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Sanjek Ethnography Essay

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way an anthropologist's personal background and subjective experience in fieldwork influences his/her ethnographic writings. Evans-Pritchard is considered one of the founding father of anthropological studies. He had graduated in history from Exeter College in Oxford, other to it, had worked as an officer for colonial British government, and. on the Nuer (the Nuer conquest) and Etoro reflect his inclination towards. Read more

Type: Book Report/Review

The word "hominid" refers to "any of a family (Hominidae) of erect bipedal primate mammals comprising recent humans together with extinct ancestral and related forms" (Merriam Webster). Hominids are included in the super-family of apes, the Hominoidea, in which the members are referred to as hominoids. Though the fossil record of hominids is currently fragmented and incomplete, there is enough material present to provide a. Read more

of the world learned thru the in-depth contemplation of the Trobriander's culture. It makes us question past perspectives and calls for a gender-critical analysis of anthropological work.
Inspired by Malinowki's writings, Professor Annette Weiner went on an ethnographic study on the Trobrianders islands which then had a. regards to the discipline of kinship and marriage (Moore 1988:1) and that women. Read more

Type: Book Report/Review

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An Opinionated Essay On Disney World Created In The City Of Celebration, Florida Represents The Culture Of Modern America. Argue Either For Or Against The Notion

Introduction - Beginning Of Modern American Culture
Calthorpe (1994, Pg xv) studies suggest that the "general conception of life" is what anthropologists mean when they talk about culture. It is not just that soma need be provided. Read more

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8 March 2009
Anthropology in Lord of the Flies
There have been many arguments of what separates humans from beasts or other animals and some of them have been. Read more

Type: Book Report/Review

humans. (Evaluating Anthropologists' Legacies)
Malinowski had the insight to understand how functionalism related to the field of anthropology. The definition of functionalism as it is applied to anthropology is "An ethnographic methodology distinctive of cultural anthropology ." (Functionalism)
Functionalism wants to know how a belief, custom, religion, etc. interrelate to the others. s legacy, society, as a whole. Read more

relation of a particular culture to its environment and adaptations.

3.Relativistic: this perspective is the breeding ground for all existing controversies within the anthropological perspective. The idea being conveyed is that the value systems and customs pertaining to a particular culture are relative to that specific culture. it began with our existence. It is defined as the holistic study of humanity. Cultural. Read more

is used by the anthropologists to refer to the worldwide human capability to catalog, systemize and pass on their expressions symbolically. (Culture, 2006)
Anthropology is the study of humanity. It is a holistic study since it involves all the human beings and their multiple attributes. It is different from. of importance to the cultural aspect of the humans. There are various branches of anthropology. Cultural. Read more

Hominoids belong to the Hominoidea superfamily which is broadly classified into Hylobatidae and Hominidae families. The primates of Hylobatidae family are known as Gibbons. They are also known as the lesser apes are completely arboreal and confined to the trees. They live in small groups and are very particular about keeping away rivals their territory. The male and female Gibbons live as exclusive couples.

'High school is one of the key spatial sites in our life course where we learn a racialised performance of difference.'
"Racism" almost always conjures up visions of white suppression of non-white people. There is a long history of "racism," Racism refers to discriminatory practices by the predominantly white social majority against Maoris in New Zealand, against aborigines in Australia. Latin America also has its own share of racism toward. Read more

of spectatorship and how the desired effect in understanding is achieved by a good filmmaker.
Contrary to pre-disposed notions in science and filmmaking, anthropological faithfulness to observation of another culture cannot ever be beyond bias, unless reflexivity is used to both question that objectivity and nurture mental exercise within. by Timothy to create a postmodern narrative as opposed to metanarratives. Thus reflexivity. Read more


Other articles

Ethnography in Today s World

Ethnography in Today's World MARC record More.

Roger Sanjek is a J. I. Staley Prize winner, a John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellow, and the author and editor of many books, including Gray Panthers, which is also available from University of Pennsylvania Press, as well as Fieldnotes: The Makings of Anthropology, Race (edited with Steven Gregory), and The Future of Us All: Race and Neighborhood Politics in New York City.


"Roger Sanjek is a distinguished sociocultural anthropologist whose vision of anthropology has shaped the field in significant ways. Ethnography in Today's World is part history of ideas, part memoir, part cultural criticism, and all affirmation of ethnography's particular value for anyone trying to navigate the turbulent cross-currents of social knowledge-making in the United States today."—Carol Greenhouse, Princeton University

"Ethnography in Today's World shows its author's admirable combination of personal commitments, curiosity about real human lives, intellectual integrity, and long-term scholarly overview. For anyone interested in anthropology as a complicatedly evolving, living research tradition, with its own tendencies always in interaction with a changing world, this is an important book to read."—Ulf Hannerz, Stockholm University

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EFieldnotes: The Makings of Anthropology in the Digital World

eFieldnotes: The Makings of Anthropology in the Digital World Summary

In this volume, sixteen distinguished scholars address the impact of digital technologies on how anthropologists do fieldwork and on what they study. With nearly three billion Internet users and more than four and a half billion mobile phone owners today, and with an ever-growing array of electronic devices and information sources, ethnographers confront a vastly different world from just decades ago, when fieldnotes produced by hand and typewriter were the professional norm.

Reflecting on fieldwork experiences both off- and online, the contributors survey changes and continuities since the classic volume Fieldnotes: The Makings of Anthropology. edited by Roger Sanjek, was published in 1990. They also confront ethical issues in online fieldwork, the strictures of institutional review boards affecting contemporary research, new forms of digital data and mediated collaboration, shifting boundaries between home and field, and practical and moral aspects of fieldnote recording, curating, sharing, and archiving.

