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Saccharin Research Paper

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Saccharin research paper

Saccharin Sample essay on Saccharin

Saccharin is one of the most disputed sugar substitutes in the United States today. Since 1977, it has been regarded as potentially carcinogenic (“Saccharin”, 1999). The sweetness of saccharin compared to sugarcane is utterly amazing. When measured up to sugarcane, saccharin is 550 times as sweet in its pure state. Also, it is estimated to have a sweetening power of 375 times that of sugar (“Saccharin”, 2000)! This drug may be amazing, but some people say that it causes a dangerous disease, cancer.

In 1879, while developing new food preservatives a young Johns Hopkins chemistry research assistant accidentally discovered that one of the organic compounds he was testing was intensely sweet. He named it “saccharum”, the Greek word for sugar. He further learned that it passed through the body unchanged and was thus a safe artificial sweetener for diabetics (Anderson, 1995). Similar sugar substitutes are used today. Saccharin, which is also known as ortho-sulpho benzimide, is a white crystalline solid derived form coal tar

Them chemical formula is known as C6H4CONHSO2 (“Saccharin”, 1999). In 1977, saccharin was banned in Canada, but it has been kept on the market in the United States (“Saccharin”, 2000). It may be legal in the United States, but warning labels are necessary on saccharin-containing foods (“Saccharin”, 2000). In 1997, a group of scientists urged the federal agency to keep the artificial on its list of cancer-causing agents (CSPI, 1997). The National Toxicology Program, NTP, said that declaring saccharin sage would, “result in greater exposure to this probable carcinogen in tens of millions of people..

If saccharin is even a weak carcinogen, this unnecessary additive would pose an intolerable risk to the public,” (CSPI, 1997). They felt that even if it is weak, it still is a carcinogen. Samuel Epstein, a professor of environmental medicine at Illinois Medical Center in Chicago said, “In light of the many animal and human studies clearly demonstrating that saccharin is a carcinogenic, it is astonishing that the NTP is even considering delisting saccharin, ” (CSPI, 1997). Many other scientist still today believe and have proven that saccharin is a cancer causing agent (at high doses in lab animals), but still people use it day in and day out at restaurants and their homes. Still many people are trying to have it removed from the list of carcinogens. Saccharin was also test on many laboratory animals, especially lab rats. They concluded that a high dietary dose of sodium saccharin causes urinary bladder tumors in rats (Bell, 1998).

Even though many other chemicals are known to cause bladder cancer, including aromatic amines and azo dyes, as well as cigarettes (Bell, 1998). However, it was suggested that saccharin might be different from other bladder carcinogens. It has been argued that a large dose-response study shows a “threshold” exists between 1% and 3% saccharin in the diets of males rates and that levels below that are not carcinogenic (Bell, 1998). What that means is saccharin is a non-genotoxic carcinogen that can have a threshold response below which human exposure should not be a health concern (Bell, 1998). So, at a large dose, saccharin is considered a carcinogen. But at the levels that a human would consume them, saccharin is too weak and should not be a health concern. Even though saccharin is safe at small doses, the unnecessary additive should be kept on the list of carcinogens.

But still in 1998, the government advisory group had given a clean bill of health to the artificial sweetener, saccharin (Grady, 1998). Saccharin was one of the most controversial and experimented drugs ever on the market. And after all the tests, and all of the news specials, and write-ups, it was declared to be safe! Why was saccharin created in the first place? Saccharin has been used to sweeten foods and beverages without calories or carbohydrates for over a century. Its use was considerable during the sugar shortages of the two world wars, particularly in Europe (“Backgrounder, 1999). In the United States, the continual use of saccharin has made it part of out lifestyle.

Saccharin is of the utmost importance to a person with diabetes, and a person struggling with calorie intake. According to opinion research, people use saccharin to stay in better overall health, control weight or maintain an attractive physical appearance. Research also has shown that health professionals believe saccharin is especially beneficial to persons with diabetes and the obese, and helps reduce dental cavities (“Backgrounder”, 1999).Throughout the 1970s, saccharin was the only low-calorie sweetener available in the United States. Today, saccharin is vital to low-calorie food makers, and diet beverage makers. It is used in the U. S. in such products as soft drinks, tabletop sweeteners, baked goods, jams, chewing gum, canned fruit, candy, dessert toppings and salad dressings.

One of its most popular uses is in Sweet ‘N Low(R), a tabletop sweetener (“Backgrounder”, 1999).Saccharin is not the only sweetener available today though. Besides saccharin, there is aspartame, acesulfame potassium, and sucralose. Since manufacturers have this option, they can combine the sweeteners to produce the best tasting product. The American Society of Bariatric Physicians says it best, ‘With currently available data, the Society still believes the benefits of saccharin use far outweigh its alleged risks,” (“Backgrounder”, 1999). Saccharin is a safe substitute for sugar. Saccharin is perfect for people tying to lose weight and people with diabetes. Saccharin is only dangerous when large amounts are consumed.

