford University, March 27, (1971)
The Delayed Language Child workshop sponsored by the Maine State Department of Education which I conducted, July 8-9, (1971)
Normal and Deviant Language Development of the Child workshop sponsored by University of California, Berkeley (Extension College) June 26-27 and 29-30, (1972)
Normal and Abnormal Phonological Development of Children workshop sponsored by California State University, Hayward (Extension College) April 19-20, (1974)
Diagnosis and Remediation of Children's Phonological Disorders a series of workshops offered through the Institute of Child Language and Phonology, San Francisco Hearing and Speech Center, October 4-5, 18-19, and 25-26, (1975)
Deviant Child Phonology workshop sponsored by the Institute of Child Language and Phonology, San Francisco, February 15-16, (1977)
Phonological Disorders of Early Childhood workshop sponsored by the University of Montreal and McGill University, March 17-18, (1978)
A Practical Approach to Phonological Assessment workshop sponsored by California State University, Stanislaus, May 5, (1979)
A Comprehensive Linguistic Program for the Improvement of Foreign Accent. presented to the California Speech and Hearing Association. Los Angeles, April (1980)
Pronouncing English as a Second Language: A Linguistic Program. presented to the American Speech and Hearing Association, Detroit, November (1980)
Phonological Assessment of Foreign Accent and Comparisons of Accent Patterns of Speakers from Different Language Backgrounds. presented to the American Speech and Hearing Association, Cincinnati, November (1983)
Comparative Analyses of Foreign Accent Patterns of Speakers of Different Language Backgrounds. presented at the national meeting of Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Houston, March (1984)
Applied Studies of the Assessment and Remediation of Foreign Accent. presented to the American Speech, Hearing and Language Association, Detroit, November (1986)
Assessment and Remediation of Foreign Accent short course sponsored by The Professionals Continuum and the Institute of Language and Phonology, Lake Tahoe, July 1, (1987)
Applied Studies of Foreign Accent. presented at the Annual Convention of the California Speech, Hearing and Language Association, Palm Springs, April (1993)
Foreign Accent Improvement: Linguistic & Non Linguistic Variables and some Misconceptions. presented at the Annual Convention of the American Speech, Hearing and Language Association, New Orleans, LA. November (1994)
Linguistic and Nonlinguistic Variables of Foreign Accent, presented at the Annual Convention of the American Speech, Hearing and Language Association, San Francisco, November, (1999)
The branch of linguistics dealing with the relations among speech sounds in particular languages and in languages generally, and contrasting with phonetics. Though the creation of alphabetic writing necessarily required some intuitive grasp of phonology, the subject only began to be distinguished from phonetics in the late nineteenth century, and the distinction was not firmly established until well into this century, particularly as a result of the work done by the Prague School, which popularized the term ‘phonology’ (Trask ,1996).
The scientific study of speech, conventionally divided into articulatory phonetics (the study of the organs of speech and their use in producing speech sounds),acoustic phonetics (the study of the physical properties of the sounds produced in speaking) and auditory phonetics (the study of the processing and interpretation of speech sounds by the ear, the nervous system and the brain); instrumental phonetics is the study of any of these by means of instruments to measure, record or analyse data. Anthropophonics (or general phonetics) considers the total range of speech sounds producible by the human vocal apparatus, independently of any real or possible linguistic use; linguistic phonetics examines the
speech sounds occurring in particular languages or in languages generally. Phonetics is commonly regarded as a distinct discipline from linguistics, the two together being labelled the linguistic sciences (Trask,1996).
• Phonologists and phoneticians interested in how gradient phonetic phenomena reflect phonological structure.
• Both fields interested in the cognitive representation of sound.
• Phoneticians still more interested in the articulatory constraints on
speech timing, speech aerodynamics, and the acoustic representation of speech sounds.
• Phonologists still interested in speech segments as abstract units which are sensitive to linguistic structural.