The essays draw upon fieldwork in locales ranging from Japan, Liberia, Germany, India, Jamaica, Zambia, to Iraqi Kurdistan, and with diaspora groups of Brazilians in Belgium and Indonesians of Hadhrami Arab descent. In the United States, fieldwork populations include urban mothers of toddlers and young children, teen tech users, Bitcoin traders, World of Warcraft gamers, online texters and bloggers, and anthropologists themselves.

With growing interest in both traditional and digital ethnographic methods, scholars and students in anthropology and sociology, as well as in computer and information sciences, linguistics, social work, communications, media studies, design, management, and policy fields, will find much of value in this engaging and accessibly written volume.

Contributors. Jenna Burrell, Lisa Cliggett, Heather A. Horst, Jean E. Jackson, Graham M. Jones, William W. Kelly, Diane E. King, Jordan Kraemer, Rena Lederman, Mary H. Moran, Bonnie A. Nardi, Roger Sanjek, Bambi B. Schieffelin, Mieke Schrooten, Martin Slama, Susan W. Tratner

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University of Pennsylvania Press on Aug 12, 2015

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Ethnography - Essay by Umahijosh

Ethnography Essay

Below is an essay on "Ethnography" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.


Umahi, Joshua 2009

ETHNOLOGY Introduction There have been a lot of studies on acculturation but only a few have been done so far on the effects of acculturation on young people. This study shall therefore, focus on the dietary acculturation among fresh university students from 6 African countries. The study centers on the acceptability of tofu. Can a change in the young people’s choice of food be noticed within a space of two months? And what are the possible reasons for this trend. Few other studies in this field shall be reviewed in the course of this study. Stones (1995) generally looked at the acculturation of the whole nation or society from different times in history. He dwelt more on the orient, taking Philistine as his focus. ParkTaylor, Jennie; Walsh, Mary E.; Ventura, Allison B. (2007), on the other hand, looked at schools as the vehicles for transmission of culture. This study showed that most cultural changes or acculturations emanate from schools which form the major mixing point for the cultures. Every other article under review takes acculturation from a different angle – adult immigrants, predisposing circumstances for acculturation etc. Limitations on Literature Review Some of the relevant articles accessed in the course of this study were outdated. They are cited in this study because of their importance to the study. Example is Stone (1995). His study contained a relatively good definition of terms for this study. This study also suffered limitation of materials. Other relatively recent studies relevant to this study required a license purchase before use. This was a major limitation. However, these previous studies have contributed to the body of knowledge of acculturation. Culture, from these studies, is not static.

Review of Literature Culture – the way of life for a given society.

FREE Ethnography Essay

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Personal Statement of Teresa M. Martin

As I reflect upon my life, I view the seasons that have passed as stages of growth that have helped me to understand my potential and the path that I now wish to take. I have lived deeply and fully, and want to apply the valuable life lessons I have gained to what I feel is my true calling “ the study of law.

As a youth, I believed that any pursuit was possible and one could succeed with commitment, persistence, and dedication. I was fortunate to possess the stability that a youth needs in order to excel in classes and build a proper foundation for the future. Life was difficult but fulfilling and I found much joy in being a wife and mother by the age of twenty-one. However, because of the untimely death of my husband, I found it necessary to work where I could support my daughter and myself. During the next twelve years, I was employed with a non-profit trade association. Starting with a secretarial position, I soon realized that my interest, competency, and potential would be best suited as an Equal Employment Opportunity Representative. I entered a new world of innovative ideas and social responsibility and gained the confidence and communication skills to defend the rights of minorities within this industry. Working closely with attorneys, researching legal issues and advocating for minorities gave me my first taste of law. Traveling within the United States and to many under industrialized countries where I lectured on Civil Rights and Affirmative Actions issues galvanized my aspirations of law.

As my life stabilized, I remarried and expanded my family. For the next ten years, I put my ambitions on hold so my spouse could pursue his medical career. However, the evolution of global economic, social, and political homogenization has been a major catalyst which has empowered the drive to pursue a legal education. This, in conjunction with my journeys to underdeveloped s

Essays Related to Ethnography

Social Research Update 5: Ethnographic writing

Social Research Update is published quarterly by the Department of Sociology, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, England. Subscriptions for the hardcopy version are free to researchers with addresses in the UK. Apply by email to .

Martyn Hammersley is Reader in Eductaional and Social Research at the School of Education, Open University. In recent years most of his work has been concerned with the methodological issues surrounding social research. He has written several books: (with Paul Atkinson) Ethnography: principles in practice (Tavistock 1983; second edition due 1994); The dilemma of qualitative method (Routledge 1989); Classroom ethnography (Open University Press 1990); Reading ethnographic research (Longman 1991); and What's wrong with ethnography? (Routledge 1992).

At one time very little attention was given to the character of ethnographic writing. Minimal advice was offered to students about this aspect of the research process, and virtually no attention was devoted to how ethnographers formulate their accounts of the social world. The assumption was that 'writing up' research is relatively straightforward, a matter of general writing skills.

Recently, this situation has changed dramatically. As a result of the influence of structuralism and post-structuralism, and of a revival of the ancient discipline of rhetoric (Dixon 1971; Vickers 1988 and 1990; Barilli 1989), much greater attention is now given to the study of texts; including those produced by natural scientists and historians, but also those of social scientists themselves (White 1973 and 1978; McCloskey 1983 and 1985; Nelson et al 1987; Simons 1988; Woolgar 1988).