It is safe, but if I were you, I would avoid it..just in case! Works Sited PageBackgrounder on Saccharin (Benefits/Safety/Public Policy) [On-line]. (1999). Available: <http://www. saccharin. org/backgrounder. html> CSPI Reports [On-line]. (1998). Available: <http://www. cspinet. org/reports/sacanada. htm&gt ;Saccharin [On-line]. (1999).

Hutchinson Encyclopedia. Available: <http://ukdb. web. aol. com/Hutchinson/encyclopedi a/94/M0016894.htm>Saccharin [On-line]. (2000). Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia. Available: <http://encarta. msn. com/find/Concise. asp? ti=03E 66000>Saccharin Still Poses Cancer Risk, Scientists Tell Federal Agency [On-line]. (1997). CSPI Press Releases.

Available: <http://www. cspinet. org/news/saccharin. htm.

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Топики по английскому языку Ira Remsen Essay Research Paper The life

Ira Remsen Essay, Research Paper

The life of Ira Remsen

Ira Remsen was born on February 10, 1846 in New York

city. Even though he was born in the United States, he was

educated in Germany. He received his M.D. at Columbia University in 1867 and he also earned a Ph.D. at the University of Munich and G?ttingen in Germany. After receiving his degrees, Remsen began his investigation in pure chemistry at the University of T?bingen.

It was in Germany and in Europe Remsen did most of his research. In 1876 he returned to the United States where his became one of the original faculty of Johns Hopkins University. There he founded the chemistry department. He was an excellent professor who trained a generation of prominent chemists. He was also the Director of the Chemical Laboratory and secretary of the Academic Council. In 1879, he was the founding editor of American Chemical Journal. Also in that same year, he made a remarkable, accidental discovery with a fellow researcher Constantine Fahlberg when they were working on a derivative of coal tar.

One night, after a long day in his laboratory

He we was having dinner with wife. When he was eating a regular roll. Remsen noticed that it was quite sweet at first, but it left a bitter after-taste. He made his wife taste the bread and he found nothing wrong or something unusual about the taste. So Remsen decided to taste his fingers and there he found that same sweet then bitter taste despite washing his hands thoroughly after working in his lab. After dinner, he returned to his laboratory and started to taste all the chemicals he was handling. When he found that chemical, it was oxidation of o-toluenesulfonamide and he called it saccharin. In 1880, Remsen and Fahlberg published their findings in the February issue of The Chemical Journal.

Many people thought that it was Constantine who discovered saccharin, but he stole the formula from Remsen. When they stopped working together, Constantine patented the formula and became filthy rich. As a result Remsen didn’t received any credit for the discovery. Constantine

received the recognition that Remsen earned and rightfully deserved. Remsen was furious at first about the matter; “it makes my blood boil to see the lies that scoundrel Fahlberg constantly, constantly in print, and to see further, that they are generally believed.” Later Remsen would apologize for this outburst.

Remsen moved to bigger and better things. In 1901, he was appointed President of Johns Hopkins University, there in that same year, he wrote several important textbooks on chemistry. Remsen also found the School of Engineering at Johns Hopkins. He introduced many German laboratory methods into Johns Hopkins and emphasized the university’s function as a research “centre”. At the time at Johns Hopkins he helped establish the school as a leading graduate science teaching institute in the United States, never seeking fame or fortune for his contributions to science. His work on the research-based Doctoral program at Hopkins was considered important improvement to science in the United States.

In 1913, Dr. Ira Remsen stepped down as president at

Johns Hopkins University. Remsen still continued to

keep chemistry the number one priority in his life. He moved and resided in Carmel, California. Until his passing away on March 4, 1927 of natural causes.

Saccharin is derived from the Latin word saccharum, meaning sugar. Saccharin is also called Ortho-sulfobenzoic acid imide; the formula is C6H4CONHSO2. Saccharin is a synthetic, white, crystalline powder that melts at 228.08 to 229.7 degrees Celsius and very soluble in water. It is 550 times as sweet as sugar cane. And it is also estimated to have a sweetening power 375 times that of sugar. When saccharin is dissolved in water in large amounts, the solution is very bitter. Sweetness is only evident in a diluted solution. Saccharin cannot be digested by the body and has no food values. Those who are diabetic and people who ate on weight reducing diets use it in place of sugar. They used it for the psychological purpose of satisfying a taste for sweetness. Many critics say that that saccharin can itself stimulate the appetite and the production of insulin in the body.

For several years, saccharin has been under investigation as a risk for cancer. It was banned in Canada in 1977 for that same reason. But in the United States Public reaction has help to keep saccharin on the market. The Food and Drug Administration requires that warning labels to be put on products containing saccharin.

Time Line of The Life of Ira Remsen

1846: Born on February 10th in New York City

Childhood – Lived and educated in Germany

1867: Received Masters Degree from Columbia University

1870: Earned Ph.D. at Universities of Munich and

Gottingen in Germany.