Author. Date: 29 Nov 2015, Views:
English | ISBN: 9027248540 | 2015 | 309 Pages | PDF | 12 MB
This volume is a collection of advanced laboratory phonology research papers concerned with the interaction between the physical and the mental aspects of speech and language. The traditional linguistic theoretic distinction between phonetics and phonology is put to the test here in a series of articles that deal with some of the fundamental issues in the field, from first and second language acquisition to segmental and supra-segmental phenomena in a range of different languages. Unique features of this volume are the development of innovative experimental methodologies, advanced techniques of data analysis, latest-generation equipment for the observation of speech, and their combined critical application to the study of the phonetics-phonology interface. The volume is therefore not only of great interest but of outstanding value and importance to anyone who wishes to be completely apprised of the latest advances in this crucial area of phonological research.
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Phonology research papers discuss the study of sound as it pertains to a language.
The sounds that make up phonemes all begin in the lungs. From there, humans can decide if the air they breathe will make sounds. If a person wants to make a sound, he chooses what kind of sound to make by directing air through the mouth or nose. The specific placement of the air within the mouth decides if the sound will be voiced or remain just a sound. It is up to the person to move lips and change vibrations in order to create different sounds that are associated to mean different things. These sounds become phonemes.
Phonology is the study of sound as it pertains to a language. and is a part of the study of linguistics. Phonemes connect meaning to the sounds and phonology is the study of phonemes. Phonology looks at the sound patterns within words. Different languages have different sound patterns within words. Some of these sound patterns are shared between different languages, and some are entirely different than any other language sound.
Phonology is sometimes confused with phonetics. Phonetics is the study of the production of the speech sound. Phonology focuses more on the patterns of the sounds within different languages that derive meaning.
The roots of phonology can be traced back all the way to the 4th century BC and the Sanskrit language. A polish scholar, Jan Baudouin de Courteney, introduced the term phoneme in 1876.Related Research Paper Topics
Phonics - Phonics research papers discuss the system of relationships between language sounds and letters.
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Syntax - Syntax research papers discuss the structure of sentence formation in grammar.
Phonological Awareness - Phonological Awareness research papers examine the process that allows a person to hear and change sounds.
Teaching Reading Strategies research papers discuss strategies that effectively demonstrate the mastery of comprehension of reading by students.
Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies research papers discuss strategies that increase the success of reading comprehension in student's.
Elementary Education - Elementary Education research papers on the help provided for students with a foundation for future academic development.
Dyspraxia research papers look into the difficulties individuals face when living with this Developmental Coordination Disorder and discuss it's identifying characteristics.
Dysphasia research papers examine a disability that causes a disruption in the brain’s ability to formulate speech and language.
Phonological Disorder research papers examine the developmental articulation disorder, speech distortion, or sound distortion, in young children when learning speech.
Adult Literacy - People who are unable to read and write are called illiterate. People who are literate are able to read and understand both text and symbols.
Language Disorder - Language Disorder research papers examine the difficulties an individual with a language disorder has with processing linguistic information.
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Speech Disorders - Speech Disorders research papers examine the impediments that cause a person's normal speech to be disrupted.How to Write a Research Paper on Phonology
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Title:Phonetics & Phonology
(By Anntina Fyvonnequehz-Open University Malaysia)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0 Introduction 3
2.0 Vowel sounds 3-4
3.0 Sound - equals difficulties 4-5
4.0 Language Teaching 6
5.1 Phonemic awareness 7
5.2 Phonology Awareness 8
5.0 Conclusion 9
Phonetics and phonology are the two fields dedicated to the study of human speech sounds and human speech structures. While phonetics deals with the physical production of these sounds, phonology deals with the study of sound patterns and their meanings both within and across languages. Many linguists have thought of phonology and phonetics as separate, largely autonomous, disciplines with distinct goals and distinct methodologies (Ohala 1991) Some even doubt whether phonetics is part of linguistics at all (Ohala, Sommerstein 1997) In certain aspect phonetics and phonology deal with many of the same things since they both have to do with speech sounds of human language.( Devenport & Hannahs 1998) So for this paper I will try my best to show that phonetics is one of crucial areas of study for phonology. Without phonetics, I would maintain, (and allied empirical disciplines such as psycholinguistics and sociolinguistics) phonology runs the risk of being a sterile, purely descriptive and taxonomic, discipline; with phonetics it can achieve a high level of explanation and prediction (Ohala 1991) in vowel sounds, different sounds, and intonation and language teaching.