In this context interest in ethnographic writing has greatly increased. Not only are there now several books concerned with how to write ethnographic or qualitative accounts (Becker 1986; Wolcott 1990; Richardson 1990b), but there is also a growing literature of a more theoretical kind: concerned with the rhetorical devices that ethnographers deploy, the presuppositions on which these are based, the functions they perform etc. A key text is Clifford and Marcus's Writing Culture (Clifford and Marcus 1986); though there had been significant work before this (Brown 1977; Marcus and Cushman 1982; Atkinson 1983; Edmondson 1984), and there have been important recent additions to the literature, notably the books by van Maanen (1988), Atkinson (1990 and 1992), and Sanjek (1990). This interest in ethnographic rhetoric has often been associated with criticism of conventional forms of anthropological and sociological writing, on philosophical and political grounds, and with the development of 'experimental' new forms. (For examples of this new writing, see Crapanzano 1980; Shostak 1981; Dwyer 1982; Kreiger 1983; Mulkay 1985; Dorst 1989; Rose 1989; Ashmore 1989.) However, it would be wrong to imply that a consensus underlies work in this field. Nor has it been received uncritically (see Gordon 1988; Sangren 1988; Caplan 1988/89; Mascia-Lees et al 1989; Polier and Roseberry 1989; Roth 1989; Spencer 1989; Hammersley 1992).

This Update is designed as a brief guide to the literature. I have picked out a number of key texts and given brief outlines of their contents. The bibliography includes all references plus additional relevant items.

Atkinson, P. (1990)
The author is primarily concerned with displaying the textual strategies used in traditional kinds of ethnographic writing. He examines: the sorts of descriptions that ethnographers provide, and how these rely on background knowledge on the part of readers; the role of titles and subtitles; the use of data extracts in the text, notably as one way that multiple voices are introduced; the structure of narratives recounting the biography of research projects or the course of events in some setting; the construction of characters and their relation to social types; the way in which ethnographic texts are structured by assumptions about gender; and the uses of irony.

Atkinson, P. (1992)
The central theme here is the tension between the complexity of social life and the rhetorical forms available to ethnographers for representing it. Atkinson considers the way in which the 'fields' ethnographers study are textually constructed, the writing of fieldnotes and transcription of audio-recordings, the various genres of ethnography, and some of the experimental textual strategies currently being explored.

Brown, R.H. (1977)
An early but still illuminating analysis of the rhetorical/poetic strategies used by sociologists in their writing. Brown adopts a perspective he terms 'cognitive aesthetics' in which both the humanities and the sciences are presented as concerned with 'making paradigms through which experience becomes intelligible'. He argues that choice among paradigms is not based on judgments of truth or falsity but on taste; though he insists that there are canons of taste. In the remainder of the book he seeks to document sociologists' use of various paradigms, for example their adoption of different points of view on the phenomena they describe.

Clifford, J. (1988)
A collection of mostly previously published articles by a key figure in the study of ethnographic writing in anthropology. Of particular interest is the article 'On ethnographic authority'. This examines the realism of conventional anthropological ethnography; and criticises it for hiding the process by which accounts are produced, and for defining the reality of the people studied from a Western viewpoint which is disguised as objective. The constructed and negotiated character of ethnographic research and writing is emphasised, along with its political context and role. Clifford advocates collaborative ethnography and texts that are multi-vocal and open-ended.

Clifford, J. and Marcus, G. (1986)
A very influential collection of articles dealing with various aspects of ethnography as text. Clifford's introduction is particularly useful. The chapters by Asad and Rabinow offer important qualifications, while that by Tyler exemplifies the 'postmodernist turn'. (See also Marcus and Fischer 1986.)

Geertz, C. (1988)
Some of the concern with ethnographic writing arose out of the symbolic anthropology of which Geertz is a major exponent. In this book he examines the contrasting rhetorical styles used by several prominent anthropologists: Levi-Strauss, Evans-Pritchard, Malinowski and Benedict.

Denzin, N.K. (1992)
In the context of a dispute about the accuracy of Whyte's Street Corner Society, Denzin questions the possibility of representation and the functions that 'representational' accounts perform.

Gordon, D. (1988)
This is a critical review of Clifford and Marcus's Writing Culture, from a feminist perspective. Gordon argues that the new form of anthropology that this volume represents still marginalises women and feminism. And she questions the distinction between conventional and 'experimental' ethnography, denying that this is as significant as that between feminist and non-feminist work. She looks at what feminist anthropologists can learn from analyses of ethnographic rhetoric.

van Maanen, J. (1988)
van Maanen identifies three broad types of ethnographic writing and the conventions that govern them. Examples of the first style�'realist tales'�involve the almost complete absence of the author from the text, scenes and events being described 'as they are'. Mundane details are provided about the phenomena described (of a kind that would only be available on the basis of first-hand observation), and quotations from participants are introduced to show that the author knows whereof he or she writes. In 'confessional tales' the ethnographer is centre-stage: what is told is the story of the research itself. Often such accounts take the form of modest and unassuming reports of the problems and struggles of the fieldworker, usually with a happy ending. Finally, there are what van Maanen calls 'impressionist tales'. In these, literary or even poetic effect is primary, allowing the author to exaggerate in order to make a point. It is suggested that impressionist tales may represent the contemporary world more effectively than realist accounts, and that narrative ingenuity on the part of ethnographers should be encouraged.

Marcus, G. and Cushman, D. (1982)
The authors identify the dominant genre in anthropology as ethnographic realism, and list its characteristic conventions, as well as examining the textual strategies that ethnographers use to establish their authority within this genre. At the same time they look at variations in rhetoric as much as commonalities. A persistent theme in their discussion is how ethnographers present particular places, events, people etc. as representing cultural wholes. Marcus and Cushman also discuss experimental deviations from the realist pattern and look at how textual authority is achieved despite these deviations.

Roth, P. A. (1989)
This article looks at the epistemological significance attributed by recent commentators to the literary devices used by ethnographers. In particular, the focus is on the argument that traditional ethnographic accounts conceal the author and therefore obscure her or his role in their construction. Roth claims that explicit self-reflection no more guarantees authenticity than does a pose of detachment. Finally, he challenges what he regards as the confusion of epistemological and political representativeness. Following the article there are responses from Clifford, Tyler and others, plus a reply by Roth.