Started research into pure chemistry at University of Tubingen.

1872: Moved back to the United States

1875: Became one of the original faculties of Johns Hopkins university

1876: Founded the Chemistry department at Johns Hopkins and became Director of the chemical laboratory

1879: Accidentally discovered saccharin and founded The American Chemical Journal. Also wrote important textbooks.

1887: Named Secretary of the Academic Council

1901: Became president of Johns Hopkins university

Ended his term of Secretary of the Academic Council

1908: Stepped down as Director of Chemical Laboratory

1913: Retired as President, a professor, and as the editor of American Chemical Journal.

1927 Died on March 4th of natural causes

A scientist unknown his work

1.”Sacchrin”Microsoft?Encarta?Encyclopedia. 1993-1997 Microsoft Corporation.

2.”Ira Remsen”The Cambridge Dictionary of American Biography, By J.S Bowmen. 1995Cambridge University.

Sacchrin Essay, Research Paper If saccharin is

Sacchrin Essay, Research Paper

If saccharin is safe, why does it require a warning label?

Saccharin has always been surrounded by controversy. As early as 1907, the public was concerned over its safety and proposed banning it. Theodore Roosevelt, a diabetic, fought the idea. He said, “My doctor gives it to me every day?Anybody who says saccharin is injurious to health is an idiot”(Corcoran 12). Saccharin survived the onslaught for another forty years. It wasn’t until the bittersweet chemical hit the mainstream consumer market in such things as diet sodas, pharmaceuticals, and chewing gum that it came under fire again. Scientists suggested that saccharin might be a carcinogen in 1951.

Saccharin is the ancestor of all artificial sweeteners. It was discovered by accident in 1879 by I. Remsen and C. Fahlberg at John Hopkins University. Fahlberg noticed a sweet taste on his hands after working with some chemicals in the lab. Through taste tests back at his laboratory he found the source of the sweetness was saccharin. A process for synthesizing saccharin was soon created, and commercial production of saccharin began in 1900 (Beck).

Saccharin is an accepted replacement for cane sugar, and is now the most widely used sweetener in the world. This fact is alarming because although the mild carcinogenic has been deemed safe for human consumption, several studies have linked the chemical to bladder cancer. If the chemical were truly safe, it would not require a warning label on products that contain it.

Despite the fact that the United States government has deemed saccharin safe, in actuality, it should be banned until its effects on the human body are completely understood. Saccharin is an organic petroleum-based compound that is three to five hundred times sweeter than sucrose. It is non-nutritive because the human body is unable to metabolize the foreign chemical. Saccharin does not contribute calories; for this reason it is commonly used in diet foods. “The obese [feel] that saccharin is their lifeline to slimdom, and diabetics [claim] it is essential to control their blood sugar” (Brody 482).

The same people who consume saccharin certainly would not knowingly eat something that is classified as toxic waste; however, they do it on a daily basis. Saccharin’s alias is EPA Hazardous Waste number U202. In fact, workers who handle saccharin are cautioned, “EXERCISE DUE CARE. AVOID CONTACT WITH EYES, SKIN, CLOTHING. WASH THOROUGHLY AFTER HANDLING. IF SWALLOWED, IF CONCIOUS, IMMEDIATELY INDUCE VOMITING” (MSDS).

In 1958, however, saccharin was added to the GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) list, another paradox. In 1972, the results of a long-term study showed that rats fed saccharin had developed bladder tumors. Subsequently, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) removed saccharin from GRAS status and issued a regulation limiting the use of saccharin in foods. Then in 1974, a National Academy of Science review found that, “Saccharin itself could not be identified as the cause of the tumors because of possible impurities as well as problems with experimental design and procedures” (Kennedy 131). Therefore, the FDA decided not to ban saccharin until they received the results of a study being conducted in Canada.

In March 1977, the Canadian study showed that feeding large doses of saccharin to pregnant rats and their weanlings produced bladder cancers in the male offspring. The Canadians immediately banned saccharin. When the FDA announced its intentions to follow suit, public outcry led to a Congressionally voted eighteen-month moratorium. The American people wanted more time to evaluate the results of the study.

Shortly thereafter, Congress enacted the Saccharin Study and Labeling Act, which stayed the FDA’s hand temporarily and ordered a warning label on all saccharin products: “Use of this product may be hazardous to your health. This product contains saccharin which has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals” (Brody 482-483). Nonetheless, the moratorium has continually been extended until the present day.

During 1978 and 1979, the National Cancer Institute and FDA conducted a population-based study on the possible role of saccharin in causing bladder cancer in humans. In general, people in the study who used an artificial sweetener had no greater risk of bladder cancer than the population as a whole. However, when only the data for heavy users was examined, there was some suggestive evidence of an increased risk, particularly in persons who consumed both diet drinks and sugar substitutes and who used at least one of these two forms heavily (Carcinogenicity). In the study, heavy use was defined as merely six or more servings of sugar substitute or two or more 8-ounce servings of diet drink daily. Consequently, several studies have found that people with bladder cancer were more likely to have eaten food that contained saccharin than were people who didn’t have bladder cancer.