2.0 Vowel sounds
Most speakers of English do not know the number of vowel sounds the language has. If we ask them, for sure the answer is five vowel sounds that is a e i o u which in actual fact representing the spelling of the vowel of English. Most kind of English have between 16 and 20 different vowel sounds but most English speakers are unaware of despite constantly using them (Devenport & Hannahs. 1998). The vowels of English vary with the regional origins of the speaker and also the sociolinguistic factors such as class and age. These make it difficult to describe the ‘vowel of the English’ as many English speakers do not have the same ones. Imagine a young learner confusion when he learns to pronounce the word ‘book’ with a longer, higher vowel [u:] from a Northern England speaker; [bu:k] and heard the same word spoken by a younger Southern English speaker with a high –mid back unround vowel[ɤ]and also a number of North American varieties too where most best seller movies are produced. As most of these movies were watched by our young learner, they will get confuse with the many varieties of sound of the vowel sound.
Similarly different types of English may well have different numbers of vowels in their inventories: RP is usually considered to have 19 or 21 distinct vowels sounds, but many varieties of Scottish English have only 10 – 14 ((Devenport & Hannahs)Scottish English usually does not distinguish between ‘pool’ and ‘pull’, both having [u] So with phonetics transcription, the learner can clear his confusion that there are varieties of vowels sounds spoken by different English speakers and are able to refer to the RP (Received Pronunciation) for accepted sound of the words.
3.0 Sound: Equal Difficulties
As we all know, English is a mixture of consistency and inconsistency. So the consistency of the English warrant that phonetics is worth studying to further enhance the phonology of the language. Many of the irregularities and inconsistencies of English orthography offer the same degree of difficulty to all speakers of English, no matter what accent they speak it with. For example, the reader faced with the written words river and diver gets no clue from the spelling to know that one is pronounced with short /ɪ/, the other with long /aɪ/. We are all equally helped to some extent by the fact that we have a word /ˈrɪvə/ in our vocabulary and no */ˈraɪvə/, and a /ˈdaɪvə/ but no.
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and sibilant sounds [pic] Pronunciation of –ed The ending –ed, added to regular English verbs to form the past tense and past participle, has three different pronunciations: /t/ as in wished, / δ / as in failed, and / δ / as in needed. Phonetic principle: when two consonants are pronounced together, as /r/ and /d/ in cared, it is easier to voice both consonants or leave both voiceless than it is to voice one and leave the other voiceless. Therefore, the ending –ed is.
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Due to the fact that we will necessarily have to handle several definitions of what language is and its components (syntax, grammar, phonetics and phonology . semantics,…) in order to help students realize the variety of elements they use when communicating with others. For instance, when teaching our students a language level such as phonetics and phonology . which primary involves pronunciation we have to make them aware that it.
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be studied from two points of view: the phonetic and the phonological.1 Phonetics is a linguistic science which studies and describes the sounds of speech in a language, the way humans make, transmit and receive speech sounds. Phonetics can be divided into articulatory phonetics which studies the way the vocal organs are used to produce speech sounds, there is acoustic phonetics which studies the physical properties of.
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Unit 1 – Phonetics and Phonology 1.1 Introduction Phonetics is an empirical science which studies human speech sounds. It tells us how sound are produced, thus describing the articulatory and acoustic properties of sounds, and furnishes us with methods for this classification. Phonetics is divided into three main branches: - Articulatory phonetics . Studies the nature and limits of the human ability to produce.
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PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY . ENG 221
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Introduction to Phonetics and PhonologyPhonetic description of language Phonetic explanations for language sound patterns To explain patterns we see in language sound systems, we will make reference to two phonetic systems “the talker” articulation, aerodynamics “the listener” acoustics, speech perception The patterns we see in language sound systems can be classified into two sets: “process” sound alternations.
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Phonetics and phonology (both from the Greek root phono- 'sound') are two branches of linguistics that deal primarily with the structure of human language sounds. Phonetics is concerned with how sounds are produced; transmitted and perceived (we will only look at the production of sounds). Phonology is concerned with how sounds function in relation to each other in a language. In other words, phonetics is about.
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