Tyler, S. (1985)
Tyler argues that despite their appearance as representations of a world that has come to be known directly by the ethnographer, ethnographies work through reference and allusion to other texts. Furthermore, they draw on tropes and story forms that are common currency in Western culture. He also questions the legitimacy of dialogical presentation; suggesting that, like realist accounts, it too involves a pretence of representation. Instead he recommends an allegorical, post-modernist ethnography that evokes rather than represents.

Webster, S. (1986)
This article considers ethnographic realism and criticisms of it from the point of view of Critical Theory. Various interpretations of the concept of realism are identified. Webster challenges some writers in the field for adopting an idealist position, and for not showing how the study of rhetoric can further a radical reorientation of ethnography. He argues that rather than ethnographic realism being an explicit application of fictional realist rhetoric, it represents an implicit adoption of some of the latter's techniques so as to mark ethnography off from literature and to present it as scientific. He considers the possibility of using the resources of literary realism for critical purposes, but rejects both this and formalistic experimentation in favour of ethnographic writing that self-consciously locates itself within its socio-historical situation.


Ashmore, M. (1989) The Reflexive Thesis, Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

Atkinson, P. (1983) 'Writing ethnography' in H.J.Helle (ed.) Kultur und Institution, Berlin, Duncker und Humblot.

Atkinson, P. (1990) The Ethnographic Imagination: textual construction of reality, London, Routledge.

Atkinson, P. (1992) Understanding Ethnographic Texts, Newbury Park, Sage.

Baker, S. (1990) 'Reflection, doubt, and the place of rhetoric in postmodern social theory', Sociological Theory, 8, 2, pp232-45.

Barilli, R. (1989) Rhetoric, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press.

Becker, H.S. (1986) Writing for Social Scientists, Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

Boon, J.A. (1982) Other Tribes, Other Scribes, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Boon, J.A. (1983) 'Functionalists write too: Frazer, Malinowski and the semiotics of the monograph', Semiotica, 46, (2-4) pp131-49.

Brown, R.H. (1977) A Poetic for Sociology, New York, Cambridge University Press. Second edition, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1989.

Brown, R.H. (1987) Society as Text: essays on rhetoric, reason and society, Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

Brown, R.H. (1989) Social Science as Civic Discourse, Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

Brown, R.H. (1990) 'Rhetoric, textuality, and the postmodern turn in sociological theory', Sociological Theory, 8, 2, pp188-97.

Caplan, P. (1988/89) 'Engendering knowledge: the politics of ethnography', Anthropology Today, 4, 5-6, pp 8-12 and 14-17.

Carrithers, M. (1988) 'The anthropologist as author: Geertz's Works and Lives', Anthropology Today, 5, 4, pp 19-22.

Clifford, J. (1988) The Predicament of Culture, Cambridge, Mass. Harvard University Press.

Clifford, J. and Marcus, G. (1986) Writing Culture: the poetics and politics of ethnography, Berkeley, University of California Press.

Crapanzano, V. (1980) Tuhami: portrait of a Moroccan, Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

Denzin, N.K. (1992) 'Whose Cornerville is it anyway?', Journal of Contemporary Ethnography,21, 1, pp120-35.

Dixon, P. (1971) Rhetoric, London, Methuen.

Dorst, J.D. (1989) The Written Suburb: an ethnographic dilemma, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press.

Dwyer, K. (1982) Moroccan Dialogues, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press.

Edmondson, R. (1984) Rhetoric in Sociology, London, Macmillan.

Geertz, C. (1988) Works and Lives: the anthropologist as author, Stanford, Stanford University Press.

Gordon, D. (1988) 'Writing culture, writing feminism: the poetics and politics of experimental ethnography', Inscriptions, 3, 4, 7-24.

Hammersley, M. (1993) 'The rhetorical turn in ethnography', Social Science Information, 32, 1, p23-37.

Jackson, J.E. (1990) 'D�j� Entendu: the liminal qualities of anthropological fieldnotes', Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 19, pp8-43.

Kirby, V. (1991) 'Comment on Mascia-Lees, Sharpe and Cohen', Signs, 16, 2, pp394-408.

Krieger, S. (1979) 'Research and the construction of a text', in N.K.Denzin (ed.) Studies in Symbolic Interactionism, vol. 2, Greenwich, Connecticut, JAI Press.

Krieger, S. (1983) The Mirror Dance: identity in a women's community, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press.

van Maanen, J. (1988) Tales of the Field, Chicago, Chicago University Press.

McCloskey, D.N. (1983) 'The rhetoric of economics', Journal of Economic Literature, 21, 481-517.

McCloskey, D.N. (1985) The Rhetoric of Economics, Madison, University of Wisconsin Press.

Marcus, G. (1980) 'Rhetoric and the ethnographic genre in anthropological research', Current Anthropology, 21, pp507-10.

Marcus, G. (1985) 'A timely rereading of Naven: Gregory Bateson as oracular essayist', Representations, 12, 66-82.

Marcus, G. and Cushman, D. (1982) 'Ethnography as text', Annual Review of Sociology, 11, 25-69.

Marcus, G. and Fischer, M. (1986) Anthropology as cultural critique: an experimental moment in the human sciences, Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

Mascia-Lees, F.E. Sharpe, P. and Cohen, C.B. (1989) 'The postmodernist turn in anthropology: cautions from a feminist perspective', Signs, 15, 11, pp7-33.

Mulkay, M. (1985) The world and the word, London: Allen and Unwin.