The National Cancer Institute compared the diets of 5,800 similar people who were disease-free to the diets of 3,000 men and women with bladder cancer. Those who reported consuming high levels of saccharin on a daily basis were found to be at a higher risk for association to poorly differentiated bladder tumors (Corcoran 13).

Saccharin is the most widely used sugar substitute in the world, and yet we still do not fully understand its effects on the human body. Drinking one can of diet soda per day can increase the risk of bladder cancer by sixty percent (Goulhart). The fact that it has never been conclusively proven to cause cancer in humans does not make saccharin safe. A dollar’s worth of saccharin will do the sweetening of twenty dollar’s worth of sugar; for this reason, the FDA will not decisively ban the chemical sweetener. They are waiting for the results of the ultimate human test that has been taking place since saccharine was invented in 1879.

Saccharin didn’t become widely used until thirty years ago, and bladder cancer takes decades to develop; the near future holds the definitive answer about its safety. Safety aside, saccharine is also a top allergen, causing everything from fatigue to nausea and disorientation. Any food that requires a warning label shouldn’t be safe.

Beck, Karl M. “Saccharin.” McGraw Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. 8th ed. 1997. Brody, Jane E. Jane Brody’s Nutrition Book. New York: WW Norton, 1981: 482.

Corcoran, Leila, and Michael Jacobson. “Saccharin: Bittersweet.” Nutrition Action Health Letter April 1998: 11-13.

“Carcinogenicity of Saccharin in Laboratory Animals and Humans.” CSPI Reports. Online. Center for Science in the Public Interest. Available HTTP: http://www.cspinet.org/reports/sacanada.htm.

Goulhart, Frances S. Nutritional Self-Defense. New York: Dodd, 1984. “MSDS for Saccharin Sodium.

“Material Safety Data Sheets”. Online. University of Utah. Available HTTP: http://www.chem.utah.edu/MSDS/S/SACCHARIN_SODIUM.

Indomethacin–Saccharin Cocrystal: Design, Synthesis and Preliminary Pharmaceutical Characterization

Indomethacin–Saccharin Cocrystal: Design, Synthesis and Preliminary Pharmaceutical Characterization Purpose

To design and prepare cocrystals of indomethacin using crystal engineering approaches, with the ultimate objective of improving the physical properties of indomethacin, especially solubility and dissolution rate.

Materials and Methods

Various cocrystal formers, including saccharin, were used in endeavours to obtain indomethacin cocrystals by slow evaporation from a series of solvents. The melting point of crystalline phases was determined. The potential cocrystalline phase was characterized by DSC, IR, Raman and PXRD techniques. The indomethacin–saccharin cocrystal (hereafter IND–SAC cocrystal) structure was determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Pharmaceutically relevant properties such as the dissolution rate and dynamic vapour sorption (DVS) of the IND–SAC cocrystal were evaluated. Solid state and liquid-assisted (solvent-drop) cogrinding methods were also applied to indomethacin and saccharin.

Results

The IND–SAC cocrystals were obtained from ethyl acetate. Physical characterization showed that the IND–SAC cocrystal is unique vis-à-vis thermal, spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction properties. The cocrystals were obtained in a 1:1 ratio with a carboxylic acid and imide dimer synthons. The dissolution rate of IND–SAC cocrystal system was considerably faster than that of the stable indomethacin γ -form. DVS studies indicated that the cocrystals gained less than 0.05% in weight at 98%RH. IND–SAC cocrystal was also obtained by solid state and liquid-assisted cogrinding methods.

Conclusions

The IND–SAC cocrystal was formed with a unique and interesting carboxylic acid and imide dimer synthons interconnected by weak N−H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The cocrystals were non-hygroscopic and were associated with a significantly faster dissolution rate than indomethacin (γ -form).

Key words

crystal engineering dissolution rate indomethacin pharmaceutical cocrystals poorly soluble drugs

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi: 10.​1007/​s11095-007-9394-1 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Sweeteners Essay Research Paper Saccharin is an

Sweeteners Essay, Research Paper

Saccharin is an organic petroleum-based compound that is three to five

hundred times sweeter than sucrose. It is non-nutritive because the human

body is unable to metabolize the foreign chemical. Saccharin does not

contribute calories; for this reason it is commonly used in diet foods.

“The obese [feel] that saccharin is their lifeline to slimdom, and

diabetics [claim] it is essential to control their blood sugar” (Brody

482). The same people who consume saccharin certainly would not knowingly

eat something that is classified as toxic waste; however, they do it on a

daily basis. Saccharin’s alias is EPA Hazardous Waste number U202. In

fact, workers who handle saccharin are cautioned, “EXERCISE DUE CARE.

AVOID CONTACT WITH EYES, SKIN, CLOTHING. WASH THOROUGHLY AFTER HANDLING.

IF SWALLOWED, IF CONCIOUS, IMMEDIATELY INDUCE VOMITING” (MSDS).

Saccharin has always been surrounded by controversy. As early as 1907,

the public was concerned over its safety and proposed banning it.

Theodore Roosevelt, a diabetic, fought the idea. He said, “My doctor

gives it to me every day…Anybody who says saccharin is injurious to

health is an idiot”(Corcoran 12). Saccharin survived the onslaught for

another forty years. It wasn’t until the bittersweet chemical hit the

mainstream consumer market in such things as diet sodas, pharmaceuticals,

and chewing gum that it came under fire again. Scientists suggested that

saccharin might be a carcinogen in 1951. In 1958, however, saccharin was

added to the GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) list, another paradox.

In 1972, the results of a long-term study showed that rats fed saccharin

had developed bladder tumors. Subsequently, the Food and Drug

Administration (FDA) removed saccharin from GRAS status and issued a

regulation limiting the use of saccharin in foods. Then in 1974, a

National Academy of Science review found that, “Saccharin itself could not

be identified as the cause of the tumors because of possible impurities as

well as problems with experimental design and procedures” (Kennedy 131).

Therefore, the FDA decided not to ban saccharin until they received the

results of a study being conducted in Canada.

In March 1977, the Canadian study showed that feeding large doses of

saccharin to pregnant rats and their weanlings produced bladder cancers in

the male offspring. The Canadians immediately banned saccharin. When the

FDA announced its intentions to follow suit, public outcry led to a

Congressionally voted eighteen-month moratorium. The American people

wanted more time to evaluate the results of the study. Shortly

thereafter, Congress enacted the Saccharin Study and Labeling Act, which

stayed the FDA’s hand temporarily and ordered a warning label on all

saccharin products: “Use of this product may be hazardous to your health.

This product contains saccharin which has been determined to cause cancer

in laboratory animals” (Brody 482-483). Nonetheless, the moratorium has

continually been extended until the present day.

During 1978 and 1979, the National Cancer Institute and FDA conducted a

population-based study on the possible role of saccharin in causing

bladder cancer in humans. In general, people in the study who used an

artificial sweetener had no greater risk of bladder cancer than the

population as a whole. However, when only the data for heavy users was

examined, there was some suggestive evidence of an increased risk,

particularly in persons who consumed both diet drinks and sugar

substitutes and who used at least one of these two forms heavily

(Carcinogenicity). In the study, heavy use was defined as merely six or

more servings of sugar substitute or two or more 8-ounce servings of diet

drink daily. Consequently, several studies have found that people with

bladder cancer were more likely to have eaten food that contained

saccharin than were people who didn’t have bladder cancer. The National

Cancer Institute compared the diets of 5,800 similar people who were

disease-free to the diets of 3,000 men and women with bladder cancer.

Those who reported consuming high levels of saccharin on a daily basis

were found to be at a higher risk for association to poorly differentiated

bladder tumors (Corcoran 13).

Saccharine is the most widely used sugar substitute in the world, and yet

we still do not fully understand its effects on the human body. Drinking

one can of diet soda per day can increase the risk of bladder cancer by

sixty percent (Goulhart). The fact that it has never been conclusively

proven to cause cancer in humans does not make saccharin safe. A dollar’s

worth of saccharin will do the sweetening of twenty dollar’s worth of

sugar; for this reason, the FDA will not decisively ban the chemical

sweetener. They are waiting for the results of the ultimate human test

that has been taking place since saccharine was invented in 1879.

Saccharine didn’t become widely used until thirty years ago, and bladder

cancer takes decades to develop; the near future holds the definitive

answer about its safety. Safety aside, saccharine is also a top allergen,

causing everything from fatigue to nausea and disorientation. The bottom

line is that saccharine should be banned. Any food that requires a

warning label cannot be safe.

Beck, Karl M. “Saccharin.” McGraw Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. 8th

Brody, Jane E. Jane Brody’s Nutrition Book. New York: WW Norton, 1981: 482.

Corcoran, Leila, and Michael Jacobson. “Saccharin: Bittersweet.” Nutrition Action

Health Letter April 1998: 11-13.

“Carcinogenicity of Saccharin in Laboratory Animals and Humans.” CSPI Reports.

Online. Center for Science in the Public Interest. Available HTTP:

Goulhart, Frances S. Nutritional Self-Defense. New York: Dodd, 1984.

“MSDS for Saccharin Sodium.” Material Safety Data Sheets. Online. University of Utah.

Available HTTP: http://www.chem.utah.edu/MSDS/S/SACCHARIN_SODIUM.

Sacchrin Essay Research Paper If saccharin is

Sacchrin Essay Research Paper If saccharin is

Sacchrin Essay, Research Paper

If saccharin is safe, why does it require a warning label?