Nelson, J.S. Megill, A. and McCloskey, D.N. (eds.) (1987) The Rhetoric of the Human Sciences, Madison, University of Wisconsin Press.

Peters, J.D. (1990) 'Rhetoric's revival, positivism's persistence: social science, clear communication, and the public space', Sociological Theory, 8, 2, pp224-31.

Polier, N. and Roseberry, W. (1989) 'Tristes tropes: post-modern anthropologists encounter the other and discover themselves', Economy and Society, 18, 2, pp245-64.

Richardson, L. (1990a) 'Narrative and sociology', Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 19, pp116-35.

Richardson, L. (1990b) Writing Strategies: reaching diverse audiences, Newbury Park, Sage.

Richardson, L. (1992) 'Trash on the Corner: ethics and technography', Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 21, 1, pp103-119.

Richardson, L. (1993) 'How come prose? The writing of social problems', in J.A. Holstein and G. Miller (eds.) Reconsidering social constructionism, New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

Rose, D. (1989) Patterns of American Culture: ethnography and estrangement, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press.

Roth, P.A. (1989) 'Ethnography without tears', Current Anthropology, 30, 5, 555-69.

Sangren, P. S. (1988) 'Rhetoric and the authority of ethnography: "postmodernism� and the social reproduction of texts', Current Anthropology, 29, 405-35.

Sanjek, P. (ed.) (1990) Fieldnotes: the making of anthropology, Ithaca NY, Cornell University Press.

Shostak, M. (1981) Nisa: the life and words of an !kung woman, Cambridge, Mass. Harvard University Press.

Simons, H.W. (ed.) (1988) Rhetoric in the Human Sciences, London, Sage.

Spencer, J. (1989) 'Anthropology as a kind of writing', Man, 24, 1, 145-64.

Stoddart, K. (1986) 'The presentation of everyday life: some textual strategies for "adequate ethnography"', Urban Life, 15, 1, 103-121.

Strathern, M. (1987) 'Out of context: the persuasive fictions of anthropology', Current Anthropology, 28, 251-81.

Tedlock, D. (1979) 'Analogical tradition and the emergence of a dialogical anthropology', Journal of Anthropological Research, 35, pp387-400.

Tedlock, D. (1983) The Spoken Word and the Work of Interpretation, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press.

Tyler, S.A. (1985) 'Ethnography, intertextuality and the end of description', American Journal of Semiotics, 3, 4, pp83-98.

Tedlock, D. (1987) The Unspeakable: discourse, dialogue and rhetoric in the postmodern world, Madison, University of Wisconsin Press.

Vickers, B. (1988) In Defence of Rhetoric, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Vickers, B. (1990) 'The recovery of rhetoric: Petrarch, Erasmus and Perelman', History of the Human Sciences, 3, 3, 415-441.

Watson, G. (1987) 'Make me reflexive�but not yet: strategies for managing essential reflexivity in ethnographic discourse', Journal of Anthropological Research, 43, pp29-41.

Webster, S. (1982) 'Dialogue and fiction in ethnography' Dialectical Anthropology, 7, 2, 91-114.

Webster, S. (1983) 'Ethnography as storytelling', Dialectical Anthropology, 8, 3, 185-205.

Webster, S. (1986) 'Realism and reification in the ethnographic genre', Critique of Anthropology, VI, 1, 39-62.

White, H. (1973) Metahistory: the historical imagination in nineteenth century Europe, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press.

White, H. (1978) Tropics of Discourse: essays in cultural criticism, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press.

Wolcott, H. (1990) Writing up Qualitative Research, Newbury Park, Sage.

Wolf, M. (1992) A Thrice Told Tale: feminism, postmodernism and ethnographic responsibility, Stanford, Stanford University Press.

Woolgar, S. (ed.) (1988) Knowledge and Reflexivity, London, Sage.

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Direct Essays Home » Sanjek (3 Papers) 1. The Classifications and Groupings of People

Racism is a relatively new invention (Sanjek 1994:2). They considered themselves more cultured and intelligent than their whiter and darker neighbors in Europe (Sanjek 1994: 3). They were considered inferior because they dealt with meat and leather and such, which are thought unclean in Hindu religion (Sanjek 1994: 3). The inferiority of certain races was used to accommodate those already standing views of ethnocentrism (Sanjek 1994: 5). It was believed that these peoples were so ill equipped to take care of themselves and that was the reason that they were so easy to ensla.

2. Racial and Cultural Categories

Racism is a relatively new invention (Sanjek 1994:2). They considered themselves more cultured and intelligent than their whiter and darker neighbors in Europe (Sanjek 1994: 3). They were considered inferior because they dealt with meat and leather and such, which are thought unclean in Hindu religion (Sanjek 1994: 3). The inferiority of certain races was used to accommodate those already standing views of ethnocentrism (Sanjek 1994: 5). It was believed that these peoples were so ill equipped to take care of themselves and that was the reason that they were so easy to ensla.

3. Study Analysis of Sex on Television

Once upon a time in the "Golden Age" of television, networks deferred to their own in-house offices of standards, which kept profanity, questionable morals, and salacious behavior off the airwaves. Today's standard- free TV shows are obsessed with sex and it is very obvious to even the most casual v.

Course Development Competition

a) Locating the content of the course within the discipline

The course intends to address the issues of the field ethnography in an anthropological perspective. Recent debates among field researchers indicate that the issue of field description and author-text relations may serve as a point of the departure in revision of the methodology of the ethnographic research.