Saccharin has always been surrounded by controversy. As early as 1907, the public was concerned over its safety and proposed banning it. Theodore Roosevelt, a diabetic, fought the idea. He said, “My doctor gives it to me every day?Anybody who says saccharin is injurious to health is an idiot”(Corcoran 12). Saccharin survived the onslaught for another forty years. It wasn’t until the bittersweet chemical hit the mainstream consumer market in such things as diet sodas, pharmaceuticals, and chewing gum that it came under fire again. Scientists suggested that saccharin might be a carcinogen in 1951.

Saccharin is the ancestor of all artificial sweeteners. It was discovered by accident in 1879 by I. Remsen and C. Fahlberg at John Hopkins University. Fahlberg noticed a sweet taste on his hands after working with some chemicals in the lab. Through taste tests back at his laboratory he found the source of the sweetness was saccharin. A process for synthesizing saccharin was soon created, and commercial production of saccharin began in 1900 (Beck).

Saccharin is an accepted replacement for cane sugar, and is now the most widely used sweetener in the world. This fact is alarming because although the mild carcinogenic has been deemed safe for human consumption, several studies have linked the chemical to bladder cancer. If the chemical were truly safe, it would not require a warning label on products that contain it.

Despite the fact that the United States government has deemed saccharin safe, in actuality, it should be banned until its effects on the human body are completely understood. Saccharin is an organic petroleum-based compound that is three to five hundred times sweeter than sucrose. It is non-nutritive because the human body is unable to metabolize the foreign chemical. Saccharin does not contribute calories; for this reason it is commonly used in diet foods. “The obese [feel] that saccharin is their lifeline to slimdom, and diabetics [claim] it is essential to control their blood sugar” (Brody 482).

The same people who consume saccharin certainly would not knowingly eat something that is classified as toxic waste; however, they do it on a daily basis. Saccharin’s alias is EPA Hazardous Waste number U202. In fact, workers who handle saccharin are cautioned, “EXERCISE DUE CARE. AVOID CONTACT WITH EYES, SKIN, CLOTHING. WASH THOROUGHLY AFTER HANDLING. IF SWALLOWED, IF CONCIOUS, IMMEDIATELY INDUCE VOMITING” (MSDS).

In 1958, however, saccharin was added to the GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) list, another paradox. In 1972, the results of a long-term study showed that rats fed saccharin had developed bladder tumors. Subsequently, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) removed saccharin from GRAS status and issued a regulation limiting the use of saccharin in foods. Then in 1974, a National Academy of Science review found that, “Saccharin itself could not be identified as the cause of the tumors because of possible impurities as well as problems with experimental design and procedures” (Kennedy 131). Therefore, the FDA decided not to ban saccharin until they received the results of a study being conducted in Canada.

In March 1977, the Canadian study showed that feeding large doses of saccharin to pregnant rats and their weanlings produced bladder cancers in the male offspring. The Canadians immediately banned saccharin. When the FDA announced its intentions to follow suit, public outcry led to a Congressionally voted eighteen-month moratorium. The American people wanted more time to evaluate the results of the study.

Shortly thereafter, Congress enacted the Saccharin Study and Labeling Act, which stayed the FDA’s hand temporarily and ordered a warning label on all saccharin products: “Use of this product may be hazardous to your health. This product contains saccharin which has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals” (Brody 482-483). Nonetheless, the moratorium has continually been extended until the present day.

During 1978 and 1979, the National Cancer Institute and FDA conducted a population-based study on the possible role of saccharin in causing bladder cancer in humans. In general, people in the study who used an artificial sweetener had no greater risk of bladder cancer than the population as a whole. However, when only the data for heavy users was examined, there was some suggestive evidence of an increased risk, particularly in persons who consumed both diet drinks and sugar substitutes and who used at least one of these two forms heavily (Carcinogenicity). In the study, heavy use was defined as merely six or more servings of sugar substitute or two or more 8-ounce servings of diet drink daily. Consequently, several studies have found that people with bladder cancer were more likely to have eaten food that contained saccharin than were people who didn’t have bladder cancer.

The National Cancer Institute compared the diets of 5,800 similar people who were disease-free to the diets of 3,000 men and women with bladder cancer. Those who reported consuming high levels of saccharin on a daily basis were found to be at a higher risk for association to poorly differentiated bladder tumors (Corcoran 13).

Saccharin is the most widely used sugar substitute in the world, and yet we still do not fully understand its effects on the human body. Drinking one can of diet soda per day can increase the risk of bladder cancer by sixty percent (Goulhart). The fact that it has never been conclusively proven to cause cancer in humans does not make saccharin safe. A dollar’s worth of saccharin will do the sweetening of twenty dollar’s worth of sugar; for this reason, the FDA will not decisively ban the chemical sweetener. They are waiting for the results of the ultimate human test that has been taking place since saccharine was invented in 1879.

Saccharin didn’t become widely used until thirty years ago, and bladder cancer takes decades to develop; the near future holds the definitive answer about its safety. Safety aside, saccharine is also a top allergen, causing everything from fatigue to nausea and disorientation. Any food that requires a warning label shouldn’t be safe.

Beck, Karl M. “Saccharin.” McGraw Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. 8th ed. 1997. Brody, Jane E. Jane Brody’s Nutrition Book. New York: WW Norton, 1981: 482.

Corcoran, Leila, and Michael Jacobson. “Saccharin: Bittersweet.” Nutrition Action Health Letter April 1998: 11-13.

“Carcinogenicity of Saccharin in Laboratory Animals and Humans.” CSPI Reports. Online. Center for Science in the Public Interest. Available HTTP: http://www.cspinet.org/reports/sacanada.htm.

Goulhart, Frances S. Nutritional Self-Defense. New York: Dodd, 1984. “MSDS for Saccharin Sodium.

“Material Safety Data Sheets”. Online. University of Utah. Available HTTP: http://www.chem.utah.edu/MSDS/S/SACCHARIN_SODIUM.

Sweeteners Essay Research Paper Saccharin is an

Sweeteners Essay Research Paper Saccharin is an

Sweeteners Essay, Research Paper Saccharin is an organic petroleum-based compound that is three to five hundred times sweeter than sucrose. It is non-nutritive because the human body is unable to metabolize the foreign chemical. Saccharin does not contribute calories; for this reason it is commonly used in diet foods. “The obese [feel] that saccharin is their lifeline to slimdom, and diabetics [claim] it is essential to control their blood sugar” (Brody 482). The same people who consume saccharin certainly would not knowingly eat something that is classified as toxic waste; however, they do it on a daily basis. Saccharin’s alias is EPA Hazardous Waste number U202. In fact, workers who handle saccharin are cautioned, “EXERCISE DUE CARE. AVOID CONTACT WITH EYES, SKIN,

CLOTHING. WASH THOROUGHLY AFTER HANDLING. IF SWALLOWED, IF CONCIOUS, IMMEDIATELY INDUCE VOMITING” (MSDS). Saccharin has always been surrounded by controversy. As early as 1907, the public was concerned over its safety and proposed banning it. Theodore Roosevelt, a diabetic, fought the idea. He said, “My doctor gives it to me every day…Anybody who says saccharin is injurious to health is an idiot”(Corcoran 12). Saccharin survived the onslaught for another forty years. It wasn’t until the bittersweet chemical hit the mainstream consumer market in such things as diet sodas, pharmaceuticals, and chewing gum that it came under fire again. Scientists suggested that saccharin might be a carcinogen in 1951. In 1958, however, saccharin was added to the GRAS (Generally Recognized

as Safe) list, another paradox. In 1972, the results of a long-term study showed that rats fed saccharin had developed bladder tumors. Subsequently, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) removed saccharin from GRAS status and issued a regulation limiting the use of saccharin in foods. Then in 1974, a National Academy of Science review found that, “Saccharin itself could not be identified as the cause of the tumors because of possible impurities as well as problems with experimental design and procedures” (Kennedy 131). Therefore, the FDA decided not to ban saccharin until they received the results of a study being conducted in Canada. In March 1977, the Canadian study showed that feeding large doses of saccharin to pregnant rats and their weanlings produced bladder cancers

in the male offspring. The Canadians immediately banned saccharin. When the FDA announced its intentions to follow suit, public outcry led to a Congressionally voted eighteen-month moratorium. The American people wanted more time to evaluate the results of the study. Shortly thereafter, Congress enacted the Saccharin Study and Labeling Act, which stayed the FDA’s hand temporarily and ordered a warning label on all saccharin products: “Use of this product may be hazardous to your health. This product contains saccharin which has been determined to cause cancer in laboratory animals” (Brody 482-483). Nonetheless, the moratorium has continually been extended until the present day. During 1978 and 1979, the National Cancer Institute and FDA conducted a population-based study on

the possible role of saccharin in causing bladder cancer in humans. In general, people in the study who used an artificial sweetener had no greater risk of bladder cancer than the population as a whole. However, when only the data for heavy users was examined, there was some suggestive evidence of an increased risk, particularly in persons who consumed both diet drinks and sugar substitutes and who used at least one of these two forms heavily (Carcinogenicity). In the study, heavy use was defined as merely six or more servings of sugar substitute or two or more 8-ounce servings of diet drink daily. Consequently, several studies have found that people with bladder cancer were more likely to have eaten food that contained saccharin than were people who didn’t have bladder cancer.

Sweeteners Essay Research Paper Saccharin is an

Sweeteners Essay Research Paper Saccharin is an

Saccharin is an organic petroleum-based compound that is three to five

hundred times sweeter than sucrose. It is non-nutritive because the human

body is unable to metabolize the foreign chemical. Saccharin does not

contribute calories; for this reason it is commonly used in diet foods.