The goal of the project is to introduce students to the contemporary state of the art of the field description and its methods. The course is meant to consider how the subject of field description has been defined and redefined through the history of anthropology and what caused these re-definitions to happen. The course also focuses on the drift from the author's voice to the voice of informant in the contemporary field reports.

b) Locating the course within the curriculum

Up to date the course has been offered at the Department of Philology at the St. Petersburg State University (SPSU) and at the Department of Ethnology of the European University at St. Petersburg (EUSP) where I co-operated with Serguei Shtyrkov who is a grantee of the CDC and also a head of the field research seminar. In both institutions the course was optional. It mainly attracted those students who planned to conduct their own field studies while participating in the summer field trips in Novgorod and Vologda Regions in the Northwestern Russia.

c) Student's assumed knowledge basis for course participation

The course assumes no special knowledge of the subject. However, most students who took it had previously taken other courses on Russian ethnography and folklore and cultural anthropology.

II. Objective of the Course

a) Academic Aims (within the discipline)

The course is meant to present and analyze the notion and the subject of ethnographic study together with the methods of research in current social and cultural anthropology. The past and the present of the ethnographic work in the field are also considered in the course.

Debate on the problem of ethnographic description is one of the focal points around which the discussion in the anthropological discourse in recent decades was centered. The discussion resulted in the need for the revision of the whole view on the history of anthropology both in terms of methodology and theoretical approaches that were widely used in the field study. Important points of departure in the course of discussion were the problem of relation between author and text ('thick description') and the relation between doing fieldwork and writing ethnography.

The course provides a close investigation of the aspects of people life that have the special interest to anthropologists, why do anthropologists study these issues and what concepts and theories they use in their research. Such objectives define the structure of the course in two major dimensions:

A study of how the subject of field description could be defined (and what could have influenced these definitions): language and communication strategies, kin and community relations, rites of passage and religious practices, everyday life and bodily practices, politics, power and economic relations.

Another dimension of the course is the description as such upon which the anthropological research is consequently based. An attention is paid to the drift from the dominance of the author's voice to the dominance of the voice of informant.

Students are expected to gain a sound understanding of the subject of field description and its methodology. They may also enhance their skills formulating research questions and discuss the objectives of their own research and relevance of various field research methods and approaches to these objectives. Upon the completion of the course the students are expected to design their own research proposals and present them at the seminars.

III. Course Detail

The first lecture introduces the basic approaches to the anthropological fieldwork. It also discusses ambiguous relationship between observing and participating in the course of research, thus framing the whole course up. The second lecture reviews the history of the field methods by presenting the early classic of the social anthropology in Europe and especially in Great Britain. In particular, it deals with the drastic shift from the armchair anthropology to the field practice that occurred at the end of the nineteenth century. The third lecture continued the story of the evolution of the field anthropology. A particular attention is paid to the 'concrete method' of W.H. Rivers and to the experience of B. Malinovski. A phenomenon of an anthropologist as a 'professional stranger' is also discussed. The fourth lecture looks at the issue of personal style and field working. It makes a special consideration to the style of great field workers and outlines main strategies of communicating with informants. Lecture five provides an illustration to the previous issue by the detailed exploration of a number of case studies. Lecture six considers the most important problem of language in the fieldwork. At the same time it deals with the problems ethnographer may face while working within his or her own language environment. In particular, the emphasis is made on the issue of the ethnography of speech in field research. Lecture seven turns to the issue of writing ethnography. It describes the main types of field documents, that is, scratch-notes, field-notes, diaries, journal, letters, reports, papers, etc. Lecture eight deals with the issue of data processing. It discusses general approaches to the issue: positivist, conceptualist, interpretative. Lecture nine focuses on ethical concerns being one of the most important aspects of the fieldwork. It considers the main legal and professional requirements both in the West and in Russia. Finally, lecture ten provides an outline of the main issues in the fieldwork in the Northwestern Russia by presenting the material from the research made by the participants of the summer field trips organized by the Center for the Filed Ethnology at the European University. During the last meetings two workshops are held where participants in the course present their research plans and questionnaires and conduct a discussion. At the European University the discussion is held in co-operation with the field seminar held on a weekly basis at the Department of Ethnology.

a) Lecture synopsis

Lecture 1. Doing Ethnography. Participant-observation and the anthropologist's problem.

This opening lecture explores the standards of the anthropologist's work in field. After reviewing a variety of definitions that anthropologists apply to analysis of participant observation, the lecture turns to considering the advantages and disadvantages of the holistic approaches. Participant observation is related to other kinds of ethnographic strategies, in particular to the half-structured interview. The lecture presents a set of attitudes towards informants anthropologists take in participant observation, e.g. observer, observer as participant, participant as observer, participant. Another problem explored is the relationship between field ethnography and folklore collecting. The lecture concludes by re-framing the notion of this relationship with an emphasis on the goals and objectives of the forthcoming field trip.

  • Agar. Michel. The Professional Stranger. An Informal Introduction to Ethnography. Maryland, 1996
  • Davies, Charlotte Aull. Reflective Ethnography. A Guide to Researching Selves and Others. Routledge ASA Monographs. Research Methods. London and New York, 1999 (parts I and II)
  • Ellen R.F. Ethnographic Research. A Guide to General Conduct. ASA Monograph. 1998 (parts II and IV)
  • Marcus, George E. Ethnography through Thick and Thin. Princeton University Press 1998 (chapters 1 and 4)
Lecture 2. Early Classics of Field Ethnography.

From the missionaries and colonial administrators to the professionally trained anthropologists, the history of gradual emergence of the anthropology, as we know it today, is traced back. Starting with an account of an arm-chair research of James Frazer' Golden Bough and Notes and Queries in Anthropology issued by the Royal Anthropological Institute, it proceeds to the works of the next generation of anthropologists. We consider the shift that occurred between 1880s and 1890s when missionary ethnographers were replaced by academic natural scientists. In particular, the works of Alfred Court Haddon and Walter Baldwin Spencer are discussed. Two first professional approaches towards the fieldwork are presented, e.g. 'the intensive studies of limited areas' (Cambridge school) and 'concrete methods' (W.H.R. Rivers). Acquaintance with that these works helps to put the story of B. Malinovski contribution in the field of anthropology in place.