“The obese [feel] that saccharin is their lifeline to slimdom, and

diabetics [claim] it is essential to control their blood sugar” (Brody

482). The same people who consume saccharin certainly would not knowingly

eat something that is classified as toxic waste; however, they do it on a

daily basis. Saccharin’s alias is EPA Hazardous Waste number U202. In

fact, workers who handle saccharin are cautioned, “EXERCISE DUE CARE.

AVOID CONTACT WITH EYES, SKIN, CLOTHING. WASH THOROUGHLY AFTER HANDLING.

IF SWALLOWED, IF CONCIOUS, IMMEDIATELY INDUCE VOMITING” (MSDS).

Saccharin has always been surrounded by controversy. As early as 1907,

the public was concerned over its safety and proposed banning it.

Theodore Roosevelt, a diabetic, fought the idea. He said, “My doctor

gives it to me every day…Anybody who says saccharin is injurious to

health is an idiot”(Corcoran 12). Saccharin survived the onslaught for

another forty years. It wasn’t until the bittersweet chemical hit the

mainstream consumer market in such things as diet sodas, pharmaceuticals,

and chewing gum that it came under fire again. Scientists suggested that

saccharin might be a carcinogen in 1951. In 1958, however, saccharin was

added to the GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) list, another paradox.

In 1972, the results of a long-term study showed that rats fed saccharin

had developed bladder tumors. Subsequently, the Food and Drug

Administration (FDA) removed saccharin from GRAS status and issued a

regulation limiting the use of saccharin in foods. Then in 1974, a

National Academy of Science review found that, “Saccharin itself could not

be identified as the cause of the tumors because of possible impurities as

well as problems with experimental design and procedures” (Kennedy 131).

Therefore, the FDA decided not to ban saccharin until they received the

results of a study being conducted in Canada.

In March 1977, the Canadian study showed that feeding large doses of

saccharin to pregnant rats and their weanlings produced bladder cancers in

the male offspring. The Canadians immediately banned saccharin. When the

FDA announced its intentions to follow suit, public outcry led to a

Congressionally voted eighteen-month moratorium. The American people

wanted more time to evaluate the results of the study. Shortly

thereafter, Congress enacted the Saccharin Study and Labeling Act, which

stayed the FDA’s hand temporarily and ordered a warning label on all

saccharin products: “Use of this product may be hazardous to your health.

This product contains saccharin which has been determined to cause cancer

in laboratory animals” (Brody 482-483). Nonetheless, the moratorium has

y been extended until the present day.

During 1978 and 1979, the National Cancer Institute and FDA conducted a

population-based study on the possible role of saccharin in causing

bladder cancer in humans. In general, people in the study who used an

artificial sweetener had no greater risk of bladder cancer than the

population as a whole. However, when only the data for heavy users was

examined, there was some suggestive evidence of an increased risk,

particularly in persons who consumed both diet drinks and sugar

substitutes and who used at least one of these two forms heavily

(Carcinogenicity). In the study, heavy use was defined as merely six or

more servings of sugar substitute or two or more 8-ounce servings of diet

drink daily. Consequently, several studies have found that people with

bladder cancer were more likely to have eaten food that contained

saccharin than were people who didn’t have bladder cancer. The National

Cancer Institute compared the diets of 5,800 similar people who were

disease-free to the diets of 3,000 men and women with bladder cancer.

Those who reported consuming high levels of saccharin on a daily basis

were found to be at a higher risk for association to poorly differentiated

bladder tumors (Corcoran 13).

Saccharine is the most widely used sugar substitute in the world, and yet

we still do not fully understand its effects on the human body. Drinking

one can of diet soda per day can increase the risk of bladder cancer by

sixty percent (Goulhart). The fact that it has never been conclusively

proven to cause cancer in humans does not make saccharin safe. A dollar’s

worth of saccharin will do the sweetening of twenty dollar’s worth of

sugar; for this reason, the FDA will not decisively ban the chemical

sweetener. They are waiting for the results of the ultimate human test

that has been taking place since saccharine was invented in 1879.

Saccharine didn’t become widely used until thirty years ago, and bladder

cancer takes decades to develop; the near future holds the definitive

answer about its safety. Safety aside, saccharine is also a top allergen,

causing everything from fatigue to nausea and disorientation. The bottom

line is that saccharine should be banned. Any food that requires a

warning label cannot be safe.

Beck, Karl M. “Saccharin.” McGraw Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. 8th

Brody, Jane E. Jane Brody’s Nutrition Book. New York: WW Norton, 1981: 482.

Corcoran, Leila, and Michael Jacobson. “Saccharin: Bittersweet.” Nutrition Action

Health Letter April 1998: 11-13.

“Carcinogenicity of Saccharin in Laboratory Animals and Humans.” CSPI Reports.

Online. Center for Science in the Public Interest. Available HTTP:

Goulhart, Frances S. Nutritional Self-Defense. New York: Dodd, 1984.

“MSDS for Saccharin Sodium.” Material Safety Data Sheets. Online. University of Utah.

Available HTTP: http://www.chem.utah.edu/MSDS/S/SACCHARIN_SODIUM.