  • Clifford, J. Fieldwork, reciprocity and making of the ethnographic texts: the examples of Mark Leenhardt. In: Man 15, pp. 518-532.
  • Evans-Pritchard, E. E. The Nuer: A Description of the Modes of Livelihood and Political Institutions of a Neolithic People. Oxford, 1942.
  • Geertz, Clifford. Works and Lives. Anthropologist as Author. Princeton University Press. 1988
  • Manganaro, Marc. Modernist Anthropology: From Fieldwork to Text. Princeton University Press 1990
  • Stocking, George W. JR. The Ethnographer's Magic. Fieldwork in British Anthropology from Tylor to Malinowski. In: Stocking, George W. ed. Observers Observed: Essays on Ethnographic Fieldwork. University of Wisconsin Press 1992, pp. 70-120
Lecture 3. Change in Perspective of the Field Research Methods. Professional Stranger.

This lecture is dedicated mainly to the field experience of Bronislaw Malinovski. It presents a biographic account of his 'work and life'. It also provides a perspective for the further course topics, starting with participant-observation techniques and proceeding to the ethical concerns of fieldwork.

  • Geertz, Clifford. Works and Lives. Anthropologist as Author. Princeton University Press. 1988
  • Malinowski, Bronislav. A Diary in the Strict Sense of the Term. (with an introduction of R. Firth). London Routledge and Kegan Pole, New York. 1967.
  • Malinowski, Bronislav. The Sexual Life of Savages in North-Western Melanezia. London. Routledge. 1932 (available in Russian translation)
  • Stocking, George W. JR. Fieldwork in British Anthropology from Tylor to Malinowski. In: Stocking, George W. ed. Observers Observed: Essays on Ethnographic Fieldwork. University of Wisconsin Press 1992, pp. 70-120
Lecture 4. Fieldwork Experience and Fieldwork Style.

In recent decades a distinction of different methods and numerous strategies based upon these methods has been attributed to the personal style of ethnographer rather than to the theoretical conception. The nature of the ethnographic research is better understood in terms that are defined by the 'participant-observer' paradigm. Yet, it is the context within which some particular research is conducted that matters. That is why there are more and more chapters that introduce a reader to the particular setting of the of a research project in the monographs published recently. A particular attention is paid to 'passive' and 'active' modes of research. This lecture deals with the several case studies both in rural and urban environment.

  • Ellen R.F. Ethnographic Research. A Guide to General Conduct. ASA Monograph. 1998 (part 5)
  • Geertz, Clifford. Interpretations of Cultures. New York Fountain Press. 1993
  • Geertz, Clifford. Works and Lives. Anthropologist as Author. Princeton University Press. 1988
  • Journeys Through the Ethnography: Realistic Accounts of Fieldwork. Ed. by Lereau, Annette, and Shchults, Jeffrey. Westview Press 1996, published in USA.USD 33.80
  • Whyte, W. F. Street Corner Society: The Social Structure of an Italian Slum. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1955
  • Lecture 5. Issue of Style. From the Personal to National.

    This lecture continues providing examples to the issue of personal style by the detailed exploration of a number of case studies. Topics such as private language, body language and simulation are covered. A particular emphasis is placed on working with informants. Another issue of major importance covered in this lecture is a national fieldwork style.

    • Agar. Michel. The Professional Stranger. An Informal Introduction to Ethnography. Maryland, 1996 (parts 6,7)
    • Diamond, S. Anthropological Traditions: the Participants Observed. In: S. Diamond ed. Anthropology Ancestors and Heirs. The Hague: Mouton. 1980
    • Geertz, Clifford. Deep Play: Notes on Balinese Cockfight. in Clifford Geerts. Interpretations of Cultures. New York Fountain Press. 1993, pp. 412-53
    • Sharmani Nazif. M. Honored Guest and Marginal Man: long-term Field Research and Predicaments of the Native Anthropologist. In: Don D. Fowler and Donald L. Hardesty. Ed. Others Knowing Others. Perspective on Ethnographic Careers. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994, pp. 15-68
    • Wax, Rosalie. Fieldwork in the Japanese American Relocation Centers. 1943-1945. In: Rosalie Wax, Doing Fieldwork. Warnings and Advice. Chicago and London. University of Chicago Press, 1985
    • Siting culture: The Shifting Anthropological Object. Ed. Olwig Karen Fog New York, Routledge 1996, published in USA.
    Lecture 6. Language Use and Ethnography of Speech.

    Language learning is a major precondition for a fieldwork. Nevertheless, two approaches to this problem exist, that is, language learning before field and language learning in the field. Various practical questions related to the study of language are covered in the lecture. Topics discussed range from the experience of early anthropologists who needed an interpreter or talked pidgin or lingua franca to the working style of modern anthropologists. Apart from that, settings when the social use of language becomes a subject of ethnographic research and description are discussed in detail. Examples of such studies in the shared language environment are given.

    • Diamond, S. (ed.) Anthropology Ancestors and Heirs. The Hague: Mouton. 1980
    • Ellen R.F. Ethnographic Research. A Guide to General Conduct. ASA Monograph. 1998 (part 7)
    • Evans-Pritchard, E.E. Some Reminiscence and Reflections on Fieldwork. Journal of the Anthropological Society of Oxford, 1973, 4 (1), 1-12
    • Healey, A. (ed.) Language Learner Field Guide. Ukarumpa, Papua New Guinea: Summer Institute of Linguistics. 1975
    • Shore, Bradd. The Esthetics of Social Context: Dual Organization and Expressive Culture. In: Sala'ilua. A Samoan Mystery. Columbia University Press, 1982, pp. 257-283
    • Ximens, Colleen. A Study of Automobile Terminology. In: Paul Kutsche ed. Field Ethnography. A Manual for Doing Cultural Anthropology. New Jersey, 1998
    Lecture 7. Writing Ethnography. Kinds of Data.

    Following the famous Clifford Geertz saying about the nature of ethnographic work ('What does an ethnographer do? He writes'.) the net two lectures explore another crucial stage of ethnographic research (apart form observing and participating), e.g. writing. This lecture primarily deals with actual writing that ethnographer may produce in the field. It also describes the main types of field documents, e.g. scratch-notes, field-notes, journals, diaries, transcript of tapes, and letters and reports. The lecture proposes an important set of distinction between public notes and private notes. Each type of field documents is illustrated with examples.

    • Cole, Douglas. "The Value of a Person Lies in His Herzensbildung" Franz Boas Baffin Ireland Letter-Diary, 1883-1884. In: Stocking, George W. ed. Observers Observed: Essays on Ethnographic Fieldwork. University of Wisconsin Press 1992, pp. 13-52
    • Jackson, Jean E. "I Am a Fieldnote": Fieldnotes as a Symbol of Professional Identity In: Roger Sanjek ed. Fieldnotes. The Making of Anthropology. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1990, pp. 3-33
    • Sanjek, Roger. A Vocabulary for Fieldnotes. In: Roger Sanjek ed. Fieldnotes. The Making of Anthropology. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1990, pp. 92-138
    • Sanjek, Roger. The Secret Life of Fieldnotes. In: Roger Sanjek ed. Fieldnotes. The Making of Anthropology. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1990, pp.187-272
    Lecture 8. Producing Data. Rationalism and Conceptualism.

    The lecture takes up an important question that became a focal point in the debate on ethnographic writing: what is the final product of the research and how its making should be accomplished? What is the relationship between writing and recording? Picking up on the previous lecture, this lecture begins with defining the types of data from different perspectives: rationalist, positivist, conceptualist and interpretive. It addressed the question of how the data is transcribed into text. Different types of description are given: pedigrees, life histories, social networks data, etc.

  • Church, K. Forbidden Narratives: Critical Autobiography as a Social Science, Amsterdam: Cordon and Breach, 1995
  • Ellen R.F. Ethnographic Research. A Guide to General Conduct. ASA Monograph. 1998 (parts 8-9)
  • Geertz, Clifford. Works and Lives. Anthropologist as Author. Princeton University Press. 1988
  • Hammersley, Martyn. What's Wrong with Ethnography. Methodological Explorations. London and New York: Routledge, 1998
  • Smith, Robert, J. Hearing Voices, Joining the Chorus: Appropriating Someone Else's Fieldnotes. In: Roger Sanjek ed. Fieldnotes. The Making of Anthropology. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1990, pp.356-370
  • Wolkott, H.F. Transforming Qualitative Data: Description, Analysis and Interpretations. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage, 1994 Lecture 9. Ethical Concerns and Fieldwork.

    The issue of ethics is one of the most crucial in the fieldwork. Informants are often unconscious about the proper aims and objectives that researcher might have. In the ethnographic practice we often deceit just to get access to the information. The lecture looks at the different roles ethnographers may assume in the field, from a student to a investigator or a spy. Practical issues of balancing interests with responsibilities of different parties in the research: informants and other research participants, gate keepers, funders, colleagues, host governments, universities, employers, etc. are considered. The issues of legal acts and professional standards are discussed. One of possible solutions may be what Clifford Geertz called complicity.

    • Armstrong, G. Like Desmond Morris? In: Interpreting the Field: Accounts of Ethnography. Ed. by Hobbs, Dick, and May, Tim. Oxford University Press 1993
    • Ellen R.F. Ethnographic Research. A Guide to General Conduct. ASA Monograph. 1998 (parts 6)
    • Marcus, George E. The Uses of Complicity. In George E. Marcus. Ethnography through Thick and Thin. Princeton University Press 1998
    • Lee, Raymond M. Dangerous Fieldwork. Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi: Sage Publications. Qualitative Research Methods, 1998.
    • Murphy M.D. Rumors of Identity: Gossip and Rapport in Ethnographic Research. Human Organization, 1985, 44, pp. 132-147
    Lecture 10. The Frame of the Fieldwork in Northwestern Russia. From the Being There to Being Here.

    This lecture presents a general view of the fieldwork in the village in the Northwestern Russia. The particular features of a team research are explored. The topics of study of the field trip organized by the Department of Ethnology of the European University in St. Petersburg are presented by the and principles of research are analyzed. Archives of the Center for Field Ethnology are also presented the way of structuring the archive is described. The lecture also introduces the topics for the individual research projects of members of the Center. The course concludes with advice and encouragement to undertake field research project during the summer field trip.

    There are no assigned readings for this lecture. Rather, students are encouraged to study materials collected in the course of field trips.

    b) Seminar synopsis.

    When the lecture course ends, two seminar meeting are held. Research plans are presented together with the questionnaire, that includes the following topics:

    • Village places of worship
    • Attitude towards the sainthood and the saints
    • Attitude to official Orthodoxy
    • Witchcraft and Curative Magic
    • Oral History as Related to the Landscape
    • The Calendar Year in Rural Culture
    • Folk Demonology
    • Custom and Etiquette
    • Rites of Passage
    • Ethnobotanic

    There is no formal assessment. Instead, participants present their own research plans at the seminar.

    Please see assigned readings.

    VI. Teaching Methodology

    Most of the course time is allocated to lectures where the contemporary research methods and theoretical approaches are discussed. All students are required to read the literature assigned before each lecture and encouraged to design their research proposals that are presented at two seminars concluding the course.